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Papers in Year 2016

No.PapersSummaryAccepted ByIssued Date
1 Numerical Simulation and Performance   Improvement for a Centrifugal Blood Pump This study employed   computational fluid dynamics analysis, ANSYS Fluent, to simulate and analyze   the flow field of a centrifugal blood pump. The flow patterns for potential   regions of stagnation, pressure drop across the inlet and outlet ports, and   shear stress along flow trajectories were investigated. In addition, the   arrangement of blades composed of the blood pump was re-designed to study the   performance improvement. Results showed that after re-arranging the blades   the pressure drop across the blood pump can be reduced by 15 % and the   maximum shear stress can be reduced by 5.3 % under higher flow rate   conditions. 中國機械工程學會全國學術研討會 20161203
2 A Hand-Held Measuring Apparatus of   Thermal Conductivity with a Heat Pipe Probe The measurement   technique of thermal conductivity with a heat pipe probe was established, and   the first version of a hand-held measuring apparatus was developed in CMS.   This apparatus can be applied to the field of thermal insulating   coatings/materials, energy-saving insulation materials, plastics, and soil   for thermal conductivity measurement. In order to solve the effects of uneven   heating and thermal inertia for traditional thermal probes and to reduce the   uncertainty of measurement, a heat pipe which includes the characteristics of   high thermal conductivity, temperature uniformity, and small specific heat   was used as a probe in this research. Advantages of this hand-held measuring   apparatus of thermal conductivity include portability, easy operation, short   measuring time, low pricing, wide measuring range, and simple preparation of   the samples. This apparatus can fit the demands of customers for thermal   conductivity measurement in the outdoor and indoor environments. 中華民國力學學會全國力學會議 20161125
3 Simulation of High-Performance   Stressed Ultra-Thin FinFETs FinFETs have   attracted a lot of attentions in technologies of scaling down MOSFETs. To   achieve high-performance MOSFETs, the structures have been transferred to   ultra-thin FinFET structures with double-gate[1] or multi-gate[2] structures   to suppress the difficulties in conventional planar structures. To meet ITRS   roadmap, the high-performance ultra-thin FinFETs should also increase turn-on   current. One of the most practical processes is utilizing stressed channel.   However, it is lack of researches on the stressed channel effects on the   electrical characteristics of ultra-thin FinFETs. Therefore, the electrical   characteristics of ultra-thin FinFETs with stressed channel were investigated   in this paper. The Annual Conference   on Engineering and Applied Science 20161124
4 Performance Enhancement of FinFETs via   Narrowing Fin Channel Approaching the   scaling limit of MOSFETs, several technologies have drawn a lot of attentions   to improve the device
    performance. One of the most practical and simple methods is utilizing   channel engineering. However, it is lack of literatures on
    the channel engineering on the electrical characteristics of FinFETs. In   this paper, it was found an interesting phenomenon that
    the normalized turn-on current was increased as the narrowing fin channel   width. While compared the FinFETs with channel
    width of 45 nm and 25 nm, the performance enhancement could achieve about   23.9 % at Vg=2.0 V.
Taiwan Precision   Technology Workshop 20161111
5 Estimation and certification based on   sonic nozzle verification system for diaphragm gas meter verification. Diaphragm gas meter   has been wildly used in natural gas measurement, and the accuracy of   measurement is critical for business consumers and suppliers. The standard   measurement method, which is used in world wide, is based on OIML   (International Organization of Legal Metrology) R31 within pattern approval   and verification of legal measuring instrument. 
    The article is focused on sonic nozzle, which is characterized about   stability of flow rate measurement; to construct an auto- diaphragm gas meter   verification system and expand into the legal measuring instrument related   applications. The auto-verification system is lined up 3 different types of   sonic nozzle in parallel, and under barotropic operation condition.   Controlling the 3 individual pressure meter to adjust the flow rate in up   stream and pneumatic valve in up or down stream as switch, the system is able   to achieve auto-switching into 3 different verification flow rate into batch   inspection. The system design has provided a method for diaphragm gas meter   verification in flow range 2.5 m3/h to 6 m3/h.
    Estimation of the system is based on the ISO GUM method. The measuring   volume is under 95% confidence level and relative expanded uncertainty is   0.23%, which are lower than one third of maximum permissible error and   qualified for equipment requirements in OIML R31 (1995 ver.). Also, determine   its reproducibility by using 5 diaphragm gas meters with great repeatability   for relative error comparison in different position in one gas meter.
標準與檢驗 20161107
6 Recent Development of Oil Burner for
  FAA Fire Test
The NexGen (Sonic)   burner has been developed by Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center   to replace the old oil burner for conducting FAA certification fire tests on   some critical aircraft components, such as seat cushions, cargo liners,   firewalls, and so on. The configuration of NexGen burner and the associated   research results studied at University of Cincinnati Fire Test Center are   discussed in this work. During a fire test, the burner is supposed to provide   a simulated fire condition, thus the flame properties should be robust and   repeatable. The NexGen burner is better to achieve this because of the   advantage of controlling both fuel and air flow rates precisely, as compared   to the old oil burner. However, the current flame calibration criterion is   based on the flame average temperature and the associated heat flux measured   before or after fire test, and the presented work indicates that the current   flame calibration criterion is not enough ensure the consistent fire test   outcome. In order to meet the strong request from the composite material   manufacturers and the other aircraft component vendors of Taiwan, Center for   Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute is planning   to establish a third-party laboratory to provide the FAA fire test and to   team up with collaboration partners working on the topics of aircraft   material development, evaluation, testing, and certification. 中華民國航太學會學術研討會 20161105
7 Uncertainty Evaluation of Torque   Sensor Calibration An evaluation   procedure for the uncertainty of the torque sensor calibration is developed   in this paper.  The uncertainty   evaluation stated is in accordance with the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008   Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty   in measurement (GUM:1995).  The effects   of error sources on this calibration system are analyzed to evaluate the   corresponding standard uncertainties.    A torque sensor with measuring range of (0 to 23) N·m and a resolution   of 0.01 N·m was tested.  The expanded   uncertainty in the range of (0 to 5) N·m is estimated to be 0.02 N·m with a   coverage factor of 2.04, corresponding to a level of confidence of   approximately at a confidence level of 95 %.    In the range of (> 18 to 23) N·m, the expanded uncertainty is   estimated to be 0.03 N·m with a coverage factor of 1.99, corresponding to a   level of confidence of approximately at a confidence level of 95 %. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161103
8 200 kV DC high voltage divider   performance verification. This paper describes   the production technology and performance verification for the 200 kV   resistive divider. The resistive divider currently used to calibrate high   voltage equipment of ion implanter process in semiconductor factory and   calibrate the medical equipment for the X-ray high voltage generator. Input   terminal of the high voltage electrode and the bottom of this divider have an   annular aluminum ring to prevent Corona leakage current. All resistors are   exposed to the air, to accelerate its cooling, reducing the drift voltage   coefficient. The measured values of the ratio for the homemade DC high   voltage divider have a considerable amount of agreement with the Australian   National Standards Laboratory (NMIA) of measurement results. It can be validated   the excellent performance of the homemade DC high voltage divider. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
9 Calibration for Airborne Sensors in   Taiwan: Digital Aerial cameras, Airborne Lidar System and UAS Cameras Since 2011, the   National Land Surveying and Mapping Center(NLSC)has planned to establish the   calibration field for airborne sensors in order to ensure the quality of   surveying and mapping, and in compliance with the Land Surveying and Mapping   Act. The signalized targets as the reference for calibration, distributed   throughout the calibration field, which the cadastral plane coordinates (Nr,   Er) and geodetic ellipsoidal heights (hr) have been evaluated with GNSS   receivers. Using the airborne sensors including digital aerial camera, LiDAR   system and UAS camera were used to calculate the cadastral plane coordinates   (Nm, Em) and geodetic ellipsoidal heights (hm) of signalized targets, as the   measurements for calibration, in accordance with the relevant developed   techniques, respectively.
    The three dimensional differences (= measured values - reference values)   with expanded uncertainties (95% confidence level) of signalized targets are   shown in the text. The preliminary results are as follows: (1) Digital   photogrammetric airborne camera: the expanded uncertainty for large format,   130 mm in horizontal, 180 mm in vertical. (2) Airborne LiDAR system: RMSE =   0.25 m and 0.19 m in horizontal north and east respectively, RMSE = 0.06 m in   vertical, with 19 signalized targets. (3) Unmanned aircraft system (UAS) with   small format camera: RMSE = 0.14 m and 0.15 m in horizontal north and east   respectively, RMSE = 0.42 m in vertical, with 36 signalized targets.
海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
10 The structure design and verification   for shear type accelerometer Piezoelectric   accelerometer is the most frequently used sensor for vibration measurement in   industry currently, and due to its advantage like broadband, high dynamic   range, simple structure, easy installation and light weight etc., it plays an   important role in the field of vibration. Because shear type accelerometer   shows its characteristic charge output less susceptible to changes in ambient   temperature and deformation of the fixing base, the output noise signal due   to temperature deviation or uneven contact surfaces can be reduced when   applying it. This paper mainly describes the design and verification of shear   type accelerometer. The internal structure of shear type accelerometer   includes an inertial mass, the piezoelectric material, base structure and a   built-in charge amplifier. First by selecting annular piezoelectric material,   designing different inertia masses of stainless steel and copper tungsten,   applying finite element analysis, prototyping the accelerometer manufactured   associated with built-in charge amplifier and verifying accelerometer   performance as well, and then we apply the air bearing type shaker to verify   the accelerometer frequency response and sensitivity. From the verification   result of the finished prototype accelerometer the resonance frequency is up   to 15 kHz and the frequency response is less than 5 % with frequency below 4   kHz, by which it concludes that we have reached the preliminary target of our   project.
    In the future we will verify another important performance of accelerometer   like transverse characteristics, temperature and humidity, electromagnetic   characteristics, linearity and long term stability to make sure if the   quality and future working environmental requirement of accelerometer can be   complied with.
海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
11 A Study of Calibration for Inductive   Voltage Dividers Using An AC-PJVS System AC programmable   Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS) system has been established at National   Measurement Laboratory (NML) in Taiwan. The calibration capability of PJVS   system can extend to quantum AC voltage, and the AC-PJVS system becomes the   primary AC voltage standard. The calibration capability of PJVS system can   also extend to the voltage measurement range of power standard by using the   AC-PJVS system with the inductive voltage divider (IVD). This paper describes   the calibration technique of the divider ratio error and the phase error for   IVD using an AC-PJVS system. The IVD voltage ratios calibrated by AC-PJVS are   less than 2×10^-6 for amplitude and 2×10^-3 degree for phase at 62.5 Hz. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
12 Study of Test System for Load Cell   Module of Non-Automatic Weighing Instruments In OIML R76-1:2006   (Non-automatic weighing instruments Part 1: Metrological and technical   requirements – Tests), The load cell module test of non-automatic weighing   instruments is reference to OIML R60:2000 (Metrological regulation for load   cells). Therefore, this paper is to improve the testing system of load cell   module of non-automatic weighing instruments according to OIML R60:2000 and   study the feasibility of load cell module test. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
13 Study of Pressure effect on   measurement results for ultrasonic flow meters This paper   investigates pressure effects on measurement results for four ultrasonic flow   meters (USMs) (Elster-Instromet/Q.Sonic-4 Series-IV QL) served as working   standards of gas flow calibration laboratory of Refining & Manufacturing   Research Institute (RMRI) of CPC. These four USMs have traceable calibration   by the national flow standard at CMS at 10 bar, and then they are used to   calibrate meters from customers through changing the internal density   settings corresponding to the practical working pressure. The internal   corrections for USMs include the corrections for Re, flow profile, and   effects of gas pressure and temperature on meter body itself. The technology   for internal corrections for USMs are kind of knowhow for each USM   manufacturer. To find out the behaviors of these four USMs under working   pressure other than 10 bar, an additional pressure test of 50 bar together   with a transfer standard supported by PTB was conducted. Through comparison   of the test results between these four meters and the PTB transfer standard,   the performance of these four USMs operated at different working pressure   conditions can be obtained. Results showed that the difference between two   test pressures of these four USMs were fell within ± 0.2 %, indicating great   internal corrections for these USMs. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
14 BI-LATERAL COMPARISON BETWEEN CMS AND   NIST FOR PRIMARY GAS FLOW STANDARDS A bi-lateral   comparison of the pressure, volume, temperature, and, time (PVTt) primary gas   flow standards at CMS/ITRI in Taiwan and NIST in the USA was conducted in   2015. Two critical flow venturis (CFVs) with nominal throat diameters of   1.699 mm and 0.296 mm were selected as transfer standards. The CFVs were   calibrated using the 30 L and the 500 L collection systems at CMS, and then   using NIST’s 34 L and 677 L collection systems. Both CFVs indicated agreement   between the NIST and CMS standards within uncertainty expectations. The   results for the smaller CFV showed differences of only 0.03 %, but the   differences from the larger CFV were as big as 0.15 %. Internal comparisons   between the different sized collection systems at CMS and NIST were conducted   and were both in agreement, indicating the larger differences measured with   the 1.699 mm CFV are caused by the transfer standard rather than the PVTt   systems. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
15 Effects of Flow Pattern on Coriolis   Flow Meter Under a   well-installed condition, the flow measurement accuracy of a Coriolis flow   meter is claimed to be up to 0.1 % or even up to 0.05 % with a specific   manufacturer-tuning. The short-term repeatability and the long-term   reproducibility are capable of remaining within 0.05 % and 0.2 %,   respectively, which represents the superior stable and reliable   characteristics of a Coriolis flow meter. This is the reason why a Coriolis   flow meter is commonly employed in academic researches and industrial   applications and selected as a measurement standard in many calibration   laboratories.The experimental results show that the asymmetric velocity   distribution may cause the drift of the performance curve, the maximum   variation of up to 0.2%, this article may also cause the test results related   factors to be discussed. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
16 The Result Analysis of Proficiency   Testing of Standard Resistor from 2012 to 2014 Participating the   proficiency testing (PT) is an effective way to demonstrate a laboratory’s   measurement capability. Because PT helps participants understand the   differences between their measurement capabilities and those of other   laboratories, they can seek ways to improve their measurement   competence.
    Since 2009, Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research   Institute (CMS/ITRI) was accredited by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF)   to be the first proficiency testing provider (accreditation no. P002) of   calibration filed in Taiwan. The PT executive frequency of most comparison   items in CMS/ITRI is once three years, which belong to the fields of length,   mass, thermometry, etc. However, the PT executive frequency of electrical   comparison items can be shortened to be once a year due to numerous   electricity calibration laboratories, such as DC voltage, current,   resistance.
    According to the comparison results of standard resistors held by CMS/ITRI   for three consecutive years, this paper presents the standard resistor   measurement capability of nearly thirty participating calibration   laboratories in Taiwan. Moreover, the measurement results of different rounds   and methods are also compared on condition for the same comparison samples.
海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
17 Analysis and Discussion on Measurement   Uncertainty of Microphone Sensitivity Frequency Response In this article, the   difference between electrostatic actuator method and coupler method in   measuring the relative frequency response of the microphone sensitivity is   studied. In addition, the measurement uncertainty of calibration system using   electrostatic actuator method is evaluated, and the source of uncertainty is   analyzed. Then the capability of the calibration system is determined. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
18 Achieve the double lever of torque   standard machine with 5 kNm calibration capacity In order to improve   the performance of torque standard machine, a good design and manufacture of   double-lever balance is essential, it was both to ensure sufficient rigidity,   but also to ensure there is enough sensitivity. According to specifications,   the initial load torque standard machine and the maximum load limit of the   sensitivity of not more than one of ten thousands. To this aim, we apply the   finite element analysis, leverage the stress analysis and optimization,   obtain leverage in the stress state, the displacements in two concerning   directions. In this report, we will present the results of measurement. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161102
19 Calibration capability for the low   frequency accelerometer at NML According to   ISO16063-11, the sensitivity of the low
    frequency accelerometer was calculated by considering the
    displacement measured by the laser interferometer and the
    voltage values of the low-frequency using the sine
    approximation method. The procedure of the calibration
    system as follows: Wait until the low frequency exciter
    vibrate stably and then acquire the voltage signals of the low
    frequency accelerometer. Calculating the displacement by
    analyzing the signals of the laser interferometer by sine
    approximation method. With self-developed software, which
    was developed under the platform of LabVIEW, the
    sensitivity of different frequency were calculated. The
    calibration procedure of the low frequency accelerometer
    was complete as well as the uncertainty estimation. As result,
    the frequency of the calibration capability was expanded
    from 0.4 Hz ~ 100 Hz to 0.1 Hz ~ 160 Hz. The applications
    of the technique includes the seismograph, the floor
    vibration measurement of the precision factory, the safety
    monitoring of the bridge structure and so on.
海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161101
20 Introduction to Measurement Techniques   for Thermal Conductivity by the Thermal Needle Probe Method Advantages of the   thermal needle probe method for measuring thermal conductivity include   portability, easy operation, short measuring time, low pricing, and simple   preparation of the samples. Therefore, this test method is widely applied to   the fields of soil, mineral, building materials, plastics, rubber, foam   materials, etc. for thermal conductivity measurement. It is belong one of   transient heat methods.
    This report aims to introduce the measuring techniques, fundamentals, and   application objects between the transient hot wire method and the thermal   needle probe. Meanwhile, the differences of a single probe and a multi-probe,   application scope, related standards, etc. are investigated. Finally, the   measuring technology of thermal conductivity with a heat pipe probe is   presented to meet the requirements in the industry.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
21 long scale measuring system assessment Long scale   measurement system failure due to component aging, and the test was completed   after updating software and hardware. According to the reference ISO / IEC   Guide 98-3: 2008 Uncertainty analysis and evaluation were conducted. Complete   the assessment of long scale measuring system can perform calibration of tape   and invar bar code staff, the expanded uncertainty of tape is 27.0 μm   (coverage factor: 2.01, confidence : 95%), the expanded uncertainty of invar   bar code staff is 10.1 μm (coverage factor: 2.10, confidence : 95%) 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161101
22 Introduction of Precise Thermal Source   Equipment Based on the theory   of heat transfer, the temperature of the surface of the thermometer inside   the precision thermal source is gradually deduced from it. This paper   introduces the steps of the heat transfer simulation, the demonstration of   the performance, and the goal of refinement. The high temperature precision   thermal source equipment capable of customized manufacturing has been   promoted and sold to the domestic market. It owns the capabilities of   temperature range of 100 ℃ to 1200 ℃, the stability of ±0.1 ℃within 30   minutes, and radical temperature variation of ±0.5 ℃. For the medium   temperature precision thermal source equipment, the tentative temperature   range is (40 to 350) ℃ which will be extended to the upmost temperature of   660 ℃ in the near future, and the temperature variation within 30 minutes   inside the working area falls within ±0.02 ℃. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
23 Traffic Flow Monitoring Method Study   via the Light Pollution Variation in Taiwan Cities This study conducted   a total of 8 case studies of monitoring the luminance of LED billboards,   vertical and horizontal illuminance in Taipei and Taichung metropolitan area   and Hsinchu downtown area.
    The maximum luminance of LED billboards are between 709 cd/m2 and 4795   cd/m2, the maximum vertical illuminance at 8 measuring locations are between   17.6 lx and 110.4 lx, the maximum horizontal illuminance at 8 measuring   locations are between 5.1 lx and 171.3 lx.   
    The minimum luminance are in the range of 0.03 cd/m2 to 2.9 cd/m2, while   the minimum vertical illuminance at 8 measuring locations are in the range of   0.2 lx to 35.2 lx, the minimum horizontal illuminance at 8 measuring   locations are between 0.8 lx and 123.9 lx.
    The Michelson contrast modulation (Cm) of vertical illuminance at 8   measuring locations are between 31.9 % and    99.3 %, while the Cm of horizontal illuminance at 8 measuring   locations are between 8.0 % and 86.1 %.   
    The minimum luminance is the sum of other light sources project on the   turn-off LED billboard, said the background luminance, it is no impact on the   luminance measuring of LED billboard.
    From the Michelson contrast module of vertical illuminance at 8 locations,   indicated the vertical illuminance is strong influence by the environment   lighting condition.
    The minimum vertical illuminances are separated into two groups, one is   below 25 lx, and another one is above 25 lx. This result can be used as the   reference classification of night time lighting environment of urban area   (non-metropolitan area) and metropolitan area of Taiwan.
海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161101
24 Calibration Technique of Inductive   Voltage Dividers Using an AC Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard Programmable   Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS) system is the primary DC voltage standard   in Taiwan. This PJVS system can provide the quantized voltage with high   precision. Currently, the AC PJVS system has been established at National   Measurement Laboratory (NML). Therefore, the calibration capability of PJVS   system can extend to quantum AC voltage, and the AC PJVS system becomes the   primary AC voltage standard. The calibration capability of PJVS system can   also extend to the voltage measurement range of power standard by using the   AC PJVS system with the inductive voltage divider (IVD). This paper describes   the calibration technique of the divider ratio error and the phase error for   IVD using an AC PJVS system. The IVD voltage ratios calibrated by AC PJVS are   less than 2×10^-6 for amplitude and 2×10^-3 degree for phase at 62.5 Hz. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
25 Introduction of Quality in Metrology Metrology is a study   of measurement science, which main task is to establish and maintain   consistency, homogeneity and equivalence of standards.
      In order to implement high   professionalism and complexity of the laboratory operation system, domestic   laboratories are based on ISO / IEC 17025, and combine with the management   and technical requirements.   In order   to get attention from domestic metrological institutions as well as keeping   maintenance of metrological quality, some topics are displayed in this   special issue such as management of non-conformity, uncertainty of   measurement and measurement assurance programs.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
26 measurement assurance of metrology-the   method to update the control chart Creating a control   chart is the most frequently used method when we monitor the stability of   system in laboratory. The control limit of the control chart will influence   the validity of monitoring, so it is necessary to update the control chart   regularly. This paper is focused on finding the right timing to update the   control chart, and creating the decision criteria for it. At the meantime,   using a case to explain how to use the statistical test to make a decision,   and figuring out the mistake we usually make when creating the control chart.   It can help the laboratory technicians to monitor whether the system is in   control more efficiently. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
27 Introduction to Uncertainty Evaluation   of Repeatability In order to identify   and quantify random effects in a measurement properly, multiple sets of   measurement data need to be collected and analyzed for the reasonable   uncertainty evaluation due to repeatability. When between-group variability   is significant in comparison with the within-group variability, the   uncertainty of repeatability evaluated from the pooled experimental standard   deviation will be underestimated. This paper provides a brief introduction to   uncertainty evaluation of repeatability. The analysis of variance (ANOVA)   methods based on statistical techniques were used to analyze and evaluate the   uncertainty of the result of the measurement so that the random effects in a   measurement might be properly taken into account. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
28 Improving  DC resistance standard measurement system   at NML Resistance is the   most widely used electronic components, but also the common and important   electrical parameters. Almost associated with electronic or electrical   industry, such as: passive components, materials, electronic equipment,   motors, power, semiconductor foundry, OEM electronics and other industries   are using to resistance measurement, National Measurement Laboratory, NML.In   order to achieve a fully automated resistance standard measurement system and   reduce measurement uncertainty, resistance-standard measurement system are   improving in 2016. This article describes the contents of the system works,   improved methods, standards traceable calibration range and measurement   uncertainty assessment. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
29 A new impedance analysis system of   laminated glass based on ISO 16940 According to ISO   16940:2008, a new impedance analysis system of interlayer material for glass   was developed. Under the standard, the temperature or surroundings should be   controlled at 20℃ during testing. The test target, laminated glass, must be   placed still more than one hour and then fix to the exciter by proper   fixture. The arbitrary vibration signal of the exciter was generated through   am amplifier by a signal generator. The relationships of the force and the   velocity were calculated by collecting the signals of the test target by the   impedance head. As well as the resonance frequency, the loss factor was   calculated as result. This study describes the test method, test procedure,   data analysis and the effective factors of the analysis system. By means of   analyzing the loss factors, the classification of the interlayer material for   glass and the characteristics of the impedance were established. This new   impedance analysis system provides the capability of analyzing the   specification of the interlayer material for glass quickly. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20161101
30 100-GHz-spaced multi-wavelength light   sources technology for optical Communication One optical   micro-resonator for producing DWDM optical communication light sources has a   benefit of replacing multiple lasers. However, there is still a lack of the   real portable application. In this paper, homemade tapered fiber (with   transmission rate > 80%) and fused silica based micro-resonator with   quality factor Q value larger than 10^7 was employed to generate 0.8 nm   wavelength spacing (i.e. 100 GHz frequency spacing) optical comb. With   indirect adhesive and anti-vibration packaging, optical comb reliability and   the quality of optical communication was tested via moving it away up to 7 km   by taxi. The results showed that the comb is still sustainable and stable. As   the pump wavelength, power and polarization was adjusted to generate four   times the free spectral range (4 FSR) of the optical comb, the best optical   communication transmission quality with error vector magnitude (EVM) value of   3.8 % was performed. It is close to the general communication threshold of 3   %. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20161101
31 A compact and portable 100 GHz   microresonator-based optical frequency comb generation system for DWDM fiber   optic communication A compact and   portable microresonator-based optical frequency comb generation system was   developed to provide multi-wavelength laser sources for dense wavelength   division multiplexing (DWDM) fiber optic communication. The reported comb   generation system was capable to produce comb lines after 7 km of travel   without environmental control, indicating the effectiveness of the packaging.   The comb spacing is about 98.3 GHz (i.e. ~0.79 nm around 1553 nm) and thus   the comb line frequencies coincide nicely with 100 GHz DWDM channel   frequencies, assuming the suggested cannel bandwidth is 0.3 nm. Quality of   selected comb lines was evaluated individually based on error vector   magnitude (EVM) measurement along with decoded RF spectrum.  An average EVM value observed is as low as   3.8 %, close to typical EVM values of less than 3 % used for fiber optic   communication. Optical Engineering 20161031
32 Evaluation for Counting Efficiency of   Liquid-borne Particle Counter by Particle Concentration System Particle detection in   liquid reagents for various manufacturing processes is crucial especially for   the semiconductor industry, in order to keep the yield and qualities of the   end products. As the semiconductor devices get smaller, the critical   diameters of particle contaminants become smaller. Therefore, the   liquid-borne counters (LPC) should be correctly calibrated to provide   reliable measurement values with suitable traceability. This paper presents   the evaluation for counting efficiency of liquid-borne particle counters   (LPC) by particle concentration system. The standard measurement system for   counting efficiency calibration of liquid-borne particle counters (LPC) has   been developed in Center for Measurement Standards of Industrial Technology   Research Institute. In this study, the system included several components   such as sampling module, liquid-borne particle counter (LPC), flow   controllers, and dilutors. In our system, the uncertainty analysis of   measurement results was based on SEMI C77-0912 and ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008.   Therefore, the evaluation for counting efficiency of LPC mainly combined   several parts: the variation of sampling module, the variation of diluter   proportionality test, the effect of impurity particles, and the repeatability   of measurement. Finally, this system offered following calibrated range,   which the size of liquid-borne particle was 30 nm to 300 nm and the expanded   uncertainty was under 15 %. The International   Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20161029
33 The sub-micrometer resolution optical   particle counter design Optical particle   counter is widely used in medicine, electronics manufacturing, precision   machinery, CRT manufacturing, air pollution monitoring, microbiological and   biomedical industries in the manufacturing process, to achieve a variety of   clean level bench, clean room, thus ensuring product quality. This report   will show under the basic optical principles designed to send the first high   power diode as a light source of a particle counter (Optical Particle   Counting). The simulation was also used to get some optimum conditions in the   compact of the lens, input beam form, Beam-dump used and the maximum of   receiver detector. The International   Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20161028
34 The technology development of   practical and frequency stabilized microresonator-based optical frequency   comb generation Microresonator-based   optical frequency comb generation system was developed to provide   multi-wavelength laser sources for dense wavelength division multiplexing   (DWDM) fiber optic communication. However, there is not yet a portable and   practical application. In this paper, optical frequency comb which   corresponded to the DWDM channel spacing of about 100 GHz was successfully   generated based on the home-made taper fiber with transmission rate of more   than 80% and high quality factor (Q value>10^7 ) fused quartz   micro-resonator. After we adopted the indirect mounting packaging method and   shockproof design, the reported comb generation system was capable to produce   comb lines after 7 km of travel by a taxi, indicating the effectiveness of   the packaging. This technique could apply in optical communication light   souses and spectrometers in optical communication frequency range for rapid   automatic optical inspection in the future. AOI Forum & Show 20161020
35 Self-developed Evaluation System on   Spindle Error Motion Analysis Spindles are very   important in machinery. According to ISO 230-7:2015, spindle error motion   analysis can be achieved. However, it is hard to tell that the spindle error   motion analysis system is reliable or not. We proposed a self-developed error   motion evaluation system. By means of calculating the uncertainty of   measurement, the reliability of the system was proved. The uncertainty of   axial and the radial error motion are 1.3 μm and 1.4 μm. The system can be   used widely in tooling machine and spindle related manufacturing. The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20161003
36 Test System Establishment of Phasor   Measurement Unit for Smart Gird in Taiwan Based on the accuracy   GPS synchronized time, PMUs can achieve the real-time wide area measurement.   PMUs are a new type of power quality monitoring systems, and they could   real-time and completely understand the condition of whole power system when   a large amount of renewable energies is interconnected into the smart grid in   the future. Thus, the safety and reliability of smart gird could be improved.   These PMUs installed in the smart grid may be sourced from different   manufacturers, and their product quality varies greatly. Moreover, as general   measurement instruments, PMUs also need to be periodically calibrated and   tested after they normally operate in the wide area measurement system   (WAMS). Therefore, PMUs are required to conform to the international standard   before they are sold out and used in WAMS, and when they are periodically   maintained. In consideration of PMU test and calibration requirements, this   research set up a PMU test system in the national measurement laboratory.   This test system can carry out a series of compliance tests according to IEEE   Std C37.118.1. The test results could be used to know the measurement   performance of PMUs, to ensure the safety and reliability of smart grid. 先進工程學刊 20161001
37 Final report on the key comparison of   hydrocarbon liquid flow: CCM.FF-K2.2015 Seven laboratories:   BEV (Austria), CENAM (Mexico), CMS (Chinese-Taipei), LNE-TRAPIL (France), NEL   (United Kingdom), NMIA (Australia), and the pilot lab NMIJ (Japan),   participated in the key comparison CCM.FF-K2.2015 for hydrocarbon flow   measurement. A screw type positive displacement flow meter was selected as a   transfer standard. The calibration stability of the transfer standard was   evaluated from repeated measurements by NMIJ and showed standard   reproducibility of 0.0035 %. The transfer standard was also thoroughly tested   for sensitivity to temperature, viscosity, pressure, and other effects. The   uncertainty due to the transfer standard of 0.0080 % was less than the quoted   uncertainties of the participants. The key comparison reference values (KCRVs)   at Reynolds number of 70 000 and 300 000 were obtained as the weighted mean   from the calibration results, and the KCRV at Reynolds number of 100 000 was   obtained as the median by using the Monte Carlo method according to Cox's   procedure B, since the consistency check at Reynolds number of 100 000 failed   at the 95 % confidence level. All participant results selected to determine   the KCRVs have En values which show consistency with the evaluated KCRVs. Metrologia 20161001
38 FPGA based Absolute Distance   Measurement by Dual Free-Running Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers High precision   ranging is getting more and more crucial for large scale manufacturing. We   have demonstrated a field-programmable gate array based real time absolute   distance measurement by utilizing dual free-running mode-locked fiber lasers   with repetition rate of about 100 MHz. The type zero second harmonic   generation with nonlinear cross correlation is employed for avoiding the   measurement alias during the repetition rate difference varies. By the time   shrinking technique, the real time measurement uncertainty of less than 3   um/m is demonstrated by acquiring only 1 M data points in less than 0.5   seconds. It is suitable for the large scale absolute distance monitoring in   high precision manufacturing with further optical system miniaturization.   High precision measurement capability of 0.3 um/m by acquiring 100 M data   points is obtained by the traditional computer based data acquisition system. The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20161001
39 Concept for an Optical CMM Probing   System Development Based on Sphere Reflective Michelson Interferometr Coordinate Measuring   Machines (CMMs) are widely used in precision production for quality   inspection, dimensional measurement and workpiece form measurement. For a CMM   the main structures are including three linear moving stages, a workpiece   carriage and a probing system. Performance of the probing system directly   affects measurement results even though the positioning accuracy and the   repeatability of the linear axes are very well. In this study we propose an   optical measurement probing system which is based on the concept of sphere   reflective Michelson interferometry. The probing system consists of a 1"   diameter and 0.1 μm roundness steel sphere instead of a reflective mirror of   Michelson interferometry. The experiment results show that the distance of   the sphere center offset was enhanced by more than 170.5% using the proposed   method. The residual error is in the range of ±7.5 μm. The experiment results   show the proposed method can be used to design a CMM probe system if the   measurement resolution is improved. The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20161001
40 Influence on ISO 230-2/-6 Test Results   for Squareness of Machine Tools Using a LaserTRACER The International   Organization for Standardization (ISO) 230-2 and ISO 230-6
    are usually adopted to test the positioning accuracy and repeatability of   the linear axes
    of machine tools. LaserTRACER (LT) is one of the auto-tracking laser   interferometers
    by which we can obtain the geometric errors including translation,   rotation, and
    squareness errors, in the x-, y-, and z-axes according to ISO 230-2 and in   the xy, xz,
    yz, and xyz diagonal lines following ISO 230-6. One of the steps of the ISO   230-2
    and -6 test using the LT is determining the located LT position with   respect to the
    machine tool coordinate system. The squareness error of the machine tool   causes the
    determination of a wrong LT position, which might influence the test   result. However,
    the simulated results show that the measurement length deviation of LT   could be
    ignored at a small degree of squareness and a long enough measurement   length for
    performing ISO 230-2/-6 test on a high accuracy machine tool. Future work   can
    compare the differences between using the interferometer and LT on ISO   230-2/-6
The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20161001
41 Using Spectral Reflectometry to   measure the depth of high aspect ratio Through Silicon Via 3DIC (Three   dimensional integrated circuit) technology is used to solve the RC delays in   the past by following Moore's Law. Using three-dimensional stack package,   electrical conductive transport through vertical directive shorter path, it   shortens the length of the wire to reduce the RC delay and other issues. It   also can reduce the noise and energy transmission loss. Metal wires through   holes of silicon wafer directly to contact with the adjacent layer and make   them conduct. The geometric characteristics of silicon via etch process   affect the process yield, such as the depth of and the critical dimension of   Through Silicon Via. In this article, we applied the spectral Reflectometer   and developed a corresponding optical system for TSV measurement. In our   analysis, this method can achieve the high aspect ratio which was 10: 1 depth   and width of TSV. Critical dimension width measurement in the range of 5 μm   to 50 μm in diameter The International   Conference on Computing and Precision Engineering 20161001
42 Towards the Improvement of a Blow-Down   Type High Pressure Air Flow Calibration Rig A blow-down type high   pressure air flow calibration rig has been established at Center for   Measurement Standards (CMS) in Taiwan since 1996. The facility consists of a   primary standard which adopts the gravimetric method and a secondary standard   which utilizes master meter method using sonic nozzles, having a capacity of   flow from 15 m3/h to 12000 m3/h under standard condition and pressure from 1   bar to 60 bar. During flowmeter calibration, the air pressure in the upstream   storage tank drops continuously due to the blow-down design, leading to the   corresponding temperature drop. Measures have been taken to improve the   facility’s performance and reduce the thermal effect during flowmeter   calibration. The original sonic nozzle bank was replaced by a new sonic   nozzle array consisting of seven nozzles which can be operated independently.   The throat diameters of the new nozzles range from 2.312 mm to 11.56 mm,   having nominal flow rates of 3 m3/h to 75 m3/h, and the three largest nozzles   have to be operated simultaneously to achieve the maximum flow rate. Two   additional sonic nozzles were installed downstream of the nozzle array as the   check meters.
    Calibration of the new nozzles by the primary, gyroscope weighing system   shows that the nozzles operate across laminar to turbulent regimes, and the   transition takes place at the Reynolds number around 106.  Positive dependence of transition point on   the nozzle diameter was also observed. Consistency among the standard   nozzles, applicability of combining the nozzles in parallel, long-term   stability and calibration capability were confirmed by flow measurement tests   as well intra comparison with a bell prover. An unofficial bilateral comparison   with PTB through a 6” turbine meter was conducted to verify the capability of   the modified calibration rig. The En values across the tested flow range were   all less than unity, suggesting that the measurement results are equivalent   and CMS’s uncertainty claim of 0.19 % is adequate. Further improvement of the   facility by installing two additional heat exchangers to recover the heat   loss during calibration process is underway.
Internation   Conference of Floe Measurement(Flomeko) 20160929
43 Pitot Tubes Calibration and System   Integration of Automated 3D Traverse Stage with the Wind Tunnel Smokestack emissions   are one of the main pollution sources and already become a global challenge.   Owing to the unstable flow conditions, complex gas compositions and selection   of suitable instrumentation, stack flow measurements have drawn much   attention. 3D pitot tubes can be used for three-dimensional swirl flow   measurements in the smokestack and could provide more detailed flow   information. To provide 3D pitot tube calibration service, automated traverse   stage design integrated with wind tunnel system is necessary in order to   decrease the operation time and labours. Accordingly, CMS started to design   an automated 3D traverse system and integrated with the wind tunnel for 3D   pitot tubes calibration. The design has been proved to be feasible to operate   in the wind tunnel and is able to change the pitch and yaw angle from -40   degrees to 40 degrees and -180 degrees to 180 degrees, respectively. Internation   Conference of Floe Measurement(Flomeko) 20160926
44 Studies of the effects of atomizing   air pressure on generated aerosol size and stability of two-fluidic atomizer In the semiconductor   industries, the surface roughness of a wafer plays an important role in its   potential and efficiency of the following semiconductor device fabrication   (SDF). To reduce the surface roughness of a wafer, chemical mechanical   polishing (CMP) was widely used in the wafer fabrication. Furthermore, the   efficiency of the CMP is dependent on the quality, the size and   concentration, of the used nanoparticles-contained slurry. In other words,   the monitoring of the slurry, include the size and concentration, is   essential to raise the efficiency of the SDF.
          In this work, we designed an   atomizer which could be cascaded with differential mobility analyzer (DMA)   and condensation particle counter (CPC) to characterize the size distribution   of nanoparticles. First, the effect of the atomization from the atomizing air   pressure was systematic studied. A solution with weight percent of 1×10-5 of   sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolved in ultra-pure water was used to test the   atomizer performance under different driving air pressures, including Pair =   35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 psi. Conclusively, the size of the generated aerosol   particles is around 20 to 40 nm and negatively related to the air pressure. Also,   the concentration of the particles is dependent on the pressure. Consider the   aerosol size together with the concentration, the optimal performance of the   system occurs under the atomizing air pressure 45 psi.  
         The stability with time of the   system was further studied. From the result, the aerosol concentration   increased with time at the beginning, and then, a saturation occurred. We   attributed it to the increasing humidity inside the used Nafion dryer. At the   beginning, the water transport and electro-osmosis in the hydrophilic site of   the Nafion was not stable with the low humidity. It further results in the   remove of the water and the generation of aerosol particles. With the   increasing humidity inside the Nafion, the water transport and   electro-osmosis were becoming stable, and thus, it stabilized the remove of   the water and the generation of aerosol particles.
Conference on Fine   Particulate Matter (PM2.5) & Healthcare 20160923
45 Modelling nanoparticle nucleation in a   TSI CPC model 3775 In this work, we   modelled activation and growth of PSL nanoparticles in the TSI model 3775   condensation particle counter (CPC). Our objective was to investigate   theoretically how various effects in?uence the counting ef?ciency of this   CPC. Coupled ?uid and particle dynamic processes were modelled with the   computational ?uid dynamics (CFD) code COMSOL to obtain pro?les of   temperature, vapour concentration, nucleation rate, and particle size. We   characterized the CPCs with temperature differences between the saturator and   the condenser from factory settings of 24 degC to 40 degC. This settings   yielded no homogeneously nucleated background in dry conditions. With these   settings, the detection ef?ciency was signi?cantly improved from the factory   settings, resulting in the detection of the smallest charged particles   down
    to below 5 nm compared with the nominal cut-sizes of 10 nm.
國際氣膠科技研討會 20160923
46 Introduction to a Measurement   Technique for Thermal Conductivity by the Laser Flash Method The laser flash   method is a non-steady-state method and is now the most widely used method   for determining thermal diffusivity of thermoelectric materials. This method   includes several mathematical fitting models and laser pulse correction for   determining “half time” of a temperature-rising curve. In this paper, we   demonstrate that when thermal diffusivity of a material is very low,   one-dimensional or two dimensional heat losses need to be considered.   Pyroceram 9606, Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 single crystal ingots   are prepared for laser flash measurement. Parker’s adiabatic model, Cowan’s   one-dimensional (1D) heat loss model and Cape-Lehman’s two-dimensional (2D)   are used to evaluate thermal diffusivity. The effect from laser pulse correction   is also discussed. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160901
47 The study of LED road lighting   application and experiment field The paper is about   the evaluation of LED road lighting for freeway and express way on the LED   road lighting application and experiment field. The image luminance   measurement device and multiple channel spectral irradiance measurement   device have been applied to measuring the optical and electrical performance   of road lighting by treated with variety height and space of the pole of road   lighting. The optical and electrical performance are include the luminance   distribution, illuminance distribution, uniformity, colour coordinate,   correlative colour temperature. The research result on the LED road lighting   application and experiment field has been applied to the express way   (freeway) road lighting national standard which has been applied to a   reference to widely establishing the LED road lighting on the express way and   freeway and been the quality verification of high efficacy LED road lighting.   The result have been applied to accelerating the establishment schedule of   the LED road lighting on the express way and freeway in Taiwan and have been   conductive to conserve energy to reduce carbon emission and improve the   international competitiveness. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160901
48 The study of the geometry error   effects on the electrical characteristics of FinFETs To aligh the   performance of designed circuits and the characteristics of the manufactured   semiconductor devices, it should rely on the studies of device   characteristics, process variation, and accurate measurement methods to   improve the reliability and variation of IC products. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160901
49 SPIE Optical Engineering 2016 -   Reduction of Batwing Effect in White Light Interferometry for Measurement of   Patterned Sapphire Substrates (PSS) Wafer Patterned sapphire   substrates (PSS) wafers are used in LED manufacturing to enhance the luminous   conversion of LED chips.  The most   critical characteristics in PSS wafers are height, width, pitch and shape of   the pattern. The common way to measure these characteristics is by using   surface electron microscope (SEM). White light interferometry is capable to   measure dimension with nanometer accuracy and it is suitable for measuring   the characteristics of PSS wafers. One of the difficulties in measuring PSS   wafers is the aspect ratio and density of the features. The high aspect ratio   combined with dense pattern spacing diffracts incoming lights and reduces the   accuracy of the white light interferometry measurement. In this paper, a   method to improve the capability of white light interferometry for measuring   PSS wafers by choosing the appropriate wavelength and microscope objective   with high numerical aperture. The technique is proven to be effective for   reducing the batwing effect in edges of the feature and improves measurement   accuracy for PSS wafers with circular features of 1.95 um in height and   diameters, and 700 nm spacing between the features. Repeatability of the   measurement is up to 5 nm for height measurement and 20 nm for pitch   measurement. SPIE Optical   Engineering 20160830
50 The design of microscope type spectral   reflectometry for the depth measurement of high-aspect-ratio through silicon   via Through Silicon Via   (TSV) interconnect technology have been used to serve a wide range of Three   Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D-IC) production for higher integration and   higher frequency purposes. Therefore, the inspection of depth and Critical   Dimension (CD) of TSV becomes a key issue for yield rate evaluation. In this   research, we demonstrate an optical system design of microscope type spectral   reflectometry which is based on finite microscope system. The advantage of   finite microscope system is less optical components, which leads to less UV   and NIR attenuation for the purpose of thin film (~50 nm) and thick film (~50   μm) measurement. The illumination light incident on the sample are designed   as parallel as possible for increasing the reflective light rays from bottom   of TSV. The spot size of measurement area is 30 μm in diameter. Meanwhile,   the corresponding algorithm including thin film interference model fitting   and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for high aspect ratio TSV analysis are   presented. The thickness of oxide film and the depth of TSV can be calculated   simultaneously. Our non-destructive solution can measure TSV opening diameter   as small as 5 μm and aspect ratio greater than 15:1. The measurement   precision is in the range of 0.03 μm. We also evaluate the total measurement   uncertainty which is around 0.22 μm. Metrology results from actual TSV wafers   are presented. The SEM results were made as comparison. SPIE Optical   Engineering 20160829
51 Study on ISO 17123 Applied for   Calibrating Geodetic and Surveying Instruments Surveying instruments   for basic control survey and applied survey according to National Land   Surveying and Mapping Act, shall be done in periodic calibration. The work   for calibration should be completed by Laboratories accredited by Taiwan   Accreditation Foundation (TAF). However, periodic intermediate checks between   calibrations on surveying instruments are needed to maintain confidence in   the calibration status. The article firstly introduces the calibration   methods and metrological traceability for theodolites, electro-optical   distance meters (EDM instruments), total stations and GNSS receivers in   National Measurement Laboratory (NML). In the meantime, the periodic   intermediate checks based on International Standard ISO 17123 are carried out   to ensure the quality of surveying results. 測量及空間資訊研討會暨國土測繪成果發表會 20160825
52 Size measurement of TiO2 nanoparticles   in cosmetic products -A practical methodology Sample preparation   and size measurement procedures had been developed to fulfil the need to   measure the particle size of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in its   powder form and in the sunscreen product. Agglomerates/aggregates of   nanoparticles were dispersed in liquid media via physical and chemical   approaches followed by deposition on the copper grid for size measurement by   transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To reduce the time and human error,   automated particle size analysis was chosen to extract the values from   individual particles. This methodology could be validated through   inter-laboratory comparison. 奈米工程暨微系統技術研討會 20160825
53 Piezoresistive cantilever for   measuring mass of airborne particles This paper introduces   a piezoresistive cantilever that is designed for measuring the mass of   airborne particles. The principle of mass measurement is based
    on measuring the frequency shift in the mechanical resonant frequency due   to an additional mass deposited on the cantilever. To detect the resonant   frequency, piezoresistors are fabricated on the surface of the cantilever and   utilized as a strain gauge. Excitation of the cantilever is provided by an   external PZT stack. Preliminary results on sensor characterization and   discussion are also given in the paper.
IEEE NANO 2008 20160824
54 Enhancing the capability of primary   calibration system for shock acceleration in NML As the guardian of   the national measurement standards, the Vibration laboratory of National   Measurement Laboratory (NML) in Taiwan in compliance with the standard ISO   16063-13 had established primary shock calibration system in 2009, which was   based on the rigid body collision method, with peak acceleration ranging from   200 m/s2 to 5 000 m/s2 and shock pulse duration less than 2.5 milliseconds.   Hereafter, upgraded the capacity for measuring shock acceleration by   increasing the maximum acceleration from 5 000 m/s2 to 10 000 m/s2 in   2011.NMLwith the system had participated regional pilot comparison of the   APMP Pilot Comparison (APMP.AUV.V-P1) in 2014. During the comparison, a weak   point of capability was shown that the shock pulse was shorter than other NMIs.   This research is to discuss the improvement of increasing the duration time   of shock calibration system. It is proposed to upgrade the electromagnetic   shock source and reform the relative position of airborne hammer and anvil.   Controlling different input DC voltage value and refining different hardness   rubber will produce different acceleration and duration time. After enhancing   the capability of system, the maximum shock pulse duration time is increasing   from 2.5 milliseconds to 4 milliseconds. Finally, the system performance data   is provided together with evaluation of measurement uncertainty. InterNoise 20160822
55 A CFD Study on the Cross-Sectional   Shape Effect of Wind Tunnel Contractions In this work, three   common cross-sectional shapes, as circle, square, and octagon are used to   investigate the fluid profiles developed inside two different wind tunnel   contractions which are proposed by Bell and Mehta and Fang et al.,   respectively. The contraction of Bell and Mehta has better aerodynamic   performance, in terms of velocity uniformity and pressure drop, than that of   Fang et al. in all three cases with different cross-sectional shapes. A   corner flow existed in the contraction with square or octagon cross-sectional   shape is shown as a local situation and does not result in a clear influence   on the major flow topology. The statistical results, from ANOVA, show that   the cross-sectional shape does not have a significant impact on the velocity profile   in the major investigated line, as the vertical line, of contraction exit for   the two different studied contractions. The cross-sectional shape of a wind   tunnel contraction is not as critical as the contraction wall shape for a   wind tunnel design could be drawn by this work.
    Keywords: Wind Tunnel Contraction, Cross-Sectional Shape, Computational   Fluid Dynamics
全國計算流體力學研討會 20160820
56 Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field   in a Centrifugal Blood Pump for ECMO ECMO (ExtraCorporeal   Membrane Oxygenation) is an extracorporeal technique of providing both   cardiac and respiratory support to persons whose heart and lungs are unable   to provide an adequate amount of gas exchange to sustain life. In Taiwan, it   has been widely used in treatments for intensive care medicine and many   hospitals have employed ECMO for clinical therapy for many years and have   achieved great results. However, the ECMO machines which are currently used   are imported from abroad, resulting in restrictions on choices and prices for   the corresponding consumables and spare parts. Thus, it is obliged to develop   a domestic ECMO machine. The key technologies for ECMO include oxygenator and   blood pump. Up to now there’re still some un-solved problems remain which   might cause thrombus formation and hemolysis. This study employs   computational fluid dynamics analysis, ANSYS Fluent, to simulate the flow   field in a centrifugal blood pump for ECMO. The flow patterns for potential   regions of stagnation, and fluid stress along trajectories are investigated. 全國計算流體力學學術研討會 20160819
57 Airspeed Calibration and Structural   Design of Wind Tunnel Air speed is an   essential inspecting parameter in many industrial fields, such as the   monitoring of atmospheric environment, inspection of air quality for   industrial ventilating environment, verification of residential performance,   and measurement of air velocity in drug and semiconductor manufacturing clean   rooms, etc. Anemometers like hot-wire and wind turbine types are widely used   for measuring air speed velocity in these fields. While traceability of   calibration standards, structure design and flow field characteristics of   wind tunnel are all crucial factors for ensuring the accuracy of air speed   measurements, the system and methods for air speed calibration must be   strictly demanded. In this paper, the new wind tunnel with a closed loop was   analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. The wind speed range: 0.2 m / s   to 60 m / s, the main parts including the contraction section, the test   section and the diffuser section section.As anemometer calibration, the   standard for airspeed measurement is optic LDA, which is calibrated with   known velocities produced by a rotating disk. 全國計算流體力學學術研討會 20160818
58 Summary of Electronic Balance   Calibration Proficiency Testing in Taiwan Proficiency testing   is an established way to demonstrate a laboratory’s measurement capabilities.   Accredited laboratories are usually requested to participate in proficiency   testing conducted by the laboratory accreditation organizations in their   countries.  The Center for Measurement   Standards / Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) has long been   committed to measurement technologies and statistical engineering in Taiwan   and is one of the Proficiency Testing Providers (PTPs), with an accreditation   number of P002, accredited by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF). This   paper summarizes the result of a 2014 Electronic Balance calibration   proficiency testing scheme, number PT2014-KC05, held from November 10, 2014   till December 12, 2014 in Taiwan. Fifteen laboratories participated in this   proficiency testing, identified by A, B, C, D... to read the result in the   summary report. Because there was no central laboratory, the pilot used   robust statistics to calculate the assigned value and expanded uncertainty of   all participating laboratories’ results. Through statistical analysis, the   |En| values of each participating laboratory is smaller than one. This   implies that all the participants’ results are satisfactory with respect to   each other and that the measurement capabilities of laboratories performing   electronic balance calibrations are very consistent in Taiwan. National Conference   of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI) 20160727
59 Uncertainty Evaluation of Profile   Projector Calibration This paper detailed   describes the uncertainty evaluation procedure of profile projector   calibration in accordance with the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008.  The effects of error sources on this   calibration system are analyzed to estimate the corresponding standard   uncertainties and sensitivity coefficients.    The combined standard uncertainty and effective degrees of freedom are   then calculated.  The coverage factor   can be found by taking the t-factor corresponding to the effective degrees of   freedom.  Finally, the expanded   uncertainty can be obtained by multiplying the coverage factor and the   combined standard uncertainty.  The   calibration methods of the profile projector are also briefly described.  For the calibration of a profile projector   at a magnification factor of 10, the expanded uncertainty of magnification   factor deviation is estimated to be 0.0065 % with a coverage factor of 2.00   corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.  For the positioning deviation calibration   at a measurement range of (0 to 100) mm, the expanded uncertainty is   estimated to be 0.005 mm with a coverage factor of 2.05 corresponding to a   level of confidence of approximately 95 %. National Conference   of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI) 20160726
60 Differential Sampling Measurements of   Low-Frequency Sinusoidal Waveforms Using AC-Programmable Josephson Voltage   Standard We have carried out   the differential sampling measurements of low-frequency sinusoidal waveforms   synthesis based on an AC-programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS)   system and a modified digital voltmeter. We also have performed a variety of   measurements to evaluate this differential sampling technique. Evaluation   results show that the overall uncertainty of this AC-PJVS system is (0.2 to   8) μV/V (k=1) for the rms amplitudes of (0.1 to 7) V with the frequency range   of (1 to 500) Hz. Our measurement results above 20 Hz are in good agreement   with the results obtained by the conventional method of the ac–dc transfer   differences within their measured uncertainties (k=2). CPEM 20160713
61 Calibration of Inductive Voltage   Dividers at Power Frequencies Using an AC-PJVS This paper describes   a method for the calibration of inductive voltage dividers (IVDs) at power   frequencies using an AC-program Josephson voltage standard (AC-PJVS). The IVD   is used in the primary ac power standards based on a sampling measuring   system. Because the AC-PJVS is operated automatically by a computer program,   the measurement procedure is more straightforward than that of conventional   step-up methods. Conference on   Precision Eletromagnetic Measurements 20160713
62 Effects of Atomizing Air Pressure and   Orifice Size on Droplet Size of the Designed Twin-Fluid Atomizer In this work, we   designed an atomizer which could be cascaded with differential mobility   analyzer and condensation particle counter to characterize the size   distribution of nanoparticles. The effect of the atomization from the size of   the orifice and atomizing air pressure were systematic studied. The results   show that the size of the generated droplets is around 20 to 40 nm and   negatively related to the air pressure and the diameter of the orifice.   Polystyrene beads with 100 nm in diameter were further used to demonstrate   the ability in sizing and counting the colloidal nanoparticles. 中華民國系統科學與工程研討會 20160708
63 A research in magnify effect in bridge   structure and analyze the natural frequency and damping by using seism’s   monitor data. Many of the world's   countries and regions due to plate motion at any time under threat from   earthquake strikes. Governments based upon a careful response, Taiwan is   located in between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate, building   earthquake-resistant capacities is more important issue and inescapable. This   research object is about 63% of high frame structure in Taiwan high speed   rail. In near location and respectively is located in high frame structure of   earth’s surface, and the top of bridge and the floor of bridge different   points installation seismograph and records monitoring signals. After four   years of monitoring records to analyze, for fixed scheduled train vibration   measuring data and the earthquake vibration data, available to validation   structure’s earthquake magnification effect, and natural frequency and   damping of bridge structure. The results displayed the magnification of the   floor of bridge is greater than the top of bridge, and maximum magnification   of bridge is in vertical direction and up to 12 times. The results can be   used for reinforcement of structural engineers for the future safety of   elevated structure references. By the half-power method and   logarithmic-decrement method to calculate the damping ratio of the bridge,   though not very accurate single values, but the distribution of the damping   ratio is stable between 0.02 and 0.06. This result can be considered as   elevated structures maintaining stability of the credential. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160701
64 Investigation and Study on the   On-shore Wind Turbine Noise Measurement This paper shows the   noise survey results of the wind turbine generator in compliance with the IEC   61400-11 standards and the NIEA P201.95C, which is the environmental noise   measurement procedure set and required by Environmenatl Protection Agency,   Taiwan. The noise propagation characteristics and levels for the different   measuring distances from wind turbine under various wind speed conditions are   illustrated. The wind turbine generator noise levels are almost maintained   constant despite the wind speed is continuously raising when the wind turbine   has reached its maximum rated power. While the noise levels are shown with a   strongly linear correlation to the wind speeds at the rated power of 20% to   80%. Moreover, under the strong wind condition, the wind turbine noise (event   noise) will merge in the wind noise (background noise). 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160701
65 Method for measuring the diameter of   polystyrene latex reference spheres by atomic force microscopy This report presents   a correlated height and width measurement model for particle size analysis of   spherical particles by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is complementary to   more familiar methods based on a single value of the particle height or on a   line average obtained from a close-packed particle array. Significant   influence quantities affecting the determination of average particle size and   its uncertainty are considered for the important case of polystyrene latex   (PSL) reference materials. Particle-substrate deformation, resulting from   adhesive contact between particle and substrate during sample preparation, is   estimated as a function of particle size. Post-processing of AFM datasets is   explored as a means of eliminating bias due to non-steady state measurement   conditions. These biases arise from variable particle-tip interaction caused   by drift of instrumental parameters from their optimal settings during long   acquisition times and inevitable wear of the AFM probe. Changes of the   initial probe shape are established using a Si/SiO2 multilayer tip   characterizer and are updated periodically during the analysis of sequential   data sets for combinations of several particles sizes and different probes.   Finally, the capability of this procedure to serve as a statistical   error-correction scheme in AFM particle-size metrology is assessed. NIST Special   Publications 20160701
66 The Principle and Uncertainty Analysis   of Force Balanced Piston Gauge The large diameter   piston gauge is widely used in very low differential pressure measurement   field in recent years. Owing to very good stability by using 35 mm diameter   non rotational piston with air lubrication, the force balanced piston gauge   had become national standard in very low differential pressure. The pressure   measurement range is from 1 Pa to 15 kPa, and system uncertainty is 5 mPa ±   3.1´E-5 P(P is in Pa) in 95 % confidence level. Ther are gauge mode and   absolute mode in differential pressure measurement. We will discuss the   measurement principle and cross float calibration as well as the uncertainty   analysis in the gauge mode. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160701
67 Two-dimensional and three-dimensional   measurement layer by layer scanning technology The paper is to show   the apparatus and method of the 2D and 3D measurement in additive   manufacturing. Controlling and monitoring the selective laser melting (SLM)   process to more accurately detect errors and maintain quality control. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160701
68 Air temperature measurements and   analysis of long-term changes in Taiwa To promote the   standardization of meteorological and related observations, maintaining the   traceability of meteorological instrument as well as providing the related   calibration are the main missions for the Meteorological Instruments Center   (MIC)/Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan. The quality system and   measurement capability of MIC have been accredited by the Taiwan   Accreditation Foundation (TAF) based on the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 requirements.   Therefore, in this study, the long-term stability on MIC’s primary   temperature and humidity standards as well as the uncertainties analysis were   investigated via the historical calibration results traceable to NMIs   (National Metrology Institutes) to ensure the robustness of the instrument   performance requested by WMO Guideline. The impact evaluation on the   deviation of meteorological standard, caused by the quality limit of   instrument itself, was assessed herein. A conformity assessment regarding the   probability of inherent risk was adopted to link to such deviation, and was   discussed here. Apply the traceable temperature standard to the instruments   used for climate observations at weather stations in Taiwan, grounded-based   air temperature measurements from six stations located at Taipei, Taichung,   Tainan, Hengchun, Taitung, and Hualien were recorded and analyzed over ten   years. They were compared to the results recorded for nearly a century and   were statistically assessed the possible change-points to detect a potential   warming signal in Taiwan’s climate. TEMPMEKO 20160629
69 A PORTABLE TYPE OF SETTING-POINT   BLACKBODY CALIBRATOR FOR CLINICAL EAR THERMOMETER The measurement of   temperature is a key aspect in the diagnosis of disease and is important in   the monitoring of patient health. In order to meet the needed for the   comparison of temperature, Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial   Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) designed and developed a portable   type of setting-point blackbody calibrator (SPBC). It is a reference standard   for clinical ear thermometers. The SPBC is intended for use in calibration   laboratories, hospitals, and health institutes. It also fulfils the   requirements of other world standards such as ASTM、EN and CNS for clinical   non-contact thermometers. The SPBC contains a high quality cavity of   extra-long blackbody and can be adjusted with three setting point   temperatures (35.5 ℃, 37.0 ℃, and 41.5 ℃). The length and the internal   diameter of the cavity are 120 mm and 20 mm respectively. The cavity is   attached with a 120 degree angled cone.
    The SPBC showed that, at the operating ambient temperature within (22 ± 1) ℃,   the short-term temperature stabilities of 35.5 ℃, 37.0 ℃, and 41.5 ℃ for 3   hours were smaller than 0.002 ℃, 0.002 ℃, and 0.001℃, respectively.   Meanwhile, the long-term temperature deviation of the SPBC which was set 38 ℃   for 270 days was 0.017 ℃. At the operating ambient temperature within (20 ±   3) ℃, the uncertainties of 35.5 ℃ and 41.5 ℃ for the SPBC, were estimated to   be 0.05 ℃ and 0.06 ℃ (coverage factor k=2) respectively.
TEMPMEKO 20160627
70 High Precision Optical Sensors for   Real-Time On-line Measurement of Straightness and Angular Errors for Smart   Manufacturing A setup of two   reflective-type optical sensors for the on-line real-time measurement of   straightness and angular errors of a linear stage is presented. The   arrangement is similar to that of a linear encoder and can make on-line   measurements of stage errors for the analysis of automatic processes as well   as real time monitoring. The reflector used as the sensor reference plane was   a rectangular piece of commercial silicon wafer. The wafer fixed to the side   of the slide was very flat and had good reflective properties. A silicon   wafer is much cheaper than a long optically flat mirror of similar precision.   The standard deviation of the straightness sensor and the angular error were   verified as 0.06 μm and 0.08 arcsec. The accuracy of the two sensors was verified   as ±0.25 μm and ±1 arcsec. The two sensors were integrated with a single axis   PZT-based stage for real time straightness compensation experiments and the   results showed straightness compensation from 3.5 μm down to 0.4 μm. Smart Science 20160627
71 Investigation on the Wind Turbine   Noise Measurement Results This paper shows the   wind turbine generator noise survey results from the IEC 61400-11 standards   and the NIEA P201.95C which is the environmental noise measurement  procedure hosted by Environmental Potection   Agency, Taiwan. The noise propagation characteristics and levels for the   different measuring distances from wind turbine under various wind speed   conditions are illustrated. The wind turbine generator noise levels are   almost constant value, despite the continuously raise of the wind speed'   under the wind turbine satuated at maximun rated power. within the rated   power 20 % to 80 %, the noise levels shown the strongly linear correlation to   the wind speeds. Moreover, for strong wind ondition, the wind turnine noise(event   noise) will merge in the wind noise(background noise). 中華民國振動與噪音工程學術研討會 20160625
72 Development of an Automatic Sampling   Module to Monitor Concentration of Liquid-Borne Nanoparticles An automatic sampling   module compliant with SEMI C-77 has been developed to generate standard   solutions with particle concentration as low as 100–1000 particles/cm3   depending on the quality of the ultrapure water (UPW) used. With the precise   control of flow rates at low and high flux ranges, a dilution factor as high   as 4.8 × 10^9 can be achieved with high accuracy Sensors and Materials 20160622
73 Final Report on APMP.T-K7
    Key Comparison of water triple point cells
APMP.T-K7, was held   from February 2008 to September 2009 to compare the national realizations of   the water triple point among eleven NMIs. To reach the objective, each   participating laboratory sent a transfer cell to CMS and stated a value for   the temperature difference of the transfer cell, relative to the   corresponding national standard, representing 273.16 K.
    CMS (Taiwan) organized the comparison, with the support from co-pilot   institutes MSL (New Zealand) and NMIJ (Japan). The other eight participating   laboratories included NMIA, SCL, KIM-LIPI, KRISS, NMIM/SIRIM, NMC, NMISA, and   NIMT.
    This report presents the results of the TPW comparison, gives detailed   information about the measurements made at the CMS and at the participating   laboratories, and aims to link the results of APMP.T-K7 to CCT-K7. The   results of this key comparison are also represented in the form of degrees of   equivalence for the purposes of the MRA.
Metrologia 20160616
74 Report on APMP key comparison:   calibration of angle standards APMP key comparison:   calibration of angle standards Metrologia 20160608
75 Uncertainty estimation for the   coordinate measuring machine calibration by using one LaserTRACER The coordinate   measuring machine (CMM) is widely used in the industry and research.   Demonstrating traceability to national standards and estimating the accuracy   of measurements made with CMM is of importance for maintaining confidence and   reliability of measurements. LaserTRACER is designed to measure and   compensate the geometric error of CMMs or machine tools, which the   calculation algorithm is implemented with multilateration. Many research used   four LaserTRACERs to demonstrate its capability and applications. However,   few studies describe using one LaserTRACER to calibrate the CMM.
    This paper aims to estimate the uncertainty of the CMM calibration system   by using one LacserTRACER. The estimation process is divided into three   steps, which are software verification, length measurement uncertainty of   LaserTRACER and expanded uncertainty for the CMM calibration system. In the   software verification, the simulation data which is no geometric error was   utilized to input into the software and to verify the result. Then, according   to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, the evaluation result of length measurement   for LaserTRACER is 0.2 μm + 6.0 ×10-7 × L (L in m), which is considering the   interferometer, form error of the retro-reflector and length reference   sphere, etc. For the expanded uncertainty, the Monte Carlo method was applied   to estimate the influence from the positing accuracy of the tested machine   and the length measurement uncertainty of LaserTRACER.
european society for   precision engineering & nanotechnology 20160602
76 A Low-cost, Acid- and Alkali-Resistant   Atomizer for Nanoparticles Sizing in Semiconductor Application The size of the   colloidal nanoparticles plays an important role in industrial application. In   this work, we designed an atomizer which can be in series with differential   mobility analyzer and condensation particle counter to characterize the size   distribution of nanoparticles in slurry and chemical. First, sodium chloride   solution was used to inspect the size of the generated droplet by the   designed atomizer with different atomizing air pressure. It shows that the   size is around 20 to 40 nm and negatively related to the air pressure. Acid   slurry and alkali chemical were also used to test the capability of atomizer   for the particle sizing. IEEE International   Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 20160524
77 Development of an Automatic Sampling   Module to Monitor Concentration of Liquid-Borne Nanoparticle Particle detection in   liquid reagents for various manufacturing processes is important especially   for the semiconductor industry, in order to keep the yield and qualities of   the end products. As the semiconductor devices get smaller, the critical   diameters of particle contaminants become smaller. A measurement system   should be correctly calibrated to provide reliable measurement values with   suitable traceability. Due to the lack of suitable standard solutions for   particle concentration by number, an automatic sampling module complied with   SEMI C-77 is developed to generate standard solutions at particle   concentration as low as 100 ~ 1000 particles/c.c dependent on the quality of   the ultra-pure water (UPW). With precise control of flow rates at low and high   flux range, a dilution factor high as 4.8 × 10E9 can be achieved with high   accuracy. A concentration standard of PSL nanoparticles with size of > 30   nm is used as stock solution to verify the particle numbers counted by light   scattering method. The homogeneity of the dilution process is evaluated by   the variation of particle counts during about 10 min after sample injection.   This automatic system can be applied in real-time monitoring of the   liquid-borne nanoparticles in liquid reagents for device fabrication. IEEE International   Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 20160524
78 Spider web and silk performance   landscapes across nutrient space Predators have been   shown to alter their foraging as a regulatory response to recent feeding   history, but it remains unknown whether trap building predators modulate   their traps similarly as a regulatory strategy. Here we fed the orb web   spider Nephila pilipes either live crickets, dead crickets with webs   stimulated by flies, or dead crickets without web stimulation, over 21 days   to enforce spiders to differentially extract nutrients from a single prey   source. In addition to the nutrients extracted we measured web architectures,   silk tensile properties, silk amino acid compositions, and web tension after   each feeding round. We then plotted web and silk “performance landscapes”   across nutrient space. The landscapes had multiple peaks and troughs for each   web and silk performance parameter. The findings suggest that N. pilipes   plastically adjusts the chemical and physical properties of their web and   silk in accordance with its nutritional history. Our study expands the   application of the geometric framework foraging model to include a type of   predatory trap. Whether it can be applied to other predatory traps requires   further testing. Scientific Reports 20160524
79 A 3D Optical Sensor Using Optical Axis   Deviation Method for Rotational Errors This paper presents a   3D optical sensor system for measuring errors in the motion of a   rotatingstage or spindle based on optical axis deviation using a precision   ball lens. The radial and axialerrors can be simultaneously measured during   rotation. The 3D sensor consists of two quadrantphotodiode detectors (QDs),   two laser diodes, and a ball lens mounted on the rotating stageor spindle.   Rotational errors cause changes in the optical axis of the ball lens. The   resultingdeflections of the laser beams are detected by the QDs and their   output signals are used to determineerrors. The radial and axial rotational   errors can be calculated as described by the mathematicalmodel. Experimental   results showed that the measuring accuracy was within ±1 μm at a resolutionof   about 20 nm. Sensors and Materials 20160523
80 Research on Volumetric Positioning   Errors Measurement of Machine Tools This paper presents a   novel measuring technology for using LaserTRACER to obtain the volumetric   positioning errors of machine tools. This measuring technology can not only   carry out IS0 230-2/6 tests but also compensate the geometric errors of   machine tools. Experiment is set up on a gantry machine tool center with   X-axis travel 6 m, Y-axis travel 3 m and Z-axis travel 8 m. Experimental   results show a successful compensation which reduces the positioning errors   from 77.9 μm to 24.6 μm. Hence, this measuring technology is helpful for   improving the quality of the manufactured products. 精密機械與製造研討會 20160521
81 Development of an Automatic Dilution   Module to Determining the Counting Efficiency of Liquid-borne Particle   Counters This article   developed the counting efficiency test system for liquid-borne particle   counters by using the quantified particle number concentration sample. A   measurement system should be correctly calibrated to provide reliable   measurement values with suitable traceability. Due to the lack of suitable   standard solutions for particle concentration by number, an automatic   dilution module complied with SEMI C-77 is developed to generate standard   solutions at particle concentration as low as 102 ~ 103 particles/cm3   dependent on the quality of the ultra-pure water (UPW). With precise control   of flow rates at low and high flux range, a dilution factor high as 4.8 × 109   can be achieved with high accuracy. A concentration standard of PSL   nanoparticles with size of > 30 nm is used as stock solution to verify the   particle numbers counted by light scattering method. The homogeneity of the   dilution process is evaluated by the variation of particle counts during   about 10 min after sample injection. This automatic system can be applied in   real-time monitoring of the liquid-borne nanoparticles in liquid reagents for   device fabrication. 精密機械製造研討會 20160521
82 Thickness Evaluation of Ultrathin   Multiple High-k/Metal Thin Films by X-ray Reflectivity and Transmission   Electron Microscope In this letter, the   ultrathin high-k/metal multilayer thickness is systematically evaluated by   X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods.   Owing to the ultrathin thickness, the contrast intensity of TEM images were   acquired, and the thickness of high-k layer was defined at its full width at   half maximum position. The derived thickness is very close to the XRR values,   showing that the XRR techniques have accurate and fast results as compared to   TEM, which is suitable for in-fab thickness characterization. 奈米元件技術研討會 20160512
83 Dynamic Electrical Power Metrology   Study This study presented   a dynamic power measurement algorithm based on Wavelet Transform, and a   PC-based dynamic power analyzer implemented based on this algorithm. In this   study, simulation and measurement methods are carried out to assess the   feasibility of the proposed Wavelet-based algorithm to accurately measure   dynamic power. The simulation method uses the dynamic test current waveforms   proposed by National Institute of Metrology, China and National Research   Council, Canada, including sinusoidal and trapezoidal test waveforms. The   measurement method uses the developed PC-based dynamic power analyzer to   measure ten different cases of dynamic loads. Finally compare the results of   these two methods with Fourier Transform power algorithm's result. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160502
84 The application of Reflectometry on   the measurement of high aspect ratio TSV depth Currently including   IC foundry, IC packaging, and testing manufacturers and even with IC Carrier   board factory, they have become more and more interesting in three   dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC) field. The 3DIC process and relating   testing equipment market have grown rapidly every year. Especially process   and packaging technology of domestic semiconductor industry now has focused   on 3DIC from the two dimensional integrated circuit (2DIC) to make the   product has a better market competitiveness.
    Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology (SEMATECH ) for 3DIC technique   challenges in 2011 mentioned that IC industry needs better measurement in   more and more new filed, including overlay measurement, through silicon   via(TSV) measurement, thinned wafer thickness measurements and micro height   bumps and other measurements. The above mentioned measurement technique,   apply in high speed and high-precision functions and associated equipment are   mainly imported or related technology being developed in the latest.
    Metal wires through holes of silicon wafer directly to contact with the   adjacent layer and make them conduct.
    The geometric characteristic parameters of silicon via etch process affect   the process yield, such as the depth and size of the opening is the focus   detection. Comparing with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it belong to   post-production testing. The disadvantage of SEM process is needed to break   the sample, time-consuming and costly. Optical inspection method has   non-destructive, rapid and inexpensive advantages and easy integration with   other systems to develop into a real-time online measurement
    Based on the above inspection requirements, this application will focus on   the high spatial resolution and high aspect ratio silicon via depth   measurement technology to meet the required measurement technology industry.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160502
85 Discussion for the Relationship   between an Auto-Tracking Laser Interferometer Applied to ISO 230-2/-6 Test   and Positioning Accuracy of a Machine Tool Positioning accuracy   and repeatability for an linear axis of machine tools can be tested by ISO   230-2 and -6. Commonly used measurement instruement for ISO 230-2/-6 test is   a laser interferometer. It's time consuming work due to seven times setup is   needed. Moreover, because of long time measurement, test results of   positioning accuracy and repeatability are usually including measurement   uncertainty. The time of test by means of LaserTRACER is about one third of   laser interferometer due to it's easy to setup and the program NC code can be   generated by software so that measurement device adjustment/alignment is not   needed. However, positioning accuracy causes coordinate determined error of   position of the LaserTRACER releated to the reference point of the machine   tool. This study is to evaluate the effect of test result that is because of   coordinate determined error for LaserTRACER position. Experiment results and   simulation results show that positioning accuracy cause the coordinate   determined error, but it's not influencing the test result of ISO 230-2 and   -6. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160501
86 Alternative Methods to Evaluate   Photobiological Safety for the Wavelength of (2500 ~ 3000) nm As modern lighting   technology becomes more and more advanced, artificial light sources, such as   solid state lighting, become brighter and more popular in our daily life.   However, such high luminance lighting also comes with potential   photobiological hazards. Quantities and methods are defined and described in   photobiological safety standards, to evaluate photobiological hazards. For   example, infrared radiation hazard for the eye is evaluated based on the   irradiance within the assigned wavelength range, calculated based on the   measured values of spectral irradiance. However, for most of the light   sources, infrared radiation between (2500 ~ 3000) nm is very low and thus   difficult to be measured. As a result, it is challenging to evaluate   photobiological hazards within this wavelength range accurately. Althernative   methods are developed to try to solve this problem. The goal is to be able to   evaluate photobiological hazards in the range of (2500 ~ 3000) nm accurately. 先進工程學刊 20160430
87 Evaluation Position Accuracy of   Machine Tools Using a Laser Interferometer For three-axis   machine tools, positioning accuracy and repeatability can be analyzed   according to Parts 2 and 6 of ISO 230, an international standard regulating   the testing of machine tools. Traditionally, this testing has been performed   by means of laser interferometer, which increases measurement uncertainty and   it time-consuming. To avoid this and improve assembly productivity, spatial   measurement instruments such as auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLIs)   are necessary. The LaserTRACER ATLI for Etalon AG of Braunschweig, Germany,   is applied in this study for positioning accuracy and repeatability testing   of three-axis machine tools according to ISO 230-2 and ISO 230-6. Because the   relationship between coordinate systems of the machine tool and the ATLI was   unknown at the beginning of this undertaking, we first had to determine the   coordinate position of the ATLI on the coordinate system of the machine tool,   a step that we call the coalescence of the two coordinate systems. The   positioning accuracy of the machine tool will ensure the accuracy of the   lower coordinate system coalescence; however, to check the effect of the   positioning accuracy of the machine tool, two simulations were performed. The   simulation results show that the positioning accuracy of the machine tool   causes the locating coordinate position error, but it could be ignored when   the measurement distance is larger than 400 mm. The Journal of the   Coordinate Metrology Systems Conference 20160430
88 Comparison of Absolute Distance   Measurement by Different Types of Dual Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Two types of the dual   mode-locked fiber lasers for asynchronous absolute distance measurement are   investigated. The lasers are linear and ring cavity with repetition rate of   70 MHz and 100 MHz, respectively. The group velocity dispersion is not   compensated in the first type of the lasers, while the others are fully done.   The timing jitter with the Allan deviation below averaging time of 0.2 s   during the distance measurement for around 1 m of both types of lasers were   2.5 ps with 600 nm and 1.6 ps with 200 nm. We concluded that the phase noise   resulted from the intra-cavity dispersion is the main contribution for the   uncertainty of the ranging in these two types of the lasers. Journal of Mechanics   Engineering and Automation 20160420
89 Feasible Packaging Design for Compact   100 GHz Optical Frequency Comb based on A Fused-quartz Micro-resonator Optical comb spacing   of ~0.8 nm was generated from a high Q fused-quartz micro-resonator. An   electromagnet is utilized to connect between a translation stage and the   micro-resonator holder temporally for performing a portable packaging design. EMN Meeting on   Optoelectronics 20160413
90 Relationship between ISO 230-2/-6 Test   Results and Positioning Accuracy of Machine Tools Using LaserTRACER To test the   positioning accuracy and repeatability of the linear axes of machine tools,   ISO (International Standards Organization) 230-2 and ISO 230-6 are usually   adopted. Auto-tracking laser interferometers (ATLI) can perform the testing   for the positioning accuracy and the repeatability including x-, y- and   z-axes according to ISO 230-2 as well as xy, xz, yz, and xyz diagonal lines   following ISO 230-6. LaserTRACER is a kind of ATLI. One of the steps of the   ISO 230-2 and -6 tests using LaserTRACER is to determine the coordinate of   the LaserTRACER with respect to the home point of the machine tool.   Positioning accuracy of the machine tool causes the coordinate determined   error, which might influence the test result. To check on this error, this   study performs three experiments. The experiment results show that the   positioning error appears on the testing results. Applied   Sciences-Basel 20160412
91 Compact self-referenced femtosecond   Er-doped fiber laser oscillator without external power amplification A femtosecond   Er-doped fiber laser oscillator with repetition rate of 100 MHz is employed   to directly drive a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), which generates an   octave-spanning super-continuum (SC) spectrum without using external power   amplification. Self-referenced fiber laser comb is realized with the f-to-2f   interferometer to detect the carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) frequency. European frequency   and time forum 20160405
92 The Application of Analysis of   Variance to Nanoscale Measurement Interlaboratory Comparisons In order to   accelerate new manufacturing processes and product developments, measurement   is crucial to increase production yield and obtain better product   reliability. However, when the measurement demand is extended to nanoscale,   measurement techniques must be developed to meet new challenges. Because of   different principles and software used in these techniques, measurement   results of different instruments or measurement methods do not agree well   with each other to a certain degree. The discrepancy of accuracy and   variation of measurement capabilities between different measurement methods   are required to be analyzed. This paper describes the application of Analysis   of Variance (ANOVA) to analyze the variations and discrepancies in nanoscale   measurements based on the results from recent international interlaboratory   comparisons. The statistical hypothesis method was applied to test the   differences between measurement means of different types of instruments. The   consistency of different instruments and measurement methods was then   investigated. 先進工程學刊 20160401
93 An Investigation in Hygrometer   Calibration
    Proficiency Testing
There are two ways to   demonstrate the measurement capabilities owned by a laboratory. One is to get   the accreditation by the third-party, and another is to attend the   proficiency testing scheme. Proficiency Testing Provider needs to meet   “ISO/IEC 17043:2010, Conformity assessment — General requirements for   proficiency testing”. Since 2008, Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) was   accredited by Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF) to be a Proficiency   Testing Provider and held many comparison activities such as Gauge Block,   Resistance Thermometer, Weight, Resistant, Voltage, Current, etc. CMS held   the proficiency testing of Hygrometer last year successfully to acquire the   capability level of secondary laboratories. Via the measurement comparison   schemes, the difference unfolds the measurement capabilities between   secondary laboratories. Fourteen laboratories attended this Hygrometer   Calibration Proficiency Testing, which was launched on May 10, 2013 and ended   on September 27, 2013. CMS provided a calibrated hygrometer as a comparison   sample in this testing. Each participant carried out the calibration   according to its own calibration procedure. National Measurement Laboratory   (NML) of Chinese Taipei was responsible for providing the assigned value and   operating the stability testing. Results of this proficiency testing showed   that all participants’ measurement performance are consistent with that of   the reference laboratory, NML. 先進工程學刊 20160401
94 Thermoelectric Properties of Zintl   Phase Compounds of Ca1-xEuxZn2Sb2 p-Type   Ca1-xEuxZn2Sb2polycrystalline specimens were prepared by direct solid-state   reaction of elements followed by appropriate annealing, grinding and spark   plasma sintering for densification. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of   Zintl phase Ca1-xEuxZn2Sb2 were investigated by measuring resistivity,   Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity from 300 K to 720 K. All Eu   doped specimens show more than 50% decrease in electrical resistivity, while   their Seebeck coefficient value only slightly decrease as compared to   CaZn2Sb2. Furthermore, a reduction of thermal conductivity was achieved by   the additional phonon scatterings of Eu dopants. The cationic substitution of   rare earth element Eu in the Ca-site significantly increased the   thermoelectric dimensionless figure of merit for all Europium substituted   samples. Within this series, EuZn2Sb2 shows a good thermoelectric property   with a maximum zT value of 0.98 at 720 K. Journal of electronic   materials 20160329
95 Calibrating the AFM XY-magni?cation at   Sub-nanometer Scale by Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite This study identifies   a procedure for the calibration of XY-magni?cation of atomic force microscope   (AFM) with measurement range of sub-nanometer scale by the lattice constant   of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and gives a repeatability evaluation.   Therefore, a method was proposed to effectively evaluate the drift rate along   both X and Y axis direction. The drift rate can be calculated and is used to   compensate the measurement value of lattice constant in order to approach the   true value. In addition, a bidirectional scanning method accompanying   different scan rates can be utilized to confirm the accuracy of   XY-magni?cation of AFM. After image filtering and thermal drift compensation,   a total 360 lattices were counted and the average value was defined as the   final measurement value. The standard deviation was 4.5 %, which can be   regarded as repeatability. NanoScale Proceeding 20160309
96 Study on the Impurity Effect in the   Realization of Silver Fixed Point The application of a   thermal analysis model to estimate the temperature depression from the ideal   fixed-point temperature is important, especially when the chemical analysis   of the sample in a cell is insufficient or the cell might have been   contaminated during fabrication. This study extends previous work, on thermal   analysis with the tin point, to an investigation of the impurity dependence   of the silver-point temperature. Close agreement was found between the   temperature depression (?0.36 mK) inferred from the thermal analysis of the   measured fixed-point plateau and the temperature depression (?0.32 mK)   inferred using the sum of individual estimates (SIE) method with an impurity   analysis based on glow discharge mass spectrometry. Additionally, the results   of the thermal analysis manifest no significant dependence on the rate of   solidification, and the scatter of observed gradients was within 0.36 mK   among five plateaux with different temperature settings of the furnace.   Although the results support the application of both the SIE method and   thermal analysis for the silver point, further experiments with cell-to-cell   comparisons linked to thermal analysis, a study of the thermometer-furnace   systematic effects, the oxygen effect, and the locus of the freezing plateau   should be investigated to reach a firm conclusion. International Journal   of Thermophysics 20160301
97 Totaol Refection X-ray Fluorescence   Spectroscopy A Total Refection   X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer has been installed in the Center for   Measurement Standards in 2015 aiming at elemental analysis to liquid, powder   and thin film samples down to pg level. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160301
98 Analysis of Compliance Evaluation of   Non - automatic Weighing Apparatus in EU 's New Legislative Framework The European   Parliament adopted the first eight industrial directive proposals based on   the new legislative framework on February 26, 2014 as part of the   modernization of product regulations to ensure uniform and easy-to-follow   rules across administrations and thus more effectively Promote product   safety. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160301
99 A new inspection method for the height   accuracy machine tool on volume error This paper describes   a new measurement method for the machine tool volume error. The distances of   x axis 6 m, y axis 3 m and z axis 0.8 m machine tool was measured using a   LaserTRACER. The machine tool had improved the accuracy by new method is   around 50 um, which are help the industries to verify their quality of   machine tool. 量測資訊計量技術專刊 20160301
100 Non-contact resistance measurement of   transparent electrodes deposited on flexible display substrates under   repetitive bending test by terahertz time domain spectroscopy The objective of this   study is to put forward a new non-contact resistance measurement method for   repeating bending tests of transparent electrodes deposited on flexible   display substrates. The study utilizes a terahertz time domain spectroscopy   (THz-TDS) method to measure electrical properties of flexible polyethylene   terephthalate/indium tin oxide samples up to 20,000 bending times. In   addition, this study utilizes THz-TDS method to measure electrical   characteristics of flexible substrates with hard-coat films. Accordingly, the   percentage errors of measured sheet resistances based on THz-TDS method are   less than or equal to 5.5% for comparison with a contact type four-point   probe method or our previously reported flexible characteristic inspection system   method. The values show a reasonable agreement with contactmode sheet   resistance measurements. Therefore, the electrical properties of thin films   are measured offline or online easily by using this method. Displays 20160213
101 Principle and calibration of gas   monitoring equipment Gas monitoring   equipment, such as a gas detector or a gas analyzer, be affected by the  use or installation of environmental   conditions, the type and concentration of the gas.
    the design principles of its sensing element
    to be measured sense of this article, for gas monitoring equipment
    Sensing element design principles to make a brief description of the   aggregate, and provide a gas concentration monitoring device simple   instructions and precautions
    item. Finally, the National Measurement Laboratory R.O.C .; NML, of the gas   monitoring equipment for external services and energy calibration program   that allows users to understand and monitor the proper use of the gas   concentration
    Measuring equipment and subsequent calibration and maintenance.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20160129
102 A STUDY OF AN ALL   POLARIZATION-MAINTAINING MODE-LOCKED FIGURE-EIGHT FIBER LASER We have demonstrated   an all-polarization-maintaining figure-eight mode-locked fiber laser by   controlling the pump current of the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM).   A better condition can be derived by pumping the erbium fiber in the other   side, and the results reveal that the asymmetric length difference in the   NALM has a strong impact on the stability of mode-locking. In the   all-anomalous dispersion regime, the laser directly generates about 400 fs   pulses at a repetition rate of (6~10) MHz and with the pulse energy of 1 nJ. 中華民國物理年會 20160126
103 Non-automatic Weighing enter the EU   market directive required to pay attention to the new Within the EU in   order to more effectively meet product safety, and to ensure that the rules   of the various management plans, and easy to follow. 標準與檢驗月刊 20160101
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