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Papers in Year 2015

No.PapersSummaryAccepted ByIssued Date
1 A Study on Dynamic Electrical Power Metrology for Smart Grid The connection of renewable energy to the power grid is intermittent and unstable. This irregular energy supply together with the nonlinear electricity demand would then necessitate new types of meters with the ability to measure dynamic electrical power that can act as a basis for energy management and grid   assessment. However, the mainstream method to measure power is based on Fourier Transform, which characterizes weak capability of analyzing dynamic power (non-sinusoid waveform). This study presented a dynamic power measurement algorithm based on Wavelet Transform, and implemented a dynamic power measurement system based on this algorithm. In this study, three ways are carried out to assess the feasibility of the proposed Wavelet-based algorithm to accurately measure dynamic power, and three ways include (1) IEEE std. 1459-2010; (2)   classic dynamic power waveforms; (3) IEC 61000-4-30. 中華民國電力工程研討會 20151212
2 Discussion for the Relationship   between LaserTRACER ISO Test Result and Linear Positioning Error of Machine   Tools For testing the positioning accuracy and the repeatability for the linear axis of machine   tools, ISO 230-2 and ISO 230-6 are usually adopted. The auto-tracking laser   interferometers (ATLI) can perform the testing for the positioning accuracy and repeatability including x-, y- and z-axis according to ISO 230-2 as well as xy, xz, yz, and xyz diagonal lines following ISO 230-6. LaserTRACER is a   kind of ATLI. One of the steps of ISO 230-2 and -6 test using ATLI is to determine the coordinate of the ATLI with respect to the home point of the machine tool. Positioning accuracy of the machine tool causes the coordinate   determined error which might influence the test result. For checking on it, this study performs three experiments. The experiment results show that the positioning error appears on the testing results. The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20151129
3 Feasible Coupling Design for Compact   Optical Frequency Comb based on A Fused-quartz Micro-resonator Optical comb spacing   of 2.5 nm was generated from fused-quartz micro-resonator with Q ~ 107. An   electromagnet is utilized to connect between a translation stage and the   micro-resonator holder temporally for performing a portable design. Asia Communications   and Photonics Conferencen 20151122
4 Loop Heat Pipe Technology for Cooling VGA In order to develop a loop heat pipe (LHP) for video graphics array (VGA) card cooler, a miniature LHP has been fabricated and tested. The test results demonstrated its potentialities and stable operation of the LHP up to 170 W power application. The minimum thermal resistance of the LHP is 0.275 °C/W at 170 W. At the same time, the main factors affecting the heat transfer performance of this   development can be divided into three parts: the radiators, various condensation types, and designs of evaporator and wick. The development of the LHP has not yet exhausted the directions of potential improvement. For   high-power electronic cooling and the long-distance heat transport in a small   tube, LHPs are still efficient components. 中華民國力學學會全國力學會議 20151121
5 Comparison Study of Particle Size for   Nanomaterial in Cosmetic and Food by Several Measurement Techniques Nano-products such as cosmetic and food, are developed to utilize the advantages of the   nanoparticles (NPs) for making daily lives more healthy and convenient. However, the NPs could be hazardous to environment, health and safety in some way. Thus, the harmonization of measurements and regulations for nanoparticle   characterizations is highly demanded both to enhance the continuous development of nano-products and evaluate the possibility of hazard to environments, human health, and safety.    This comparison study for nanoparticle size was initiated by TFDA (Taiwan Food and Drug Administration) and CMS (Center for Measurement Standards), and there are seven laboratories to participate the comparison. In this comparison, the nanoscale Calcium in milk, the TiO2 (Titanium dioxide) in sunscreen and the standard particle of TiO2 are selected as the   comparison samples. The SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), and XRD (X-Ray Diffractometry) are used to measure the particle size in this comparison. Finally, according to the conclusions in this comparison, TFDA can examine the practicality of the draft regulations for nanomaterial in cosmetics and foods. Besides, it is also an opportunity to comprehend the capability of measurement in Taiwan. Through the implementation of this comparison, the comparison results will be a foundation for promoting domestic related laws   and regulations in the future and also established an important basis for the   measurement standards. International   Conference on Fundamental and Applied Science 20151105
6 Traceable Calibration of Condensation   Particle Counters for Single Particle Detection per Cubic Centimeter Condensation particle counters (CPCs) are widely used to monitor the particle number concentration of aerosol. In general, the detection efficiency of a CPC is calibrated by   tracing to a referenced Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer (FCAE) at concentrations within 1000 particles per cubic centimeter to 10000 particles per cubic centimeter . However, based on the definition of ISO 14644 of the   clean room regulation, the number concentration of the considered particles   at Class 6 should be less than 1 particles per cubic centimeter . Therefore, for the need in calibration of CPCs at low concentration levels, we established a new calibration system for single particle detection per cubic centimeter. This system achieves low concentration aerosol detection by taking advantage of the two-stage dilution and a recursive calibration method by comparing with a calibrated CPC, and makes the absolute concentration calibration by tracing to the FCAE at a suitable high concentration, such as 1000 particles per cubic centimeter . Uncertainty has been estimated to be 3.25 % for single particle detection per cubic centimeter. Annual Conference on   Enginnering and Technology 20151105
7 Luminance Measurement for Curved Surface Sources with Imaging Luminance Measurement Devic Due to the advantages of fast measurement speed, imaging luminance measurement device (ILMD) have become more and more popular in the recent years. However, even though an ILMD is corrected by flat field calibration, the measured results deviate from the real values   when measuring curved surface sources. The deviation is larger especially when the curvature of the source is   smaller or when the source is unlike a Lambertian source. This paper shows how to obtain correction factors to increase the measurement accuracy of the ILMD when measuring different types of curved surface sources. The issue of how the measurement conditions affect the level of image blur is also discussed in this paper. Measurement Science   and Technology 20151104
8 AC Programmable Josephson Voltage   Standard Measurement Technology at National Measurement Laboratory AC pogrammable Josephson voltage standard (AC PJVS) system will be the AC primary voltage   standard in the future. Many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) worldwide   have invested in the related research of AC PJVS. Therefore, National Measurement Laboratory (NML) in Taiwan also has started the related   technology development of AC PJVS. Currently, AC PJVS system has been completely established. The AC voltage measurement range of AC PJVS system is   (0.1 to 7) V rms at (10 to 400) Hz. In this article, we complete explain the related measurement technology and the measurement uncertainty of AC PJVS.   The relative expanded uncertainty is 1.7 uV/V (k=2) for 7 V rms (at 62.5 Hz) by using AC PJVS system. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20151101
9 Techniques for Spindle Error Motion Analysis In order to evaluate the quality of spindles, the analysis system is in demand. However, the   commercial system is rather expensive and difficult to be installed. We proposed the new analysis system with three laser sensors which are capable to meet required resolution but much cheaper and easier installation. With   self-designed software algorithm, the spindle error motion analysis technique   including the axial and radial error motion was completed. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20151101
10 BGA ball coplanarity and pitch   measurement In this study, the phase shift of the 3D scanning technology combined with 2D image processing   methods, as well as to measure coplanarity of the BGA ball and ball pitch   between. Using line scan technology, contains two kinds of lighting the way,  the outer contour of the ring light is used to obtain the ball, and the structure of the light used to get the ball height. 16um resolution phase shift using scanning technology to calculate the ball high, and join   algorithms, making the ball high degree of value is more objective. Finally, the resolution of 0.7um compared to white light interferometry techniques amount to the value, the measurement gap only within 10um. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20151101
11 Design for a compact optical comb generation system based on a   laser coupled quartz micro-resonator Nowadays, optical micro-resonator has been widely applied in many fields, such as sensing,   optical comb generation and laser frequency stabilization. Design for the portable coupling and packaging is the most crucial issue to access these applications. In this paper, an electromagnet is utilized to connect between a precession translation stage that used for the laser coupling via taper fiber and the micro-resonator temporally. After packaging, both parts can be separated by switching off the current inside the electromagnet. The laser   coupled micro-resonator with portable design is then performed. Optical comb spacing of 2.5 nm was generated based on the home-made taper fiber with transmission rate of more than 80% and fused quartz micro- resonator with   quality factor Q value of about 107. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20151101
12 Comparison of Absolute Distance   Measurement by Different Types of Dual Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Two types of the dual mode-locked fiber lasers for asynchronous absolute distance measurement are investigated. The lasers are linear and ring cavity with repetition rate of 70 MHz and 100 MHz, respectively. The group velocity dispersion is not compensated in the first type of the lasers, while the others are fully done. The timing jitter with the Allan deviation below averaging time of 0.2 s during the distance measurement for around 1 m of both types of lasers were 2.5 ps with 600 nm and 1.6 ps with 200 nm. We concluded that the phase noise resulted from the intra-cavity dispersion is the main contribution for the   uncertainty of the ranging in these two types of the lasers. International   Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science World Congress 20151028
13 Uncertainty Calculation of the mass of primary stainless steel standard weight from the mass of Pt-Ir prototype   kilogram This paper is the basis of the uncertainty calculation in deriving the mass of primary   stainless steel standard weight from the mass of Pt-Ir prototype kilogram. The kilogram has been traced back to BIPM in 7 April 2015.Those data are produced by measuring weights through double-substitution, calculating the   mean value and standard deviation of the difference between of the stainless steel standard weight and the Pt-Ir prototype kilogram, subtracting the effect of air buoyancy by measuring air density, and then adding the value of the Pt-Ir prototype kilogram. The measurement data of Mettler-Toledo ITRI_ONE   are captured automatically by computer controller. The corrections by air buoyancy could be calculated from the environmental parameters that was Including temperature, pressure, humidity, and CO2 concentration. These parameters were obtained from the related measurement of instruments. Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mass, Force and Torque 20151027
14 A study of the supercontraction of major ampullate silk by using a humidity-controlled chamber Natural spider silk fiber is composed of a fibrous protein, mixture of crystal, and amorphous   secondary structures and also well-known for its excellent mechanical properties such as high strength and extensibility. The feature of major   ampullate (MA) silk is one of the strongest spider silk fibers in nature. The MA silks possess the characterization of shrinking by up to 50% when exposed to water. This phenomenon is called supercontraction. In order to realize the   mechanical properties of normal MA silk to those of silk under saturated humidity condition (to induce supercontraction), a novel and simple humidity chamber for nano tensile tester was designed and developed in this research.   The relative humidity in the chamber can be maintained at greater than at 90 % during testing. The measurement results for Cyclosa mulmeinensis spiders showed that mostly tensile properties of supercontracted silk were not significantly different, implying that spiders may adjust the properties of their MA silk by changing the post-secretion process when they inhabited in habitats with different levels of wind distribution. International   Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science World Congress 20151027
15 A mechanical pressure generator for simulating real human blood pressure waveforms The blood pressure is often measured with automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measuring devices. Among these devices, the oscillometric method based NIBP devices are   the most common ones, which are used for general home care or professional usage in hospitals. In oscillometric method, the blood pressure is indirectly inferred from the oscillometric pressure waveform usually collected from the upper arm with a cuff and a pressure transducer. The algorithm used to   determine the blood pressure and its accuracy can only be verified by clinical validations, where the results from the NIBP measuring devices are compared with that obtained by the auscultatory method. In this work, we introduce our recent progress in developing a simulator for generating real human blood pressure waveforms. The BP simulator can be used to characterize the oscillometric method based NIBP measuring devices. We describe the design, working principle and some results   of the BP simulator. World Congress in   Mechanism and Machine Science 20151026
16 Error estimation for LaserTRACER   spatial position determination Auto-tracking laser interferometers are widely used to measure the geometric errors of industrial robots, coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and machine tools. LaserTRACER which is one of them is designed for measuring and compensating the geometric   errors for CMMs and machine tools. The measurement uncertainty of LaserTRACER   is 0.2 μm + 0.3 μm/m × L, and the simplified measurement process and software, which is based on ISO 230-2/ -6 or ISO 10360-2 can enhance the testing efficiency for these equipment. The spatial position determination   for LaserTRACER itself is the fundamental algorithm when its software calculate the geometric errors of the test machine. This paper aims to estimate the error of LaserTRACER spatial position determination in different levels of positioning errors which is performed by the CMM to analyze its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. In addition, the set up strategy of LaserTRACER is also disclosed in the paper. From the experiment result, it shows that there is no contribution of the positioning errors while the measurement procedure follows the ISO standards. International   Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science World Congress 20151026
17 Techniques for Spindle Error Motion Analysis In order to evaluate the quality of spindles, the analysis system is in demand. However, the commercial system is rather expensive and difficult to be installed. We proposed the new analysis system with three laser sensors which are capable to meet required resolution but much cheaper and easier installation. With self-designed software, the spindle error motion analysis system was proposed. World Congress in   Mechanism and Machine Science 20151025
18 Spatial and Directional Photometric   Properties of a Curved AMOLED Display Comprehensive and analytical measurement methods may help OLED-display manufacturers to get spatial and directional photometric data to study and improve their products. This work measure a commercial curved AMOLED display by rotating it and then capturing numerous photometric images. These images as functions of laboratory rotational coordinates were analyzed by transforming the data to sample coordinates. Results of systematic collections and classifications of these analyzed data carried out detailed physical properties of the OLED display. International   Conference on Flexible and Printed Electronics (ICFPE) 20151023
19 Design for a fused-quartz resonator   coupled system In this paper, we introduce a comb generation setup which utilizes an electromagnet to provide temporary attachment between the micro-resonator holder and the translation   stage. This design enables flexible coupling tuning and allows portable packaging once the desired coupling conditions are achieved. An optical frequency comb with 2.5 nm spacing was successfully generated with the proposed coupling design. In the following sections, detailed design and fabrication parameters of the coupling system will be described, as well as the results of the generated optical frequency comb. AOI Forum & Show 20151021
20 Comparison of meter calibration   results with different standard traceability This study employed two DN150 ultrasonic flow meters in separately to calibrate each of the   working standard of flow calibration lab. governed by Refining & Manufacturing Research Institute of CPC. One is a 6-path meter   (Elster-Instromet/Q.Sonic Plus), which was calibrated by pigsar in 2013, the other is a 4-path mete (FLOWSIC600/SICK) which was calibrated at NML this year. The operating pressure were at 20 bar and 55 bar, covering flow rate range of 100 m3/h to 1120 m3/h. The calibration results of each working standard from two different standard meters were compared. The results were in well agreement with deviation within 0.2 % except for flow rate below 200 m3/h. 中國石油學會石油季刊 20150923
21 Performance Study High-temperature   Blackbody Source An infrared detected build-in blackbody for the calibration of radiation thermometers at the   temperature range of 500 oC to 2000 oC was evaluated. In order to meet the industrial need, it is important to expand to high temperature measuring range for the radiation thermometry. The commercial blackbody was prepared as   a reliable source to provide a stable temperature for comparative calibration of radiation thermometers. All investigations were carried out covering a temperature range from 500 oC to 2000 oC. In the article, the performance for   blackbody was established. The blackbody was investigated using linear pyrometers with effective wavelengths of 0.65 μm and 0.9 μm. Horizontal and vertical uniformities of the blackbody, as well as its short-term stability   were determined. The blackbody heat loss was evaluated and discussed. The standard uncertainty of total blackbody uniformity is estimated to have 0.31 oC and 1.05 oC at 500 oC and 2000 oC. There are  standard uncertainty with short term temperature stability is achieved 0.5 ℃ and 0.2 ℃ at 800 ℃ and 1700 ℃,  respectively. International   Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments
   
   
20150923
22 Pilot Comparison Study of Particle   Size for Nanomaterial in Cosmetic and Food This paper presented the pilot comparison study for nanoparticle size which was initiated by TFDA (Taiwan Food and Drug Administration) and CMS (Center for Measurement Standards). There are seven laboratories to participate the comparison. In   this study, the nanoscale Calcium in milk, the TiO2 (Titanium dioxide) in sunscreen and the standard particle of TiO2 are selected as the comparison samples. The SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), DLS (Dynamic Light   Scattering), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), and XRD (X-Ray Diffractometry) are used to measure the particle size in this comparison. In final report, the results of each laboratories are all in the consistency of   the trend. International   Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments
   
   
20150923
23 Ultrathin High-k Multilayer Thin Films Thickness Evaluation by X-ray Reflectivity and Electron Energy Loss Spectrum Nanotechnology combined physics, chemistry, electronics, mechanics, material, and   measurement technologies, developing the detection ability on nanoscale. The   nanotechnology requires much precise measurement results to fit the industrial needs. To meet the future transistors with smaller size, the high-k dielectric film had been applied to replace the conventional SiO2 film.  In order to elevate the numbers of transistors on a single wafer, the size and length were needed to decrease to meet the demand. Among the common high-k gate dielectric materials, HfO2   is the most widely utilized owing to its thermal stability and process compatibility. However, with the continuously decreasing transistor size, the ultra-thin gate dielectric film thickness would cause the difficulty on measurement. In this letter, the X-ray reflectometry (XRR) measuring the thickness of ultrathin high-k gate oxide is addressed. For 1.2 nm and 2.5 nm   atomic layer deposited HfO2 layers, the structures are 1.2 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si   substrate and cap Si/2.5 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The thickness and interface layer properties are analyzed by XRR, incorporating transmission   electron microscope (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) analyses. The TEM images show a unclear interface between each layer owing to the ultrathin thickness and amorphous phase, therefore it is hard to actually define the thickness. The image contrast intensity is utilized to evaluate high-k thickness by full-width at half maximum (FWHM) definition. In   addition, the Hf and O signals of EELS are fitted by Gaussian function to calculate its thickness. For the 1.2 nm sample, the interlayer SiO2 and high-k HfO2 layers were sequentially deposited onto the Si substrate by ALD. Intensity profile shows the image contrast, and the film thickness is defined by the FWHM method. By FWHM definition, the HfO2 film thickness is characterized to be about 1.346   nm. GIXRR analyzed HfO2 layers results are around 1.32 nm for 5-times measurement. For the EELS, the Hf signal demonstrated the thickness is around 1.79 nm. For the 2.5 nm sample, the FWHM of dark region illustrates its thickness is around 2.45 nm. As for the GIXRR method, the simulation shows that the HfO2   layer thickness is about 2.38 nm, which is quite close to the TEM results. It’s worth mentioning that the HfO2 layer density of 1.2 nm of 9.368 g/cm3 is   greatly larger than 2.5 nm of 8.34 g/cm3. The density variations indicate   that the high-k layer without capping is easily affected by the oxygen   ambient. For the EELS analysis, the thickness of HfO2 is 2.56 nm by Hf signal   evaluation. In conclusion, the non-destructive GIXRR method can be provided as a powerful metrology tool for its fast and accurate measurement, demonstrating its high potential for application in future semiconductor in-line   inspection. Three different metrology tools show a consistent thickness result. International   Symposium Measruement Technology & Intelligent Instruments 20150922
24 The Volumetric Positioning Errors   Inspection of Machine Tools Using By LaserTRACER This paper describes the measurement capability analysis for the geometric error measurement and compensation by using LaserTRACER of machine tools. This method also can base on ISO 230-2/4/6, which are international standards for machine tools to help the industries to verify their quality of product. 機械技術雜誌 20150915
25 Anthropometry of external auditory   canal by non-contactable measurement Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools.   Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal   and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the   anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for   women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced   with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better   fitting. Applied Ergonomics 20150915
26 THE SETUP AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ACCELEROMETER COMPARISON CALIBRATION SYSTEM IN NML TAIWAN Accelerometer comparison calibration technique involves the back-to-back coupling the   accelerometer under test directly to a traceable reference standard accelerometer, both will experience the same motion from shaker. Thus the sensitivity of standard accelerometer can be transferred to the test accelerometer via a calibration constant from the output signals. The results of the relative expand uncertainty for the voltage sensitivities for accelerometer are less than 1.4 %, 1.9 % and 2.9 %  within frequency range from 50 Hz to 1.5 kHz, from 1.5 kHz to 5 kHz, and from 5 kHz to 7 kHz, respectively. This paper will present the construction, the performance evaluation of the calibration   system in NML, CMS/ITRI. IMEKO World Congress 20150904
27 The Temperature Change During   Measurement via Mass Comparator with Automatic Load Alternator We changed a new 10-kg mass comparator with automatic load alternator at CMS (Center for   Measurement Standards) last year to replace the older one which was out of function. During installation, the temperature issue comes out to affect the measurement results under the same environment of laboratory as usual. In this paper, we will discuss the abnormal phenomenon caused by the thermal effect. XVII IMEKO WORLD   CONGRESS 20150831
28 Design of a Flow Diverter Mechanism for Water Flow Calibration Facility Fluid flow diverter serves as an essential element in high-accuracy liquid flow calibration facility using the static weighing gravimetric system coupled with a flying-start-and-finish method. The design of the diverter should consider the dimension of both the feeding pipe section and the nozzle, and also the driven mechanism of the diverter. For such flow system, flow profiles at the outlet of the draining nozzle and the timing error caused from the transition of the diverter influence the accuracy of flow measurements. In this research, the optimal design for the dimension of the feeding pipe section and a rectangular cross-sectional area of the draining nozzle was developed r with the aid of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation   software. The results showed that a difference of the jet velocity at the nozzle outlet between the centerline and along the width was less than 2 %. A symmetric and stable flow profile of the jet was obtained and a quick diversion process with time consumption less than 50 ms, resulting in   effectively reducing the timing error caused from the flow diverter and furthermore, improving the measurement accuracy of the water flow calibration facility. 全國計算流體力學學術研討會 20150827
29 Effects of Different Anemometer Sizes on the Airflow Characteristics of Air Tunnels During Calibration Air speed measurements are essential parameters in many industries. The anemometers are widely used as environmental monitoring, air quality ventilation systems, air   filter testers, and semiconductor clean rooms testers, etc. The wind tunnel provides uniform and stable testing environments for calibrating the anemometers. To ensure the accuracy of the air speed measurements, the traceability of anemometers, design of wind tunnel structure and the flow field characterization of the wind tunnel need to be evaluated carefully. In this paper, the flow field of the wind tunnel was measured and simulated in order to understand the performance of wind tunnel and the effects on the anemometers under test. Based on the research, the relative standard uncertainty of air speed calibration system is about 0.5 % at the wind speed ranging from 0.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s. 全國計算流體力學學術研討會 20150825
30 Research and Evaluation for Thin Film   Measurement System

This document was research for the uncertainty evaluation of thin film measurement systemthe by high-resolution Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (SE). The system provided the calibration service of SiO2 thin film thickness from 1.5 nm to 1000 nm. A Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (SE) with scanning ranges of wavelength for the   spectroscopic study is from 250 nm to 850 nm is used to characterize the physical and optical properties of the thermally grown silicon dioxide thin   films. The film thickness and the refractive index of a thermally grown silicon dioxide layer are extracted from the least square fit of the hvif   experimentally measured ellipsometric functions. The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on ISO/IEC Guide   98-3:2008. The error sources caused by measuring the thin film specimens are   considered and evaluated. After practical evaluation of thickness uncertainty, our measurement system currently provides the following capability.Expanded uncertainty:0.1 nm Confidence level:95 %

奈米工程暨微系統技術研討會 20150814
31 Thickness Evaluation of Ultrathin   Multiple High-k Thin Films by X-ray Reflectivity and Electron Energy Loss   Spectroscopy Nanotechnology combined physics, chemistry, electronics, mechanics, material, and   measurement technologies, developing the detection ability on nanoscale. The   nanotechnology requires much precise measurement results to fit the   industrial needs. To meet the future transistors with smaller size, the high-k dielectric film had been applied to replace the conventional SiO2 film. In order to elevate the numbers of transistors on a single wafer, the size and length were needed to decrease to meet the demand. Among the common high-k gate dielectric materials, HfO2 is the most widely utilized owing to its thermal stability and process compatibility. However, with the continuously decreasing transistor size, the ultra-thin gate dielectric film thickness would cause the difficulty on measurement. In this letter, the X-ray reflectometry (XRR) measuring the thickness of ultrathin high-k gate oxide is addressed. For 1.2 nm and 2.5 nm atomic layer deposited HfO2 layers, the structures are 1.2 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si substrate and cap Si/2.5 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The thickness and interface layer properties are analyzed by XRR, incorporating transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) analyses. The TEM images show an unclear interface between each layer owing to the ultrathin thickness and amorphous phase, therefore it is hard to actually define the thickness. The image contrast intensity is utilized to evaluate high-k thickness by full-width at half maximum (FWHM) definition. In addition, the Hf and O signals of EELS are fitted by Gaussian function to calculate its thickness. For the 1.2 nm sample, the interlayer SiO2 and high-k HfO2 layers were sequentially deposited onto the Si substrate by ALD. Intensity profile shows   the image contrast, and the film thickness is defined by the FWHM method. By FWHM definition, the HfO2 film thickness is characterized to be about 1.346 nm. GIXRR analyzed HfO2 layers results are around 1.32 nm for 5-times measurement. For the EELS, the Hf signal demonstrated the thickness is around 1.79 nm. For the 2.5 nm sample, the FWHM of dark region illustrates its thickness is   around 2.45 nm. As for the GIXRR method, the simulation shows that the HfO2   layer thickness is about 2.38 nm, which is quite close to the TEM results. It’s worth mentioning that the HfO2 layer density of 1.2 nm of 9.368 g/cm3 is greatly larger than 2.5 nm of 8.34 g/cm3. The density variations indicate that the high-k layer without capping is easily affected by the oxygen ambient. For the EELS analysis, the thickness of HfO2 is 2.56 nm by Hf signal   evaluation. In conclusion, the non-destructive GIXRR method can be provided as a   powerful metrology tool for its fast and accurate measurement, demonstrating its high potential for application in future semiconductor in-line   inspection. Three different metrology tools show a consistent thickness result. The Denver X-ray   conference and TXRF 20150803
32 Reflectometer-based metrology for high-aspect ratio via measurement We develop a modified   thin film model with adjustable ratio of the illuminated surface areas for accurate reflectivity calculation of deep via
structures. We also propose a method combining a half oblate spheroid model and a reflectance modulation algorithm for extraction of via   bottom profile from the measured reflectance spectrum. We demonstrate the use and enhancement of an existing wafer metrology tool, spectral reflectometer by implementing novel theoretical model and measurement algorithm for through-silicon via (TSV) inspection. Our non-destructive solution can
measure TSV profile diameters as small as 5 μm and aspect ratios greater than 13:1. The measurement precision is in the range of 0.02 μm. Metrology results from actual 3D interconnect processing wafers are presented.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150731
33 Evaluation for the Relationship   between Positioning Accuracy of Machine Tools and ISO 230 Testing Result Using an Auto-Tracking Laser Interferometer For three-axis machine tools, positioning accuracy and repeatability can be tested according to ISO 230-2 and ISO 230-6. Traditionally, the testing is performed by means   of a laser interferometer in which it is time consuming with measurement   uncertainty becoming large and then measurement time increased. For shortening the measurement time to avoid large measurement uncertainties and   increasing assembly productivity, spatial measurement instruments, such as auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLIs), are necessary. LaserTRACER is applied in this study for positioning accuracy and repeatability testing of three axis machine tools according to ISO 230-2 and ISO 230-6. Because the relationship between coordinate systems of the machine tool and the ATLI was unknown in the beginning, it is proposed at the first step here to figure out   through an implemented locating means the coordinate position of the ATLI on the coordinate system of the machine tool, through which step we call it the coalescence of the two coordinate systems. However, positioning accuracy of   machine tool will cause the lower coordinate system coalescence accuracy. For checking the effect of the positioning accuracy of the machine tool, there are two simulations performed in this study. The simulation results show that the positioning accuracy of the machine tool causes the locating coordinate position error, but it could be ignored when the measurement distance is larger than 400 mm. Cooridnate Metrology   System Confernece 20150723
34 Summary Result of 2014 Outside   Micrometer Calibration Proficiency Testing in Taiwan Proficiency testing is one of the ways to demonstrate a laboratory’s measurement   capabilities. Accredited laboratories   are usually requested participating proficiency testing by the laboratory accreditation organizations in each country. Center for Measurement Standards / Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) has been committed to measurement technologies and statistical engineering. CMS has established its renowned reputation at metrology in Taiwan.  CMS is one of the Proficiency Testing Providers (PTPs), with accreditation number of P002, accredited by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF).  CMS is   the designated PTPs to hold proficiency testing in the field of calibration. This paper gives the   summary results of 2014 outside micrometer calibration proficiency testing scheme, numbered as PT2014-KA02, held in Taiwan. There were twenty-five TAF accredited calibration laboratories participated.  All the |En| values of the participating laboratories are smaller than   one. This implies that all the participants’ results are satisfactory to each other.  It also shows that the measurement capabilities of outside micrometer calibration of these laboratories are very consistent in Taiwan. NCSL International   Workshop and Symposium 20150721
35 Uncertainty Evaluation of Dial   Indicator Calibrator Calibration using Laser Interferometer This paper detailed describes the uncertainty evaluation procedure in accordance with the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. The effects of error   sources on this calibration system are analyzed to estimate the corresponding standard uncertainties and sensitivity coefficients. The combined standard uncertainty and   effective degrees of freedom are then calculated. The coverage factor can be found by taking the t-factor corresponding to the effective degrees of freedom. Finally, the expanded uncertainty can be obtained by multiplying the coverage factor and the combined standard uncertainty. The calibration method of   the dial indicator calibrator is also briefly described. For the calibration of a dial indicator   calibrator with a resolution of 0.1 μm in the measurement range of (0 to 60) mm, the expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.81 μm with a coverage factor of 2.05 corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %. NCSL International   Workshop and Symposium 20150721
36 Thermal-Converter Validation of   Differential Sampling Measurement Based on AC-Programmable Josephson Voltage   Standard System This paper describes a differential sampling measurement system using AC-programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS) system up to 10 V in the frequency range down to 1   Hz. Such system combines the versatility and the accuracy and stability of the Josephson voltage standard. The validity of this method is confirmed with the AC-DC difference measurements of a calibrated thermal converter, and with an electro-thermal simulation at the root-mean square amplitudes of 3 V. The   uncertainty of our differential sampling measurement system is  estimated to be 1.3 μV/V for waveform frequencies of 62.5 Hz and root-mean square amplitude of 10 V. International   Superconductive Electronics Conference 20150709
37 Ultra Sonic Meter Using in Continuous   Emission Monitoring Systems Explain Ultra Sonic Meter Using in Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150707
38 A study of the Humidity Effect on the   Flow Controller Performance Measurement of particulate matter is a critical index for evaluating the air quality. The   sampling method can be a gravimetric method, as federal reference method, or an automatic method, as federal equivalent method. The sampling equipment of gravimetric method consists of a flow controller, a very sharp cut cyclone, a sampling filter, and a vacuum pump. Thermal mass flow controller is often used as the flow controller for particulate matter sampler, and its performance is highly affected by the fluid properties. The thermal mass flow   controller is always calibrated by dry air in the calibration lab. Actually, due to the outdoor sampling, the sucked ambient humidity will affect the total sampling air volume, the sampling characteristics, the sampling efficiency,   and the measurement result of particulate matter concentration. In this work, a sonic nozzle is employed as a standard flow meter to do the comparison with a thermal mass flow meter. The result suggests that a discrepancy existed between the theoretical correction of humidity and the experimental data. Therefore, the effect of humidity of a thermal mass flow controller needs to be corrected by an experimental method has been concluded. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150701
39 Research Review of Wind Tunnel used for Particulate Matter Sampler The particle matter surrounding around the ambient are always very fine so that it could   penetrate into lower respiratory tract, lung, or blood system. The concentration of ambient particulate matter is determined by the measurement result of particulate matter sampler. Furthermore, the sampling   characteristics of particular matter sampler among different particle matter size are evaluated by the specific test conditions provided by a wind tunnel. This article introduces the method stated by United States Environmental   Protection Agency for evaluating the particulate matter sampler and summarizes the characteristics of two aerosol wind tunnel employed to conduct particulate matter researches in United States Environmental Protection Agency and Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, respectively. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150701
40 Precise Absolute Distance Measurement by Dual 70 MHz Mode-Locked
Fiber Lasers
We employed a gold coated glass cover plate to fabricate the dual compact free running fiber   laser combs. It had been used for a difference of repetition rates tunable LIDAR (light detection and ranging) system. Our study shows that the ranging precision is 0.4 μm and the non-ambiguity range is 2.1 m with averaging time   of 0.4 s for the distance of 1.09 m. The system with 1 kHz-high update rate and the large non-ambiguity range is potentially useful for manufacturing application applied in absolute distance measurement. Key Engineering   Materials 20150630
41 Investigation on exciter transverse   motion and its effect on accelerometer calibration uncertainty This paper discusses the resulting effects on accelerometer comparison calibration accuracy and uncertainty. Vibration phenomena are present around us in everything that   moves. The accelerometer is a class of instruments commonly used to measure that motion. Accurate accelerometer calibration is a way to provide physical meaning to this electrical output and it is a prerequisite for quality motion   measurement. When we talk about accelerometer calibration we are referring   essentially to the measurement of sensitivity.
The most common way to calibrate accelerometer sensitivity is by comparison to reference transducer. The sensor under test(SUT) is mounted on a back-to-back arrangement against a reference accelerometer and both sensors are subjected to exciter. Since the motion input is the same for both devices, the ratio of their outputs is also the ratio of their voltage which may be contaminated by the transverse motion. Referring to the dedicated   vibration direction, the transverse motion of the exciter was investigation by a tri-axial sensor.
Systems and standards on comparison methods for accelerometers calibration are discussed, providing an overview on current technology available for calibrating and testing accelerometer performance characteristics.
中華民國振動與噪音工程學會 20150627
42 Precision Spindle Dynamic Error Motion   Measurement Technology According to the ASME B89.3.4 and the ISO 230-7, we developed a LabVIEW program to analyze the spindle error motion. Three laser triangulation displacement sensors were used to measure the special displacement of the spindle which was installed in the machinery. By analyzing the axial and radial error motion signals, the synchronous and the asynchronous error motion values were calculated as results. This technology could be regarded as the standard of the spindle metrology and the dynamic measurement accuracy evaluation. 中華民國振動與噪音工程學術研討會 20150627
43 Wafer Warpage Characterization   Measurement with Modified Fringe Reflection Method We have demonstrated a modified fringe reflection method to compensate the warpage measurement errors caused by the height difference between optical reference mirror and   wafer sample surface. We have used a linearity analysis approach to obtain the parabolic height errors for a 4-inch sapphire wafer warpage measurement, which is around 1.48 um of 100 um height difference. The experimental results   shows the warp discrepancy of 6-inch sapphire wafer is less than 1 μm compared with the reference Tropel instrument. SPIE Europe   Conference on Optical Metrology  20150623
44 CbzTAZ Hosts in Blue Organic Light   Emitting Devices Perform a High Current Efficiency more than 50 cd/A Two novel bipolar carbzol-triazole derivatives was synthesized by conjugating hole transporting moiety carbazole (Cbz) with electron transporting moiety triazole (TAZ) to   achieve the bipolar molecules, which were employed as the hosts of emitting layer doped with blue emitter FIrpic inside an blue phosphorescence OLED with high current efficiency of 50 and 50.6 cd/A, and EQE of 20 % and 21.6 %. SID International   Symposium 20150603
45 Precision Power Quality Measurement   System National Measurement Laboratory (NML) established the single-phase and three-phase  power measurement system in Year 1987 and   2001 respectively. These systems are no longer provide metrology to meet the traceability for the emerging measurement instruments used by green energy and smart grid industries. These instruments are including smart meters, EV   charging revenue meters, and power quality analysers for the smart grid. Due to the calibration ranges provided by the current power systems at NML are insufficient for power industries. So during the period of Year 2014 to 2015, NML started to expand these power calibration ranges and provided new testing   services of IEEE C37.118.1 Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) compliance/type tests as well. The PMU testing is not only for providing the performance tests and periodic service checks for PMU manufacturers, utility companies, and PMU users, but also ensure the safety and stability of the smart grid. 電機月刊 20150601
46 Calibration System for Zener Voltage   Standards Using 10 V Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard at NMIJ We have developed a calibration system for Zener voltage standards using a programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) for liquid-helium consumption reduction and   improvement in the calibration performance. The PJVS array is composed 524 288 NbN-based overdamped Josephson junctions and is cooled by a 10 K compact cooler. To verify the validity of the system, indirect and direct comparisons   of the PJVS system and our conventional JVS (CJVS) system has been carried out. As a result, an agreement within a relative expanded uncertainty of 8.7   × 10^-10 was obtained for a nominal voltage of 10 V. We also discuss the   uncertainty sources in the calibration of the Zener voltage standards using   our PJVS system. IEEE Transactions on   Instrumentation and Measurement 20150601
47 Quantifying Nanosheet Graphene Oxide   Using Electrospray-Differential Mobility Analysis We report a high-resolution, traceable method to quantify number concentrations and   dimensional properties of nanosheet graphene oxide (N-GO) colloids using electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed orthogonally to provide complementary data and imagery of N-GOs. Results show that the equivalent mobility sizes, size distributions, and number concentrations of N-GOs were able to be successfully measured by ESDMA. Colloidal stability and filtration efficiency of N-GOs were shown to be effectively characterized based on the change of size distributions and number concentrations. Through the use of an analytical model, the DMA data were able to be converted into lateral size   distributions, showing the average lateral size of N-GOs was ? 32 nm with an estimated thickness ? 0.8 nm. This prototype study demonstrates the proof of concept of using ES-DMA to quantitatively characterize N-GOs and provides traceability for applications involving the formulation of N-GOs. Analytical Chemistry 20150517
48 Aerosol diluter for monitoring low   concentration nano-particles Condensation particle counters (CPC) have been widely used for monitoring particle number   concentration. However, the detection limitation of a CPC, which is about in the range of 1e5 to 1e7 particles per centimeter cubic, could not satisfy the   need for detecting the particle concentration from engine exhaust. Thus, an   auxiliary diluter is proposed and developed to solve this problem. Based on the definition of ISO 14644 about the clean room regulation, the number concentration of the 100 nm particles at Class 1 to Class 4 should be in the   range of 10 to 1e4 particles per centimeter cubic. For the need in   calibration of particle counters, ITRI CMS is now establishing a detection   efficiency measurement system of a standard particle counter at low concentrations, and developing the aerosol diluter for the use of lowering the particle   concentration. In the aforementioned system, a two steps dilution is adopted to execute the proportionality test and the absolute value calibration. A preliminary test shows that the accuracy of the developed diluter could be   within ± 5 % at 1/10 dilution factor, and within ± 10 % at 1/100 dilution factor. By taking the advantage of this research, the ability of measuring particle number concentration could be improved 1000-fold to 1 particle per   centimeter cubic with SI traceability. 環境分析化學研討會 20150501
49 Measurement Technology and Evaluation   of Detection Efficiency for Aerosol Particle Counter at Low Particle   Concentration This paper presents the measurement technology and evaluation for detection efficiency calibration of condensation particle counters (CPCs) at low particle concentration. A typical method for calibrating the detection efficiency of a condensation particle counter (CPC) at normal particle concentration (103 ~   104 cm-3) is to compare the CPC with a Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer   (FCAE). However, with decrease of particle concentration (down to 1 cm-3),   the electrical current measured by FCAE was below femto ampere level and it   was hard to differentiate the noise and real data from FCAE. Therefore, to avoid the limitation of the FCAE, we developed a method to calibrate the CPCs at the low particle concentration. We used a reference CPC to replace the FCAE, and added two diluters to achieve the low particle concentration. The method included two independent steps: diluter proportionality test and CPC absolute   value assessment. The proportionality test enables uncertainty to be assigned to the CPC over an extended range of concentration beyond the lower detection limit of the AE, thereby establishing measurement traceability for low   concentrations. Besides, the uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on “ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide   to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM: 1995)”. This home design system offered following calibrated range, which the size of particle was 100 nm and the number concentration of aerosol was from 1 cm-3 to 10000 cm-3. The maximum expanded uncertainty was under 4 %. 環境分析化學研討會 20150501
50 A study on the future trend of the   domestic periodic test technology in Sound Level Meters based on the evolution of international standards This article investigates the periodic test technology trend of sound level meters   according to the evolution of international standards and then analyzes which items should be tested in order to revise the technical specification of verification and inspection of sound level meters. We expect that the revision is synchronized with the international standards, and also in compliance with the needs of the domestic legislation. 標準與檢驗 20150501
51 Introduction to Steady-State   Techniques for Measuring Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity can be used to determine the physical quantity of thermal conductive and   insulated materials, and also is the main indicator of distinguishing energy transfer in materials. In order to save energy and reduce carbon emissions, decrease energy loss for general insulated materials, and improve the energy efficiency of air-conditioning systems, development of insulated materials and standards and test methods of thermal conductivity will be required and inevitably surged by limited Technical Code for Energy Conservation Design of Buildings. The purpose of this article is to introduce the popular steady-state techniques of measuring thermal conductivity for insulated materials -guarded hot plate and heat flow meter methods. Their advantages, disadvantages, and relative limitations are discussed for evaluating thermal   conductivity of insulated materials in order to satisfy to meet the requirements in the industry. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150501
52 emissivity More and more articles for daily use products emphasize the emissivity, but what is the physical meaning of emissivity? It should be needed to clearly define. In order to avoid the risk of misuse of emissivity and to respond to this demand, the article description on the   principles for measuring the emissivity of commercial equipment and the   definition of measuring methods. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150501
53 Introduction to the research and   development technology of high temperature precision calibration furnace The high temperature precision calibration furnace introduced in this article is the first   embodiment of a high-temperature thermal source. It can be customized produced according to the required specification and can be widely and flexibly applied to heat treatment, thermal testing, temperature calibration and other related fields to meet the producers’, academia, and industrial customized needs. This article demonstrate how to design and construct a high-temperature thermal source and the researching procedure in heat transfer simulation.   According to the measurements results, it can be stabilized within+-0.02 ℃ within 30 minutes in the working zone for the whole temperature range from 100 ℃ to 1100 ℃. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150501
54 Ultrathin High-k Multilayer Thin Films Thickness Evaluation by X-ray Reflectivity and Electron Energy Loss Spectrum Nanotechnology combined physics, chemistry, electronics, mechanics, material, and   measurement technologies, developing the detection ability on nanoscale. The   nanotechnology requires much precise measurement results to fit the industrial needs. To meet the future transistors with smaller size, the high-k dielectric film had been applied to replace the conventional SiO2   film.  In order to elevate the numbers of transistors on a single wafer, the size and length were needed to decrease   to meet the demand. Among the common high-k gate dielectric materials, HfO2   is the most widely utilized owing to its thermal stability and process   compatibility. However, with the continuously decreasing transistor size, the   ultra-thin gate dielectric film thickness would cause the difficulty on measurement. In this letter, the X-ray reflectometry (XRR) measuring the thickness of ultrathin high-k gate oxide is addressed. For 1.2 nm and 2.5 nm   atomic layer deposited HfO2 layers, the structures are 1.2 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si substrate and cap Si/2.5 nm HfO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The thickness and interface layer properties are analyzed by XRR, incorporating transmission   electron microscope (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) analyses. The TEM images show a unclear interface between each layer owing to the   ultrathin thickness and amorphous phase, therefore it is hard to actually define the thickness. The image contrast intensity is utilized to evaluate high-k thickness by full-width at half maximum (FWHM) definition. In addition, the Hf and O signals of EELS are fitted by Gaussian function to calculate its thickness.  For the 1.2 nm sample, the interlayer SiO2 and high-k HfO2 layers were sequentially deposited onto the Si substrate by ALD. Intensity profile shows   the image contrast, and the film thickness is defined by the FWHM method. By FWHM definition, the HfO2 film thickness is characterized to be about 1.346 nm. GIXRR analyzed HfO2 layers results are around 1.32 nm for 5-times measurement. For the EELS, the Hf signal demonstrated the thickness is around 1.79 nm. For the 2.5 nm sample, the FWHM of dark region illustrates its thickness is   around 2.45 nm. As for the GIXRR method, the simulation shows that the HfO2   layer thickness is about 2.38 nm, which is quite close to the TEM results.   It’s worth mentioning that the HfO2 layer density of 1.2 nm of 9.368 g/cm3 is greatly larger than 2.5 nm of 8.34 g/cm3. The density variations indicate that the high-k layer without capping is easily affected by the oxygen ambient. For the EELS analysis, the thickness of HfO2 is 2.56 nm by Hf signal   evaluation. In conclusion, the non-destructive GIXRR method can be provided as a powerful metrology tool for its fast and accurate measurement, demonstrating its high potential for application in future semiconductor in-line   inspection. Three different metrology tools show a consistent thickness result. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150501
55 Uncertainty Evaluation of 10 Vrms Sampling Measurement System Using AC-Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard We have evaluated the uncertainty in the differential sampling measurement of 10 Vrms waveform synthesis based on an AC-programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS)system with a compact cooler and a modified digital voltmeter (DVM). The error due to sampling timer is much reduced with an external 20 MHz frequency reference for the sampling DVM. The thermal electromotive force voltage of our reverse-polarity relay switch is sufficiently small and stable for the application of a differential sampling system. We also have performed a variety of measurements to evaluate this differential sampling technique. The   evaluation result shows that the overall expanded uncertainty is evaluated to be 1.3 parts in 10^6 (k = 2) for the differential sampling measurement with   the frequency of 62.5 Hz at the rms voltage of 10 V. IEEE Transactions on   Instrumentation and Measurement 20150425
56 CCM.G-K2 key comparison In November 2013 an International Key Comparison, CCM.G-K2, was organized in the Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Walferdange. The comparison has assembled 25   participants coming from 19 countries and four different continents. The comparison was divided into two parts: the key comparison that included 10 NMIs or DIs, and the pilot study including all participants. The global result given by the pilot study confirms that all instruments are absolutely coherent to each other. The results obtained for the key comparison confirm a good agreement between the NMI instruments. Metrologia 20150421
57 Pore size evaluation of mesoporous   organosilicate films by non-destructive X-ray reflectivity methods 200-nm-thick   organosilicate films deposited by mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)   and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) dissolving in different cetrimonium bromide (CTAB)/ethanol ratios were characterized in terms of pore size determination and its distribution. Under the toluene ambient, the pores would adsorb the gas hence elevating the whole film density. The   X-ray reflectivity (XRR) equipped with mass flow control was utilized to detect the film density increasing. By fitting with Gaussian function and   conversing with Kelvin’s equation, the pore size was increased from 6.2 to 10.8A as the CTAB/ethanol ratio increasing to 0.075. It was attributed to   the ethanol and CTAB enhanced the TEOS hollow droplets stability and dissolvability. As the CTAB/ethanol ratio is further increased, the pore   size is reversely decreased, owing to the formation of solid   microspheres. The non-destructive XRR measurement can evaluate the sub-nano pore sizes   and its size distribution, which would fascinate the development and characterization of back-end of line process. c 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics Japanese Journal of   Applied Physics 20150420
58 A New PVTt Primary Gas Flow Standard at CMS Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) has finished constructing a new pressure, volume,   temperature, and time (PVTt) primary gas flow standard at the end of 2013.  The PVTt gas flow standard spans the flow range of 0.01 L/min to 300 L/min using three gas collection tanks with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 0.10   %. Each gas collection tank has an individual three-way diverter valve composed of a specially-designed reduced-bore ball valve and a pneumatic cylinder. The collection tanks are immersed in a circulated water bath and the uncertainty of the collected gas temperature after achieving thermal equilibrium is 0.05 K. The design of this flow standard and the strategy to reduce the uncertainty of the flow measurements are introduced in this paper. In addition, an intra-comparison between the PVTt gas flow standard and the existing three other primary gas flow standards, i.e. a piston prover and two bell provers, were conducted. Results showed the three systems agreed within   deviation of 0.05 %. International   Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement 20150415
59 Detection of Thermal Denaturation and   Renaturation of Collagen: Optical Characteristics using Angular   Displacement-Enhanced Heterodyne Polarimeter An angular displacement-enhanced heterodyne polarimeter has been employed to investigate   the optical properties and thermal denaturation of collagen. In the angular measurement, the phase change of the collagen at different temperatures can be enhanced using a null-detection technique with a retardation-tunable wave-plate and analyzer into our common-path heterodyne polarimeter. Experimental   Techniques 20150415
60 Effects of Vibration and Flow Pattern on Coriolis Flow Meter Coriolis flow meter is widely used to measure the mass flow rate in many fields of research and   industry because of its highly accurate measurement performance and superbly   repeatable characteristic. The working principle of Coriolis flowmeter relies on the Coriolis Effect generated by the fluid flowing through the vibrating   tubes. Therefore, the measurement accuracy of a Coriolis flow meter might be   influenced by the vibration surrounding a Coriolis flow meter, the flow pulsation, and the fluid distribution between the vibration tubes. The   presented work studies the impacts of possible vibration, and asymmetric flow pattern induced by the water flowing through a partially closed ball valve on a Coriolis flow meter. When a partially closed ball valve and the Coriolis   flow meter are installed in series, the vibration caused by the water flow hitting a partially closed ball valve would result in a clear measurement error and a negative effect on the short-term repeatability of the Coriolis flow meter is observed. The installation of two rubber sections surrounding the Coriolis flow meter is effective to isolate the vibration as a noise on   the measurement result. A possible asymmetric flow pattern is progressed and results in a clear measurement inaccuracy when the water flows through a partially closed upstream ball valve with an inadequate separation between   the ball valve and the Coriolis flow meter. The measurement result and the short-term repeatability of the Coriolis flow meter are further worse and deteriorated with the combined effect of vibration and asymmetric flow   pattern when the further partially closed upstream ball valve is connected to the Coriolis flow meter via a short stainless steel pipe section. International   Symposium for Fluid Flow Measurement 20150412
61 Hybrid mode-locked fiber laser comb of   milihertz relative linewidth with a polarization-maintaining fiber-pigtailed   waveguide electro-optic modulator Narrow linewidth optical frequency comb is important for the applications in optical clock,   high resolution multi-heterodyne laser spectroscopy and coherent lidar. In recent years, narrow linewidth of fiber laser comb has been demonstrated with mode-locking based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) or semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). In this paper, we report a fiber laser   comb hybrid mode-locked by NPR and SESAM with a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-pigtailed intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator (EOM). The carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) beat signal of the fiber laser comb is   controlled to mHz-level by feedback control loop with phase-lead compensation. International   Frequency Control Symposium/European Frequency and Time Forum (IFCS/EFTF) 20150412
62 Final report on key comparison   APMP.M.P-K13 in hydraulic gauge pressure from 50 MPa to 500 MPa This report describes the results of a key comparison of hydraulic high-pressure   standards at nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs: NMIJ/AIST, NPLI, NMC/A*STAR, NIMT, NMIA, NIM, CMS/ITRI, KIM-LIPI, and KRISS) within the   framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) in order to   determine their degrees of equivalence in the pressure range from 50 MPa to 500 MPa in gauge mode. The pilot institute was the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST). All participating institutes used hydraulic   pressure balances as their pressure standards. A set of pressure balance with a free-deformational piston-cylinder assembly was used as the transfer standard. Three piston-cylinder assemblies, only one at a time, were used to   complete the measurements in the period from November 2010 to January 2013. Ten participants completed their measurements and reported the pressure-dependent effective areas of the transfer standard at specified pressures with the associated uncertainties. Since one of the participants withdrew its results, the measurement results of the nine participants were finally compared. The results were linked to the CCM.P-K13 reference values through the results of two linking laboratories, NMIJ/AIST and NPLI. The degrees of equivalence were evaluated by the relative deviations of the   participants' results from the CCM.P-K13 key comparison reference values, and their associated combined expanded (k=2) uncertainties. The results of all   the nine participating NMIs agree with the CCM.P-K13 reference values within their expanded (k=2) uncertainties in the entire pressure range from 50 MPa to 500 MPa. Metrologia 20150327
63 Absolute gravity observations in   Taiwan: applications to Gravity System 2009, gravimetric calibration line and   environmental change The absolute gravity stations measured with the two absolute gravimeters of FG5 since 2004 have been carried out over Taiwan area, which are serving as a basis for relative   gravity surveying and geophysical interpretation. For the quality assurance, the team with the absolute gravimeter of FG5-224 took part in the ICAG-2005 and ICAG-2009 campaigns at BIPM in Paris, and the ICAG-2013 campaign in   Luxembourg with the absolute gravimeter of FG-231 for verifying the measurement uncertainty of the absolute gravity. Two gravimetric calibration line have been maintained, monitored and   analyzed so far. They are yielding the maximum internal gravity values of around 99 mGal and 320 mGal, respectively, to an accuracy of 0.008 mGal. The aim is to provide information on drifts and scale factors of relative   gravimeters. Two superconducting gravimeters (SGs) manufactured by GWR were installed at   tunnel in Hsinchu City and at Mt. Yangming in Taipei City, respectively. With   the two SGs    near the two absolute gravity stations will also provide a means of monitoring possible crustal   movement within the active fault zones of Northern Taiwan in the text. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
64 Solid-state thermoelectric materials   measurement technology Waste heat recovery is considered the best worthiest renewable energy, except solar energy. Waste heat can be generated to electricity by thermoelectric generator module   without any moving parts. Meanwhile, thermoelectric generator also offers the   advantages of being compact, quiet, operation in any spatial position, and   high reliability and is very suitable for industrial waste heat recovery at low-middle temperature. It will be the next generation technology with a big potentiality, especially for developing new high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. In order to test and verify the efficiency of these new thermoelectric materials, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity should be measured and carried out. However, there   are not any internal measuring agencies to provide the traceability services   for thermoelectric materials. About the consistency of measurement accuracy in thermoelectric materials, most vendors need to rely on the instrument's specifications or international reference materials to verify. In this paper, we provide the standard measuring technologies which are suggested to develop reference materials for Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, they are useful to verify high ZT values of thermoelectric materials. The purpose   of this study is to describe how to improve the measuring technology of Seebeck coefficient and enhance the credibility of ZT value. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
65 The Inter-Comparison of Vibration and   Shock Accelerometer for Industry Traceability The vibration laboratory of National Measurement Laboratory (NML) has actively participated in the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) regional comparison, and has completed low-frequency vibration Supplementary Comparison, high-frequency   vibration Key Comparison and low-intensity shock Pilot Study. The purpose of comparison is not only to confirm measurement consistency between vibration laboratory of NML and other national laboratories but also to transfer   vibration standard to industry which is related to vibration and shock measurement for ensuring good product quality in Taiwan. According to the   low-frequency and high-frequency agreement protocol the range of frequency is from 0.5 Hz to 20 Hz, acceleration amplitude range from 0.1 m/s2 to 10 m/s2 and frequency is from 40 Hz to 5 kHz, acceleration amplitude range from 10   m/s2 to 200 m/s2 respectively. On the other hand the required shock duration time is from 0.8 ms to 3.0 ms, shock acceleration amplitude range is from 500 m/s2 to 5000 m/s2 for low-intensity shock Pilot Study. The NML has the   measurement consistency with other national laboratories from the result of measurement with uncertainty calculation for comparison. Taiwan's industry will also ensure products to meet international trade requirements in   measurement traceability through sending accelerometer to NML for calibration regularly. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
66 Nonlinear analysis for monitoring and   measuring of environmental light based on Ensemble Empirical Mode   Decomposition Data analysis consisted of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) has been a   developed completely method. EEMD decomposed measured data by using both   parameters of the number of ensemble and the noise amplitude to prescribe calculated times. In this paper, the trends of the luminance and illuminance were obtained by EEMD. The correlation coefficients were calculated further   to comprehend high interactivity between vertical and horizontal illuminance. A series of analytical processes had been finished, the results will have contributions to clarify correlation between overall environmental light for light pollution research. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
67 Alternative Methods to Evaluate   Photobiological Safety for the Wavelength of (2500 ~ 3000) nm As modern lighting technology becomes more and more advanced, artificial light sources, such as   solid state lighting, become brighter and more popular in our daily life. However, such high luminance lighting also comes with potential   photobiological hazards. Quantities and methods are defined and described in   photobiological safety standards, to evaluate photobiological hazards. For example, infrared radiation hazard for the eye is evaluated based on the irradiance within the assigned wavelength range, calculated based on the measured values of spectral irradiance. However, for most of the light   sources, infrared radiation between (2500 ~ 3000) nm is very low and thus difficult to be measured. As a result, it is challenging to evaluate photobiological hazards within this wavelength range accurately. Althernative   methods are developed to try to solve this problem. The goal is to be able to   evaluate photobiological hazards in the range of (2500 ~ 3000) nm accurately. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
68 Rockwell indenter radius determination by optical interferometry Taking into account the increase in the hardness of the accuracy of measurement traceability, for   Rockwell diamond indenter geometry is extremely important. In this article, we will describe ways to use optical interference test to determine radius Rockwell indenter. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
69 On-site calibration and flow   simulation for open channel flow Calibration of flow meters used for liquid flow measurement in open channels requires high   techniques and is usually performed with on-site calibration. In this study, the velocity-area method is used for on-site calibration of an ultrasonic flow meter used for discharge measurement in a sewage pipe. The flow velocity   profile over the cross-sectional area of the sewage pipe is simulated and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools based on the information of calibrated flow rates and the related water level data. Finally, the result of comparison between CFD simulation and on-site   measurement data is reported in this paper. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
70 Analysis of the Effects of Relative   Humidity on the Flow Meter Measurement Error of Air Sampler Aerosol (particulate   matter, PM) is solid-liquid granular mixture matter suspended in the   atmosphere. Recently the effects of particulate matter have been widely study, because it’s found harmful to human respiratory system.
The measurement of particle concentration is an important indicator for evaluating air quality.
One of the most common built-in flowmeter for air sampling instruments is mass flow meter, which measurement is related to the variation of ambient humidity. The accuracy of the sampling flow rate affects the sorting particular   characteristic size, thereby affecting the particle concentration measurement results. In this study, we use wet meter as humidifying device to simulate the variation of ambient humidity, and to assess the effect to sampling result.
兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
71 The Rain Gauge Calibration Facility   Development and Performance Evaluation Central Weather Bureau to enhance the ability of the rain gauge calibration facility, assisted by the Industrial Technology Research Institute, the complete set of rain gauges calibration facility and automated batch import function   calibration operation, the new rain gauge facility calibration range up to 5 mm / h to 400 mm / h, this paper measured in accordance with ISO uncertainty evaluation of the guidelines, to confirm the minimum measurement uncertainty. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
72 The Application of Analysis of   Variance (ANOVA) to Nanoscale Measurement Interlaboratory Comparisons In order to accelerate new manufacturing processes and product developments, measurement   is crucial to increase production yield and obtain better product reliability. However, when the measurement demand is extended to nanoscale, measurement techniques must be developed to meet new challenges. Because of different principles and software used in these techniques, measurement results of different instruments or measurement methods do not agree well with each other to a certain degree. The discrepancy of accuracy and   variation of measurement capabilities between different measurement methods are required to be analyzed. This paper describes the application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to analyze the variations and discrepancies in nanoscale   measurements based on the results from recent international interlaboratory comparisons. The statistical hypothesis method was applied to test the   differences between measurement means of different types of instruments. The   consistency of different instruments and measurement methods was then   investigated. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
73 The Measurement and Analysis of Nano Titanium Dioxide for Reference Material This study present that how to use nano titanium dioxide particles as a standard reference   materials from collecting commercial products. and select the number of species of commercial for analysis and measurement. By analyzing particle size, morphology, pH value, composition, dispersion, conductivity, etc., we selected well dispersed, uniform particle size of nano titanium dioxide particles as a reference material. In this study, we use Scanning Electron Microscope for morphology analysis, use DMA for particle size analysis, use EDS for particle composition analysis, use pH meter and conductivity meter   for pH and conductivity measurement. In the future we will have further measurement for particle characterization, such as the surface energy and toxicity. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
74 Uncertainty Evaluation of AC Voltage   Measurement Using AC-Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard We have evaluated the uncertainty in the AC voltage measurement of waveform synthesis based on an AC-programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS) system with a compact cooler and a modified digital voltmeter (DVM). The error due to sampling   timer is much reduced with an external 20 MHz frequency reference for the sampling DVM. The thermal electromotive force voltage of our reverse-polarity relay switch is sufficiently small and stable for the application of a differential sampling system. The evaluation result shows that the overall expanded uncertainty is evaluated to be 1.4 parts in 10^6 (k = 2) for the   differential sampling measurement with the frequency of 62.5 Hz at the rms   voltage of 10 V. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
75 Appling Laser on Cylinder Straightness   Detection using Break Line method This paper proposes a straightness measurement method for a large cylindrical steel bar. The   structured light was used to project on cylindrical steel bar, so that the machine vision can be used to measure the contour of the bar and further to calculate the straightness. The experimental result shows that the measurement error is ± 0.4 mm. This method can be implemented on the straightening machine for real-time measuring to increase the manufacturing   efficiency. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
76 Temperature and humidity metrology   standards and product promotion YUDEN-TECH Co., LTD. is making a remarkable transition from the Europe and America brand agent for   the import and sales to develop its own brand in recent years, with the aid   of Industry-University cooperative research and laboratory-establishing guidance by Center for Measurement Standards/ITRI. Through the establishing on temperature and humidity traceable standards, developing the advanced   measurement technology, and constituting the calibration systems with small uncertainties, the breakthrough has been made on our previous bottleneck of on-line test. The maximum measured error of the up-cycle has been reduced to 40 % of the previous value, and furthermore the total average span and ideal   span of our product reach a very high consistency nowadays. That is, the objective of manufacturing a high-end product to upgrade the competitiveness   for Taiwan sensor industrials has been achieved and the competitive advantage in the international market has also been equipped. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
77 Comparison of the regulation of   measuring Particulate matters Atmospheric particulate matter (also known as particulate matter, PM) is one of the major air pollutants, which have great impact on the environment ecology, visibility, and adversely human health. This paper compared the air quality standard of WHO and the four countries (United States, Japan, China, and   Taiwan). We suggested some implementation method that TFDA could adapt. Moreover, most countries adapted manual sampling method to measure   particulate matter mass concentration in the air. But the data showed some diversity between automatic sampling and manual sampling which mostly could be resulted in the different measurement environment and measurement theory. This paper also proposed cautiously parallel comparison for automatic / manual   sampling instruments.  By this comparison, we could evaluate precision of instruments, investigate the comparability of automatic / manual sampling instruments, increase the   reliability of monitored data, and build a mechanism to select qualified instrument. Industrial Technology Research Institute, Center of Measurement Standards (CMS) finalized the comparison regulation. By this comparison, CMS could provide government and instrument manufacturers an independent third - party   certification, and the improvement suggestion. Furthermore, it could protect people’s health. 兩岸量測與檢測科技學術研討會 20150320
78 Relative carrier-envelope phase   stabilization of hybridly synchronized ultrafast Yb and Er
   
    fiber-laser systems with the feed-forward scheme
Stabilization of the   relative carrier-envelope (CE) phase for hybridly synchronized two-color fs   Yb and Er fiber-laser systems is demonstrated for the first time by utilizing   the feed-forward scheme based on an acousto-optic frequency shifter. The slow   drift issues arising from the feed-forward scheme are solved by adding the   in-loop relative
   
    CE frequency coarse stabilization via modulating the laser pump current.   Sub-fs timing locking between the two-color pulses is still maintained due to   the fast response and large locking range of hybrid synchronization. The   approach provides an alternative way to obtain phase-stable synchronized   two-color pulses with higher pulse energies.
Optics Letters 20150315
79 Mechanical Performance of Spider Silk Is Robust to Nutrient-Mediated Change in Protein Composition Spider major ampullate (MA) silk is sought after as a biomimetic because of its high strength and extensibility. While the secondary structures of MA silk proteins (spidroins) influences silk mechanics, structural variations induced by spinning processes have additional effects. Silk properties may be induced by spiders feeding on diets that vary in certain nutrients, thus providing researchers an opportunity to asses the interplay between spidrion chemistry and spinning processes on the performance of MA silk. Here, we determined the   relative influence of spidroin expression and spinning processes on MA silk mechanics when Nephila pilipes were fed solutions with or without protein. We found that spidroin expression differed across treatments but that its influence on mechanics was minimal. Mechanical tests of supercontracted   fibers and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that increased alignment in the amorphous region and to a lesser extent in the crystalline region led to increased fiber strength and extensibility in spiders on protein rich diets. Biomacromolecules 20150312
80 Nano metal oxide particle size   evaluation for commercial sunscreen There exists a high demanding for protecting skin from UV light. The metal oxide nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are widely used in   commercial sunscreen product for their bandgap matching photo energy of ultraviolet light. In addition, the structural morphology of metal oxide will affect its stability and absorbance on UV light. In this letter, the nanoparticle size of powder phase TiO2 and liquid phase sunscreen were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). 職業衛生研討會 20150306
81 A Study on Calibrations of Metrology   Standards by Atomic Force Microscopy in Support of Taiwan High-Technology   Industries In order to provide high precision and accurate calibrations for improving total measurement   uncertainty in semiconductor, flat panel display (FPD) and light emitted display (LED) manufacturing, advanced metrology research was required to achieve low measurement uncertainties at National Metrology Institute (NMI) level, and to ensure accurate measurements by tracing them back to national   standards. The latest advanced metrology research achievements on the calibration, characterization and reference standards of atomic force microscope (AFM) at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), the NMI in   Taiwan, are reported together with the technology dissemination to the country’s core industries of high technology. The AFM has been developed and demonstrated as a versatile tool to characterize surface morphology and   functionality in three dimensions with sub-nanometer resolution. The research areas based on the AFM technique were conducted for critical dimensions, nanoparticle deformation, surface mechanical properties, and pico-newton force characterizations at CMS. As a result, the outcomes of the research provide the measurement methods, reference materials and calibrations to meet the metrology needs of the high-technology industries in Taiwan. International   Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces 20150305
82 Development of the metrological   scanning platform of the atomic force microscope for dimensional measurement An atomic force microscope (AFM) has already been widely applied in materials science,   scientific research, biotechnology and semiconductor industry. The Center for   Measurement Standards (CMS), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) who is responsible for the national metrology institute (NMI) in Taiwan used the AFM to establish the primary national standards for calibration of the   “pitch” and “grating pitch”. This paper presents the development of the metrological scanning module for conducting the metrological AFM, which   intends to improve the measuring range and uncertainty for the existing AFM in CMS. The metrological scanning module integrates two Renishaw RLE laser interferometer encoders and Physik Instrumente GmbH customized flexure stage to provide the precision displacement measurement for the metrological AFM.   Finally, the operation of metrological AFM is also disclosed in this paper. International   Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces 20150304
83 Evaluation methods and challenges of   infrared (IR) photobiological safety Photobiological safety standards define/suggest different evaluation methods based on different photobiological hazards. However, the validation, accuracy, and efficiency of the suggested methods still could be discussed and improved. We studied the possibility of using collagen as the test sample for (2500 ~ 3000) nm IR photobiological safety evaluation. The proposed method could be used as an alternative method for the purpose mentioned. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150301
84 Research on Direct Comparison Between the Programmable and Conventional Josephson Voltage Standards of the Highest   National Standard The programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) system can provide the accurate quantum DC voltage, and this system is also the primary standard system of the highest national standard. In order to verify the measurement precision of PJVS system, we directly compared the PJVS system with our conventional JVS (CJVS) system at 1.018 V and 10 V respectively. This paper describes the direct comparison results and uncertainty analysis between PJVS and CJVS systems. The agreement between these two systems was 1.1 nV at 10 V with a relative   standard uncertainty of 1.67×10^-10 at the 95 % confidence level. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150301
85 Updated Single-Phase AC Power/Energy   Measurement Systems at National Measurement Laboratory R.O.C. Since the current AC power/energy measurement systems at National Measurement Laboratory R.O.C. can't provide sufficient traceability for the power/energy calibration, NML launched a project in 2014 to expand the calibration scope of Single-Phase AC   Power/Energy Measurement Systems. The calibration parameters include active   power/energy, reactive power/energy, and voltage/current harmonics. The voltage and current ranges for these parameters are up to 480 V and 80 A respectively. The calibration methods, traceability, calibration scope and   measurement uncertainty evaluation are describled in this article. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150301
86 A Study on Power and Energy   Measurement for Dynamic loads in Electrical Power Monitoring systems Due to wide spread application of power electronic devices, grid will have more harmonic   pollution. In order to improve the problem of power quality, establishing an effective and accurate data analysis method is a high priority job of load measurement. Currently, Fourier Transform is the most commonly used method to   analyze signals. Furthermore, Short-Time Fourier Transform offers a fixed window function to improve the lack of time information in Fourier Transform.  However, it will lose high frequency information. Wavelet Transform can increase resolutions in both time and frequency domains. It is also a better analysis method for nonsinusoidal signals. This study designs an algorithm in LabVIEW based on discrete wavelet transform. Varieties of real dynamic loads   are measured and are compared with the IEEE Std. 1459-2010. All errors are no more than 2 %. The platform of electric power measurement and calculation can be applied to controlling and improving power quality. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150301
87 Review and Analysis of Results on   Nanoscale Measurement Interlaboratory Comparisons Several kinds of instruments and methods are used widely in nanoscale measurement. However, even same types of instruments or measurement methods were applied, the   results may not agree sufficiently closely. Therefore, the harmonization and   standardization of measurement capabilities and techniques has gained importance all over the world. In order to provide the metrology services in nanoscale, the Center for Measurement Standards of Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) has been devoting itself to the development of research and application of nanoscale measurement technologies for years. A  series of interlaboratory measurement comparisons were held by CMS/ITRI to   accelerate the industrial applications of nano technology. These comparisons has generated numerous interests in the global society. This paper review   these interlaboratory comparisons in nanometrology and could be the reference   for future nanometrology development and applications. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150115
88 An international Comparison   Measurement of Silicon Wafer Sheet Resistance using the Four-point Probe Method With approval from the Asia Pacific Metrology Program Working Group on Materials Metrology (APMP WGMM), an international comparison for sheet resistance standards for silicon wafers was firstly conducted among Korea Research   Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) in Korea, CMS/ITRI in Taiwan, and NIM in China, which are national metrology institutes (NMIs), from August 2011 to January 2012. The sheet resistance values of the standards are 10 Ω,   100 Ω, and 1000 Ω; the measurement was conducted in sequence at KRISS, CMS/ITRI, NIM, and KRISS again using the four-point probe method with single and dual configuration techniques. The reference value for the measurement results of the three NMIs was obtained through averaging the values of the   three results for each sheet resistance range. The differences between the reference value and the measured values is within 0.22 % for 10Ω, .17 % for100Ω, and 0.12 % for 1000Ω. Therefore, the international consistency for   conducting sheet resistance measurements is confirmed within 0.22 % through the APMP WGMM approved comparison. Journal of Electrical   Engineering & Technology 20150115
89 X-ray reflectivity applied in the   inspection of nanoporous thin films Nanotechnology involves physics, chemical, electronic, mechanics, material, and measurement developmenet. According to ITRS prediction, semiconductor industry will enter 14 nm production, and the distance between devices will continue to decrease to reach improved performance. The distance between interconnect will also decrease to improve the wire capacitance and leakage. By introducing air into dielectric material, the k value can furthur decrease. This reaserch used XRR   incoporated with MFC to establish a non-destructive X-ray porosimetry technology. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150105
90 Effect of Loading Stress on the Growth of Cn/Sn Intermetallic Compounds at High Temperatures Fabrication of reliable solder joints is crucial in microelectronics. In this study we tested solder joints under different loads and temperature-controlled conditions to investigate the effect of external stress on the growth of inter-facial Cu/Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Test specimens were prepared by electroplating a layer of Sn (25 μm thick) on a copper substrate.   Samples were then clamped in a micromechanical testing apparatus integrated   within a furnace. Experiments were performed by using load feedback control to ensure a constant load of 25, 50, or 100 MPa at a constant temperature of 200°C for periods of 24, 72, or 120 h. We then compared samples that   underwent stress with those that did not to elucidate the effect of stress and aging on the formation of IMCs. Our results indicate that the presence of   external stress affects the formation of Cu/Sn IMCs, including the speed of   formation and the resulting thickness. Moreover, the micrographic structure of IMCs formed under external stress varied substantially depending on the   amount of stress applied. Journal of electronic   materials 20150105
91 Non-destructive and non-contact   Terahertz optical and electrical properties measurement of thin film Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) had established differential double modulation Terahertz dielectric constant measurement technology for thin films. The measured average value of the dielectric constant for 500 nm thickness SiO2 film sample in the (0.1 ~0.5)THz band is 5, which is consistent with the bulk material. The deviation of the measured refractive index was overcome by eliminating the background values caused by the ununiformed thickness of the substrate and the film from the signal. Therefore, the refractive index and dielectric constant spectrum for 285 nm thickness SiO2 film was determined. The results are also similar to the bulk materials. Furthermore, the non-contact and non-destructive inspection of electrical properties of the metal or conductive semiconductor thin film was achieved by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The measurement uncertainty is <5%, which is similar as the four-point probe   method. From the international comparison, our technology performed the   better properties. It can be used to analyze the electro-optical properties of other thin films. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150101
92 Measurement standard and technology of   aerosol particle counter This paper presents the method for the detection efficiency calibration of condensation particle   number counters (CPC). We employ differential electrical mobility classifier (DEMC) to classify the diameter of aerosol particles and Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer (FCAE) to measure the current, which is carried by flowing charged particles. By using this method, we can achieve the counting of aerosol particles, which the measurement result is traced to SI unit,   current. The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on “ISO/IEC Guide   98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995)”. This home design system offer following calibrated range, which the size is from 50 nm to 200 nm and the   concentration is from 1000 cm-3 to 10000 cm-3. The relative expanded uncertainty is around 2.4 %. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150101
93 NanoTensile Measuring System and Applications This paper describes the calibration and traceability of a nano-tensile measuring system and its applications. The system can be used to measure the mechanical properties, including strength, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, storage and loss modulus. The instrument is suited for measuring the materials such as polymer nanocomposites, containing film, metal thin-films and wires or spider silk from individual biological specimen. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150101
94 Developement of in-line nano particle   monitoring system for solutions As the line width of semiconductor fabrication process approaches the physical limit, it cannot   meet the need for monitoring particles below 40 nm by the traditional particle monitoring instruments, such as the particle size monitor and the liquid particle counter. Therefore, it is a great demand on developing a high-resolution in-line monitoring system suitable for nano particle solutions. In this article, we introduce the in-line nano particle monitoring system for solutions which have the ability to detect particle size down to 10 nm, developed by Center for measurement standards of Industrial Technology   Research Institute. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20150101
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