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Papers in Year 2018

No.PapersSummaryAccepted ByIssued Date
0 HIC1 and RassF1A Methylation Attenuates Tubulin Expression and Cell Stiffness in Cancer Cell stiffness is a potential biomarker for monitoring cellular transformation, metastasis, and drug resistance development. Environmental factors relayed into the cell may result in formation of inheritable markers (e.g., DNA methylation), which provide selectable advantages (e.g., tumor development-favoring changes in cell stiffness). We previously demonstrated that targeted methylation of two tumor suppressor genes, hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) and Ras-association domain family member 1A (RassF1A), transformed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, transformation-associated cytoskeleton and cell stiffness changes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect cell stiffness, and immunostaining was used to measure cytoskeleton expression and distribution in cultured cells as well as in vivo. HIC1 and RassF1A methylation (me_HR)-transformed MSCs developed into tumors that clonally expanded in vivo. In me_HR-transformed MSCs, cell stiffness was lost, tubulin expression decreased, and F-actin was disorganized; DNA methylation inhibitor treatment suppressed their tumor progression, but did not fully restore their F-actin organization and stiffness. Thus, me_HR-induced cell transformation was accompanied by the loss of cellular stiffness, suggesting that somatic epigenetic changes provide inheritable selection markers during tumor propagation, but inhibition of oncogenic aberrant DNA methylation cannot restore cellular stiffness fully. Therefore, cell stiffness is a candidate biomarker for cells’ physiological status. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20180928
1 Investigation of spectral properties and lateral confinement of THz waves on a metal-rod-array-based photonic crystal waveguide Terahertz (THz) waves laterally confined in a 1 mm-thick microstructured planar waveguide are demonstrated on a free-standing metal rod array (MRA), and one apparent rejection band of a transmission spectrum, resembling the bandgap of a photonic crystal, is found in 0.1–0.6 THz. The visibility of the photonic bandgap in the spectral width and power distinction can be manipulated by changing the MRA geometry parameters, including the rod diameter, the interspace between adjacent rods, and the propagation length based on an interactive MRA-layer number. THz transmission ratio enhanced by a large interactive length is verified in 30 MRA layers due to the longitudinally resonant guidance of transverse-magnetic-polarized waveguide modes along the MRA length, which is critical to the interspace width of adjacent rods and the metal coating of the rod surface. For an MRA with respective rod diameter and interspace dimensions of about 0.16 and 0.26 mm, the highest transmission of the guided resonant THz waves are performed at 0.505–0.512 THz frequency with strong confinement on the metal rod tips and a low scattering loss of 0.003 cm^-1. Optics Express 20180611
2 Comparison of measurement capability with 100 μmol/mol of carbon monoxide in nitrogen Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen was one of the first types of gas mixtures used in an international key comparison. The comparison dates back to 1998 (CCQMK1a) [1]. Since then, many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) have developed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Recently, NMIs in the APMP region have actively participated in international comparisons to provide domestic services. At the 2013 APMP meeting, several NMIs requested a CO comparison to establish CO/N2 certification for industrial applications, which was to be coordinated by KRISS. Consequently, this comparison provides an opportunity for APMP regional NMIs to develop CO/N2 CMC claims.

The goal of this supplementary comparison is to support CMC claim for carbon monoxide in the N2 range of 50–2000 μmol/mol. An extended range may be supported as described in the GAWG strategy for comparisons and CMC claims.
Metrologia 20180502
3 KEY COMPARISON:APMP.QM-K111—propane in nitrogen This document describes the result of a key comparison for propane in nitrogen. The nominal amount-of-substance fraction of propane is 1000 μmol/mol. The comparison aimed to assess the measurement capability of participants in gas analysis. Nine NMIs or DIs participated in the comparison.

CERI participated in a key comparison CCQM-K111—propane in nitrogen, and coordinated this key comparison. Therefore, every participants' results of this comparison are linking to the CCQM-K111.Gravimetric values of the samples were used as key comparison reference values (KCRVs).Measured values of eight participants were within ± 0.25 % of the KCRVs.Many participants reported purity or impurity analysis of materials. These results are also able to assess the participants' capability of the analysis.
Metrologia 20180502
4 Humidity-dependent mechanical and adhesive properties of Arachnocampa tasmaniensis capture threads Bioluminescent glow?worms (Arachnocampa spp.) capture prey in glue?coated silk capture threads hung from their nests on damp cave and wet forest substrates. In a dry environment, these animals are very susceptible to desiccation as their bodies can become life threateningly dry and their silk has been anecdotally observed to become non?sticky. Water has a plasticizing effect on the structural proteins of several invertebrate silks, including those used in caddisfly nets, mussel byssus and spider webs. Moreover, water facilitates interfacial adhesion by spreading adhesive biomolecules in functionally analogous velvet worm slime and spider silk glue. We tested the effects of water on the mechanics and adhesion of Arachnocampa tasmaniensis capture threads sampled within damp caves. We found that threads tested at high humidity were three times more compliant and over 10?fold more extensible than those tested at low humidity (30% RH). We also found the threads to be significantly more adhesive in high humidity with force at detachment increasing two orders of magnitude and work of adhesion increasing by five orders of magnitude compared to threads tested at low humidity. Our results unequivocally demonstrate that A. tasmaniensis capture thread functionality is dependent upon exposure to high humidity. Our results both confirm previous reports and indicate that the foraging habitat of these animals is restricted to caves and cave?like environments, such as wet forests. Journal of Zoology 20180322
5 Molecular simulation of chlorophyll-a derivatives for biological pigment solar cells In this study, various factors affecting the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of chlorophyll-a derivatives were determined to improve the performance of biological pigment solar cells. By employing the density functional theory with hybrid exchange correlation functional B3LYP, we calculated the photoelectronic properties such as energy gaps, main transmission path, electronegativity, proton affinity, spectral absorption, and electron transfer rates of chlorophyll-a derivatives, e.g. chlorin–Fe, chlorin–Mg, chlorin–Ni, and chlorin–Zn. The difference in electronegativity between the central metal and the adjacent nitrogen atoms induced changes in the distribution of electron clouds, which indirectly enhanced the absorbance in ultraviolet and long wavelength ranges; thus, the absorption spectrum can be controlled. Further, chlorin Mg and chlorin–Ni demonstrated better electron transfer rates. The results indicate that design strategies of biopigment derivatives are an effective way to reduce the reorganisation energy, hence improving the electron mobility. Journal Molecular Simulation 20180607
6 The cars environmental magnetic field measurement technology for track transportation system The modern track transportation system is formed by the integration of various electromechanical devices. During operation, electromagnetic fields of different frequencies and strengths generated by the power electronics on the cars and adjacent tracks in the system may change the surrounding environmental electromagnetic fields, causing electromagnetic interference problems on the track system itself or nearby electronic devices and the public. In order to avoid these problems, it is necessary to carry out accurate environmental electromagnetic field measurement and analysis of the track system facilities in order to evaluate its impact on the environmental electromagnetic field. In the measurement of the electromagnetic field of the rail transit system, the measurement method depends on the measurement object and the measurement item. In this paper, the measurement of the extremely low-frequency magnetic field inside and outside the car is introduced, and the measurement contents, methods and related measurement standards are introduced. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
7 Design and Experiment Analysis of Flashing Light Source Measurement Circuit Flashing light source of matrix LED is commonly used in advertising signs. Due to the high brightness and flickering characteristics of LED, it is easy to cause visual discomfort and glare. To measure Light Sources by using universal illuminance instruments, because the measured values are average , it is difficult to realistically show the behavior of instantaneous blinking changes. Therefore, this article will introduce LED flash light source measurement circuit design, applied to analysis of the frequency up to 1 kHz light source, a complete analysis of the LED light-emitting brightness curve, flicker change value characteristics. The result analysis included 4 patterns of scintillation waveforms, FFT spectrum calculations, and maximum flicker frequency calculations 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
8 Bilateral comparison on the DC voltage standard systems between NML of Taiwan and NML-ITDI of Philippines A bilateral comparison on the DC voltage standard systems between the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) of Taiwan and the National Metrology Laboratory of the Industrial Technology Development Institute (NML-ITDI) of Philippines performed at NML from August 25 to September 14, 2015 is reported. The aim of this comparison is to verify the competence of NML-ITDI in the calibration of DC Voltage Zener Standards at the 1.018 V and 10 V levels. The Normalized Error (En) of the comparison was 0.73 and 0.85 for 1.018 V and 10 V levels, respectively using uncertainties computed at a 95 % level of confidence (k=2). 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
9 Analysis and Discussion on Measurement Uncertainty of Microphone Sensitivity Frequency Response In this article, the difference between electrostatic actuator method and coupler method in measuring the relative frequency response of the microphone sensitivity is studied. In addition, the measurement uncertainty of calibration system using electrostatic actuator method is evaluated, and the source of uncertainty is analyzed. Then the capability of the calibration system is determined. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180301
10 Ride comfort for passengers of measurement and evaluatin of railway Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort.A introduction was done via different possible methods which are ISO 2631-1, ISO 2631-4 and UIC 513. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
11 Analysis and Installation Guidelines for Dynamic Roadway Lighting According to CIE TC4-51 requirements, the guidelines are designed for recommendations of controlling roadway lighting levels over the varied environmental conditions and their measured results. The varied environments are included rainy, foggy, traffic flow and ambient Illumination. The contents of guides describe the road fundamental classes of M (motor area), C (conflict area) and P (pedestrian and low-speed area), and road usages conditions of vehicle speed, traffic flow, and ambient conditions. The statistical analysis of optical properties included the luminance of the target and the background, variation of contrast ratio, illuminance on road surface and rainy-foggy conditions. Based on above analysis results, this report recommends the light levels how to perform the dynamic lighting to implement the reference values for roadways. Take account of safety, results revealed of power-saving 50% during the period of a heavy traffic condition. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
12 LED Demonstration site for smart lighting This article is a summary of the research project and the demonstration for LED smat lighting application on harbor and bridge. We selected Chang-Tan harbor as a demonstration site for LED smart lighting property analysis including electrical and optical properties. There are compact weather station and AI camera to monitor environmental information such as wind direction, wind power, PM 2.5, PM 1.0, irradiance, UV, noise, temperature, humidity, rainfall and barometric pressure, traffic flow and water level. In electrical property, we evaluated dynamic power consumption for energy saving rate. In optical property, we measured mean values of photometry, uniformity, TI, CRI, color shift and color dispersion of the light luminaires. We analyze the quality index for road lighting under the smart control. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
13 Technologies of vehicle-based illuminance measurement on lighted road This document describes a vehicle-based illuminance measurement technology on long-distance lighted road. The measured system was developed with array of lux meters on the vehicle. The luminous intensities of the road luminaires can be obtained by the optical radiation theories, and then the practical parameters such as horizontal illuminance on ground, vertical illuminance at specific height, and flicker from the illuminance can be calculated. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
14 Calibration and application of instruments for measuring the mechanical properties This article provides an introduction to the calibration and application of instruments for measuring the mechanical properties. For instance, nanoindentation and nano tensile-testing instrument will be described and discussed. These instruments with force-displacement transducer need to be calibrated for providing precision measurement services. They can be used to measure the mechanical properties such as material hardness, strength, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, storage modulus, loss modulus, adhesion, stiffness and applications in the field of material, structure and MEMS device characterization. 機械新刊 20180105
15 Application of fuel cells and photovoltaic system in distributed generation The extreme climate and its derived natural disasters caused by global warming have been highly concerned and resolved by the international community. In addition to introducing green energy and renewable energy as a power supply to achieve energy conservation and CO2 reduction, the strategy of distributed generation has also been implemented. Distributed generation reduces the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity and thus, increases the efficiency on power generation. The main application of distributed generation includes distributed generation systems and energy storage devices for renewable energy and low-polluting non-renewable energy. The source of energy comes from biomass, biogas, hydropower, solar energy, wind power, fuel cells, and micro-turbine generators. Accompanied with the traditional power grid and micro-grid allocation, electricity from clean energy can be provided and efficiency of power generation can be increased as well. This paper introduces current status of development in fuel cells and photovoltaic system in distributed generation. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180420
16 Metrology and business model of distributed energy for LNG Natural Gas is a product of fossil fuel composed mainly of methane (CH4) and is the safest, cleanest and most used form of energy in our daily life. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form, achieving a reduction in volume of 1/600th of that in the gaseous state. Natural gas is mainly converted in to LNG for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. The energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of compressed natural gas, making LNG a clean energy source with tremendous potentiality. The LNG development is advantageous to urban energy structure, industries and investment, and can conserve energy. This paper gives an introduction to metrology and business model of distributed energy for LNG. It is expected that in the future, the piping system in Taiwan can not only transport natural gas but also LNG to achieve diversification and stability for power supply. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180316
17 The current situation for component concentration and sulfide analysis in natural gas applied to Industry. Natural gas is one of the important energy sources in Taiwan. Its main component is methane, which is a low-carbon and relatively clean energy source. At present, the supply of domestic natural gas has increased year by year, from 9.4 million metric tons of oil in the Republic of China to 19.7 million metric tons of oil in 2016, and its total domestic energy supply has also increased from 7.0% to 13.5% shows the importance of natural gas in the energy sector. The presence of sulfides in natural gas not only pollutes the environment, endangers health, but also corrodes pipelines. How to effectively measure the sulfide content in natural gas is a very important mission. Therefore, establishing natural gas analysis technology and accurately measuring the content of sulfide in natural gas can help improve the fairness, objectivity and accuracy of its transactions, and is an important basis for avoiding transaction disputes. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180901
18 Introduction of Indoor Air Quality Testing Technician Due to indoor air quality is one of  concernable issues for people, each government has established managemet method for it. PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, O3, TVOCs, HCHO, fungi and bacteria has been managed by Taiwan goverment. This paper will introduce the method of indoor air quality testing, method limitation and testing range. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180901
19 Introduction to Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility(Gage R&R) of Measurement System Analysis(MSA) According to ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007, measuring system is a set of one or more measuring instruments and often other devices, including any reagent and supply. Although the measurement conditions are generally defined before using the measurement system for measurement, the measurement results will still be subject to variation due to various factors. Different from the measurement uncertainty analysis discussing the dispersion of measurement results for a single DUT, this article is based on the fourth edition of the Measurement Systems Analysis Reference Manual focusing on measurement systems that repeatedly measure and read values for multiple parts. This article is also based on the variation calculation method described in the manual to discuss Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility(Gage R&R), supplemented by Minitab statistical software for analysis and result interpretation. Through measurement system variation analysis, it can be used as the basis for the state judgment and improvement of the measurement system/equipment. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180702
20 Discussion on the writing of Measurement System Validation Procedure- take the length measurement system for example(Part 1) Every measurement system in calibration laboratory can correspond to its technical documents. These documents like instrument calibration technique or measurement system validation procedure not only can make laboratory staff understand the measurement system, but also have the function of the measurement knowledge and technology inheritance.

This paper discussion on the writing of measurement system validation procedure from the quality assurance point of view, and take the length measurement system for example to explain the concept. The content including classification of calibration method of measurement system, metrological traceability diagram drawing, classification of traceability level of measurement system, uncertainty analysis procedure, and measurement assurance program.
量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
21 Quality assurance program and operational effectiveness of ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons – the operation process and proficiency testing participation plan Interlaboratory comparisons establish the technical basis of the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) for laboratory’s measurement capabilities. This article provides a brief introduction to the process of measurement assurance program through interlaboratory comparisons and the development of the proficiency testing participation plan from the practical viewpoint. It also describes the implementation and participation of interlaboratory comparisons using the concept of the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. It aims to help people working in calibration and testing laboratories better understand the role of interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testing activities to laboratory operations. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
22 Investigation on the metrological traceability of gaseous reference materials Compared with physical metrology, chemical metrology is extremely challenging due to the complex and multi-parameter nature of its composition measurement. However, in the face of rapid technological development, many emerging technologies have to face the practical needs of the metrological traceability in chemistry and biology, but the origin of the traceability of chemical measurement results may be incorrectly interpreted. This article examines the characteristics of the gas metrology to examine how a gas reference material can be traced realistically and reasonably and correctly. In addition to the different areas of measurement systems having their own expertise and considerations to conduct measurement in different fields, in the realization of the traceability in chemical metrology, special consideration should be given to primary methods, dissemination of metrological traceability and the role of documentary standards and accreditation bodies in promulgating best practice. Therefore, in the formulation of documentary standards for the stakeholders of national metrology institutions and reference material manufacturers, more discussion and clarification of relevant issues should be proposed to form a solid and consensus quality infrastructure. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180701
23 50 kg Mass Weighing System Improvement Introduction The 50 kg mass weighing system is based on OIML R111-1 in NML and is part of the M03 system, providing industry measurement services ranging from 20 kg to 50 kg. NML's original 50 kg mass measurement system was suspended due to failure, and the operation is not easy to cause a high risk of safety. Therefore, the system improvement was carried out in 107 years. This article describes the system architecture, improvement process, and calibration method for the 50 kg mass weighing system. The improved planning of the system is easy to operate, automated measurement and reduce vibration interference. The purpose is to make the measurement process safer, the instrument to be more stable, reduce human error and improve measurement stability. The upper limit of the standard deviation of the system after the improvement was reduced from 5.23 mg to 0.92 mg. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
24 Phase Error Calibration of Current Shunts at Power Frequencies Using AC-Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard We have established a measurement method to calibrate phase error of current shunts with currents from 10 mA to 80 A at power frequencies using differential sampling technique based on an AC-programmable Josephson voltage standard     (AC-PJVS). Evaluation results show that the expanded uncertainty of the phase error of current shunts calibrated by AC-PJVS is 0.80x10^-3 degree or 14 μrad (k=2) at 50 Hz and 62.5 Hz. For current shunts used in measurement of power standards, the uncertainty is sufficient. These researches are very helpful in establishing the self-traceability of our power standards at the Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) in Taiwan. CPEM 20180709
25 Signal Enhancement Method on Wind Turbine Blade Fault Inspection The traditional inspection method is executed by the maintenance staff who depends his hearing perception experience. This paper demonstrated the time domain average method on the wind turbine blade fault inspection. The sound signal was measured on the ground with blades in operating condition. The algorithm is to utilize the average method to separate continuously the signal into several period cycles based on rotational features. The time domain average method is to average out the noise component, which is not related to the periodically operating condition of blade. The main advantage of this method is to eliminate the unwanted noise components. Since the normal and fault blade show different sound features in high frequency, this study compared the power intensities at different time intervals in the enhanced signal to calculate damage degree. The blade damage degree has been successfully verified by on-site inspection on wind turbine blade in Taiwan. International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering Impact of Noise Control Engineering 20180829
26 APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in the end of 2014 and the final report was completed in 2016. In this pilot comparison, three kinds of haze standards with nominal transmittance haze values of close to 20 % were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze to analyse the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The analysis of the results shows that influence variables such as the sphere multiplier, the transmittance distribution, fluorescence of the samples and the optical path of incident beam cause the discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards. Journal of Physics:Conference Series 20180302
27 TRANSMITTANCE HAZE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH HAZE MATERIALS This paper presents the transmittance haze (TH) results of high haze materials measured according to current documentary standards, such as ASTM D1003 and ISO14782, and some other measurement methods, such as double-beam method, double-compensation method and BTDF. Compared to the TH by double-compensation method (theoretically accurate TH), the TH ratios of all methods were very close to 1 except for those of ASTM D1003. The ratios of ASTM D1003 became close to 1 after the sphere multiplier correction. From the TH data, the differences among various methods at high haze level are similar to those at the haze value below 40% and it means that the structure of an integrating sphere also affect the measurement at high-level haze mainly. CIE Topical Conference on Smart Lighting 20180426
28 Systematic investigations of cylindrical nozzles acc. ISO 9300

down to throat diameters of 125 μm
In the recent years, several papers have been published dealing with toroidial nozzles

according to the definitions of the ISO 9300. Compared to this, publications about cylindrical nozzles of this standard are quite rare. This paper presents the discharge coefficients cD of 103 cylindrical nozzles covering a range of throat diameters from 10 mm down to 125 μm and Reynolds numbers from Re = 1250 to Re = 7.7 × 10^5, extending the actual ISO9300 (Re = 3.5*10^5 to Re = 1.1*10^7) to much lower Reynolds numbers. The nozzles origin from 10 different batches and have been effectively analyzed regarding the dependency of cD versus Re. This analysis is supported by numerical determinations of cD derived from the shape using a numerical integral solution of the momentum equation of the boundary layer. The numerical determinations are linked to the real nozzles via dimensional shape measurements using a profile scanner for two examples.
International Symposium for Fluid Flow Measurement 20180321
29 The installation issues affect Coriolis mass flow meter measure accuracy Coriolis flow meter is widely used to measure the mass flow rate in many fields of research and industry because of its highly accurate measurement performance and superbly repeatable characteristic. The working principle of Coriolis flowmeter relies on the Coriolis Effect generated by the fluid flowing through the vibrating tubes. Therefore, the measurement accuracy of a Coriolis flow meter might be influenced by the vibration tube sensing element of Coriolis flow meter, the flow pulsation, and the fluid distribution between the vibration tubes. The application of the Coriolis flow meter in the field, it may be due to installation conditions or other needed, will use reverse installation, or non-normal installation situation. Thus may leading to measurement error. Others, the power supply disturbance also may influence the measurement result. This study using the different forms of vibration tube of 2” Coriolis flowmeter to study the installation problems to verify its impact. The existing results show that there has a slightly influence about 0.03 % difference between the forward and reverse installation. The asymmetric flow disturbance from the upstream has slight differences at the short-term repeatability. The interference of the main power supply disturbance have impact of the short-term repeatability. The measurement reading values of the bursts test are having varies of almost 0.08 % to 0.04 % at different test flow rate. When coupling the DIPs to the main power the short-term repeatability varies is about 0.06 %, but in the low flow rate may also need to consider the zero effect International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement 20180322
30 Development of Micro-Scale Anemometer The objective of this research is to design a low speed micro anemometer with wind speed ranging from 0.01 m/s to 1 m/s and the resolution is 0.01 m/s. This paddle-type cantilever structure is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with the upper cantilever layer coated with a layer of resistive nickel-chromium alloys. As the force induced by the air motion applies to the cantilever structure, deformation of it results in change in the resistance of the nickelchromium alloy. Based on this principle, authors developed a micro anemometer modeled with theoretical analysis and wind tunnel verification. In this paper, a mathematical model,starting from a stress-strain relationship, for variations of resistance of the upper Ni-Cr alloy against deformation of the micro cantilever is presented. A formulation for parameter of geometric

dimensions and material, in associate with the resistance variation, is further developed. A prototype was then made based on the analysis and tested in a standard wind tunnel at wind speeds ranging from 0 m/s to 5 m/s. The test results will be used for further study in order to improve for revision of the low speed micro anemometer.
International Symposium on Fluid Flow Measurement 20180823
31 Uncertainty Evaluation of the Predicted Value in Regression Analysis Based on Repeated Observations Regression analysis is a practical statistical technique. It is mainly used to estimate the relationship among variables and then predict the unknown observations. In metrology, the calibration curve is an application of regression analysis, which describes the relationship between standard values and indications, or nominal values and standard values. According to ISO/IEC 17025:2017, the calibration certificates shall include the measurement uncertainty. Thus, when the predicted value is obtained by a calibration curve, its uncertainty should be considered as an additional uncertainty component. The regression model can be fitted by estimating the regression coefficients from the observed data. However, the observed data may have different forms, such as one value of the independent variable against one observation of the dependent variable, and one value of the independent variable against repeated observations of the dependent variable. The latter form always confuses the laboratory staff about calculation of the fitted regression model and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. For this reason, this paper will focus on how to evaluate the uncertainty of the predicted value in a simple linear regression model based on repeated observations. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique will be used to determine which uncertainty evaluation method is selected to avoid underestimating the measurement uncertainty. National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI) 20180828
32 Analysis of Different Assigned Value Determination Methods on Gauge Block Calibration Proficiency Testing According to ISO/IEC 17043:2010, the definition of proficiency testing is evaluation of participant performance against pre-established criteria by means of interlaboratory comparisons. Thus pre-established criteria has significant impact on the evaluation of participant performance, in which assigned value attributed to a particular property of a proficiency test item and its standard deviation for proficiency assessment played the key role in the evaluation criteria. In order to understand the gauge block calibration capacity of the domestic laboratories in Taiwan, the Center for Measurement Standards / Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) held and completed a gauge block calibration proficiency testing in 2016. In this proficiency testing, CMS used the calibration results from National Measurement Laboratory (NML) to determine the assigned value and its expanded uncertainty which were used to calculate the |En| values. In addition, according to ISO 13528:2015, the assigned value and its standard uncertainty can be determined according to the type and purpose of the proficiency testing scheme, including using the results from one laboratory, consensus values from participant results, etc. In order to explore the impact of choosing different methods to determine the assigned value and its expanded uncertainty for proficiency testing results, CMS recalculated the |En| values by using different assigned value determination method after the end of this proficiency testing. Thus, the narrative of this paper contains not only results of this gauge block calibration proficiency testing but also results of using different assigned value determination method to recalculate participant performance statistics. National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI) 20180829
33 Low-frequency accelerometer calibration in the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme Taiwan is located in a seismic belt, and has a number of high-end technologies such as global business electronics and semiconductor precision processing, which have high demand for seismic monitoring. To ensure accurate seismic monitoring values, ITRI CMS participates in and leads the international comparison of low-frequency accelerometers in the Asia-Pacific metrology organization's vibration technology field (APMP.AUV.V-K3.1). In addition to ITRI-CMS, the participating laboratories include China, India, Thailand, South Korea, and South Africa. Linear vibration calibration in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 40 Hz is going to be validated in this comparison activity. After the approval, the comparison results will be used as the proof for the calibration and measurement capability registration of the International Weights and Measures Committee Mutual Recognition Agreement. This low-frequency metering related technology can apply to early warning of seismic monitoring, high-speed, railway, bridge safety monitoring, nuclear power plants and precision semiconductor plants. It will play a very important role in personnel safety and life comfort. ITRI CMS will keep improving the calibration technology in accordance with international standards and performing better in the development of low frequency vibration monitoring technology. 兩岸計量學術研討會 20180809
34 Ride comfort for passengers of standards of railway Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort.A introduction was done via different possible methods which are ISO 2631-1, ISO 2631-4 and UIC 513. 兩岸計量學術研討會 20180916
35 Automatic verification technology of Seismograph The scope of engineering application of seismograph includes elevated roads, railway safety, intelligent buildings, soil slope monitoring, earthquake warning, pier tilt and water level change, such sensors due to long-term monitoring responsibility, for weathering, waterproof, anti-jamming and other design conditions are very high, coupled with its high cost, replacement cost is expensive, Based on the harsh environmental conditions, the physical characteristics can be easily changed, and the reliability of the physical property is ensured only by the precise verification method.  Most seismic sensors in Taiwan are imported directly from Europe, America and Japan, so the relevant specifications of the Seismograph Most rely on the foreign parent company to provide technical assistance, this paper for the most widely used force balance seismograph, describes the different types of seismograph detection parameters, and the most commonly executed verification project into the automatic verification program, so that its verification method can be accurate and fast completion. 兩岸計量學術研討會 20180917
36 Development of Thermal Conductivity Measurement Technology by Heat Flux Meter Method With the rapid developments of high thermal conductivity materials, green building materials, and aerospace composite materials technology, the demands for thermal conductivity testing are increasing. For this reason, domestic manufacturers are actively developing the measuring instruments of thermal conductivity by themselves to meet these demands. However, there are rarely calibration serves of thermal conductivity instruments and standard samples provided by research institutions in the country, these make that the measuring results of the instruments are easy to be inconsistent and generate the issues of product certification, etc.

The purpose of this study was to develop a new thermal conductivity instrument by heat flux meter method to improve these disadvantages of traditional heat flux meter method such as large facilities, inconvenient to carry, high noise, and high energy consumption. A desktop thermal conductivity instrument by heat flux meter method was to develop by using a water cooling system, and its measuring range was from 0.71 W/m·K to 60 W/m·K.

In the future, this instrument will be applied to measure the high thermal conductivity substances, green building materials, and aerospace composite materials, etc., and will meet the demands of testing and transaction to improve the development environment of green energy.
兩岸計量學術研討會 20180916
37 Influence factor on high-haze and haze samples Current documentary standards about transmittance haze are applicable only for haze level less than 40 %, but there are many products labelled ‘high haze’ which are only able to be tested according to these standards. This paper presents the results  and analysis of high-haze and haze samples measured according to current standards-ASTM D1003 and ISO 14782, double compensation method developed by CMS and double-beam method (a commercial double beam spectrometer with a diffuse reflectance accessory).  In addition, to solve some measurement problems, the effect of beam size and incident angle is also discussed. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20180917
38 Fan concentric coaxial measuring instrument This paper develops a fan-concentric coaxial measuring instrument, which can measure the concentricity, roundness and verticality of the fan blade. The measurement accuracy is up to micrometer, which can meet the needs of the industry for fan quality assurance. Industrial components. 海峽兩岸計量學術研討會 20180918
39 Research on the measurement of low-frequency non-ionizing radiation and the calibration of monitoring equipment In the past decade or so, with the improvement of the quality of life and the rise of environmental awareness, it has been a subject of great concern that the public will have an adverse effect on the human body caused by the electromagnetic field generated by the power supply facilities around the living area. In the early years, high-voltage electric towers and power substation facilities have always been the special environmental facilities that the people are particularly concerned about. With the increasing demand for electricity for people's livelihood and the development of new towns, the construction of related electric facilities is still indispensable. Although most people are provided with the convenience of living by these technologies, they are also worried about whether electromagnetic radiation generated by these facilities will affect the human body because various types of power facilities are located in the surrounding area. In order to ameliorate this problem, the EPD (Environmental Protection Department) plans to set up a long-term monitoring station for non-ionizing radiation. By continuously monitoring the electromagnetic field radiated from these power facilities and providing the public with clear and transparent information, it may reduce people's concern about the radiation from such facilities. In order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of long-term monitoring data, this plan conducts researches on the calibration techniques for the monitoring equipment and on the analysis of the low frequency magnetic field radiated by the power facilities in Taiwan. 環境科技論壇 20180611
40 Time Domain Average Method on Wind Turbine Blade Fault Inspection This paper demonstrated the time domain average method and short-time Fourier transform utilized on the wind turbine blade fault inspection by using the sound signal. The traditional inspection method is executed by the maintenance staff who depends his hearing perception experience. The technique proposed in this paper is to measure the wind shear noise produced by the blades during operation, and quickly inspect the damage of each blade by a series of algorithms. The algorithm is to utilize the time-frequency spectrum obtained then utilized the characteristics of the known number of wind turbine blades to separate the signal into several signal period cycles. The time domain average method is to average out the noise component which is not related to the blade operating condition. The main advantage of this method is to eliminate the unwanted noise components. Since the sound signals detected from normal and fault blades were different in the high frequency range, we compared the power intensities at different time points in the enhanced signal to calculate damage degree. The blade damage degree has been successfully verified by on-site inspection on wind turbine blade in Taiwan. This technology is expected to be widely used in wind turbine operation monitor system in the future. 中華民國振動與噪音工程學會 20180630
41 Study on Calibration Method of 3D Pitot Tubes Greenhouse gas emissions have been regarded as a global challenge and it is even more serious in Asia Pacific region. Smokestacks are one of the main pollution emission sources and its flow measurements draw much attention due to the unstable flow condition and complex gas composition. Pitot tubes have been widely used for flow measurements in the environmental analysis. However, the traditional pitot tube (L-type) can only provide one-dimensional flow velocity and the measurement locations also need to be arranged with care. The U.S. EPA already announced that 3D pitot tubes (prism type, spherical type) can be used for three-dimensional swirl flow measurements in the smokestack (Method 2F). This study takes Method 2F as a reference and uses the results for drawing calibration curves. 中國機械工程學會年會暨全國學術研討會 20181130
42 Performance Characteristics of PM2.5 Air Quality Sensors With the tremendous advantage and wide application of low-cost PM2.5 sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) network, many citizens in Taiwan had installed personal PM2.5 sensors and shared their monitoring data to the public. However, the data quality of commercially available low-cost sensors is varied, and the misuse of data might arise unnecessary worries. To systematically evaluate the performance of low-cost PM2.5 sensors, Taiwan EPA (Environmental Protection Administration) works with ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute) on the building of the corresponding evaluation platform. The platform includes two testing environments, one under the real outdoor environment (field test), and the other under the well-controlled environment (lab test). Data from PM2.5 sensors are compared with USEPA FEM (Federal Equivalent Method) instruments installed in the platform, and parameters including intra-model variability, data recovery, accuracy(bias error), and linear correlation coefficient (R2) of PM2.5 sensors could be investigated by the field test station. Additional parameters such as precision, interferents, detection limit, and drift could be investigated by the lab test station. The lab test station also covers the evaluation of sensors performances under extreme environments (temperature, humidity, PM2.5 concentration). We state in detail in this report the hardware design and testing protocol of the platform, and testing results of some PM2.5 sensors. We anticipate this platform could help the control of data quality of PM2.5 sensors and thus improve the air quality monitoring in Taiwan. 環境分析化學研討會 20180503
43 Airflow temperature effects on piston prover for low-pressure gas flow measurement This paper deals with the time-averaged temperature measurement accuracy of a clearance-sealed piston prover. The study is divided into two parts. The first part introduces the laboratory design concept of piston prover and evaluated the relative standard uncertainty of temperature. The second part used Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation to estimate the effect of heat exchange between the time-average temperature and cylinder wall. On the basis of simulation result propose a better way were applied to the laboratory piston prover possibly may reduce the measurement uncertainty. 中國機械工程學會年會暨全國學術研討會 20181130
44 Methodology for sample preparation and size measurement of commercial ZnO nanoparticles This study discusses the strategies on sample preparation to acquire images with sufficient quality for size characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) using two commercial ZnO nanoparticles of different surface properties as a demonstration. The central idea is that micrometer sized aggregates of ZnO in powdered forms need to firstly be broken down to nanosized particles through an appropriate process to generate nanoparticle dispersion before being deposited on a flat surface for SEM observation. Analytical tools such as contact angle, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential have been utilized to optimize the procedure for sample preparation and to check the quality of the results. Meanwhile, measurements of zeta potential values on flat surfaces also provide critical information and save lots of time and efforts in selection of suitable substrate for particles of different properties to be attracted and kept on the surface without further aggregation. This simple, low-cost methodology can be generally applied on size characterization of commercial ZnO nanoparticles with limited information from vendors. Journal of food and drug analysis 20180801
45 Geometric Error Measurement of Machine Tools Using Autotracking Laser Interferometer Geometric error measurements with traditional laser interferometers are generally complex, especially for measuring squareness errors, which require a 90° pentagonal prism.Developments in the aviation industry have made the machine tools larger and distances farther. These characteristics make the optical alignment of the measurement setup difficult. An autotracking laser interferometer (ATLI) can be used to assist engineers in shortening the inspection of time machine tools by approximately 50%. However, owing to the tracking function, the ATLI measuring result has minimal difference from the traditional laser interferometer. This uniquely designed interferometer is proposed in this paper for the geometric error measurement of machine tools or coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). This procedure involves the measurement of one line of an axis, and the measurement results provide information regarding the positioning and squareness errors. The experimental and simulation results show that when the linear positioning and squareness errors are generated simultaneously, the deviation first decreases then subsequently increases with the increase in test length. Hence, when the positioning error results, using ATLI, are applied to the compensation table of the controller in the machine tool, the engineer should check the result to determine whether the squareness is included too much to lead a not good compensation result. Sensors and Materials 20181107
46 track gauge detection and gauging rule calibration For high-speed trains, traffic safety and ride comfort are the most basic requirements. The smoothness of the high-speed railway track affects the stability and safety of the high-speed car body. After long-term high-speed trains run on the rails, the contact surfaces of the rails will continue to wear and cause changes in the contact surface, which will easily cause vibration of the roller and produce running noise. Besides affecting uncomfortable riders, it will also result in unsafe rails and affect the safety of traffic. Therefore, the track must be regularly maintained to ensure driving safety and comfortable ride. There is no domestic track inspection specification. To establish a gauge calibration method and to strengthen the track detection technology in conjunction with international standards 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
47 The Progress of Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Routine Analysis of Nanomaterials Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has been widely used in various fields in recent years. Because it can provide the size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and elemental composition of nanoparticles at the same time. With the improvements in data interception, signal processing and mass spectrometry, spICP-MS has made significant progress in nanoparticle quantitative analysis. This article is an introduction to the development of spICP-MS in recent years and its considerations in the routine analysis of nanoparticles. In addition, the application of spICP-MS in complex environments and industrial related samples is also discussed. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
48 Lead metal element primary reference material supply and certification system Lead metal is widely used in various fields due to its unique physical and chemical properties. When exposed to lead, it will create as an irreversible injury, in order to avoid the harm of lead poisoning, government agencies have set various regulations and lead concentration inspection standards. country In order to serve the industry and ensure the consistency of the analysis results between laboratories, the Home & Weights Standards Laboratory established lead metal. Inorganic element supply verification system, development of domestic first inorganic reference material to supply domestic testing laboratories and related. The use of industry as a traceability and ability comparison. In this study, the static gravity method was used to prepare the lead standard solution. The solution concentration is 1000.0 mg/kg, and the extended uncertainty of 0.4 mg/kg for three months is evaluated. The subsequent long-term stability is required. Upon completion of the assessment, the industry will be provided with "lead-level reference materials." 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180501
49 Geometric-error analysis of three-axis machine tools using displacement information relative to single location To achieve rapid and automatic analysis of linear-positioning and squareness errors of three-axis machines, a method requiring a single tracking interferometer placed at a single location is proposed. A kinematic model of a three-axis machine was first devised. Subsequently, an optimization algorithm was applied to solve the inverse kinematic problem by defining reasonable initial and boundary conditions. Simulation parameters included geometric errors of the machine, instrument locations, and repeatability of measurement results (definition derived from the ISO 230-1 standard). Results obtained via simulations demonstrate that considering a repeatability of 4 μm, the maximum differences in linear-positioning and squareness are observed to be -0.9 μm/m and 0.2 arcs, respectively, whereas  the corresponding maximum standard deviations are 0.28 μm/m and 0.01 arcs. The method has further been verified using a coordinate-measuring machine. Experimental results demonstrate that analyzed parameters show reasonable agreement with simulation results, wherein maximum differences in linear positioning and squareness errors were observed to be 0.7 μm/m and 0.3 arcs, respectively. The total measuring time of a thrice-divided spatial grid was approximately 10 min. The results of the study demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method in rapidly analyzing geometric errors in three-axis machines. euspen International Conference & Exhibition 20180604
50 Circular Testing on Rotatory of Machine Tool by Using Auto-Tracking Laser Interferometer (ATLI) An Auto-tracking laser interferometer (ATLI) is a convenient tool for measuring geometric errors in a three-dimensional space, such as a coordinate measuring machine or machine tool. ATLI is combined with one interferometer to ranging the distance with 1 nm resolution and one laser tracking module to keep the measuring position on the same target. In this study, this ATLI instrument was employed on a rotatory platform to measure the rotation quality. This idea of the measuring principle comes from that a double ball bars is used to execute a circular testing according to ISO 230-4 but has a noncontact advantage. Experiments were conducted on a rotatory platform, and the experimental result shows a graph of distance variation at 0-360 degrees from interferometer and this graph can help the engineers to identify the speed control performance of rotation and static deflection point to analyze the effect of the load on the machine tool structure. This measuring technology could also be used to measure the balancing of rotating masses without installing the force sensor inside the machine. International Symposium on Sensor Science 20180808
51 Novel design for measuring geometric error of motor fans For motor fans, the geometric errors between motor housings and fan blades would affect the rotation stability and the heat generation. This research shows a machine to quickly measure geometric errors of fan blades. The machine is a gantry type structure which is installed with three manual linear scales, three optical encoders and double probes. For double probes moving control, one probe is manual, and the other is auto controlled by motors. A hollow rotary table is used to be a platform which fan blades can be placed. Double probes design provides a convenient operation to obtain the roundness and concentricity. Using double probes is an easier way to eliminate the errors which are resulted from the rotatory table. The squareness also can be measured by the auto probe. The squareness measurement runs automatically. The squareness calculation is based on the reverse method which could be eliminated the tilt of the rotary table. International Conference on of Engineering and Technology Innovation 20181109
52 Highly porous 2-dimensional biochar-based nanocomposites produced from agricultural wastes for energy The agricultural wastes have been regarded as a green renewable resources and been used as the promising precursors for the fabrication of porous carbonaceous materials. Several studies have reported the utilization of biochar from agricultural waste for various applications. However, the specific surface area of agricultural waste-derived biochar is low and only limited studies have focused on the fabrication of 2-dimensional (2-D) biochar for energy storage application. In this study, several 2-D biochars with high specific surface area and porosity from wasted coffee bean ground (WCGs), sugarcane bagasse (SCs) and corn leaves (CHs) were fabricated using typically chemical activation method in the presence of alkaline hydroxides including NaOH and KOH under anoxic atmosphere. Results show that all the agriculture wastederived biochars display 2-D structures with obvious graphite lattices after carbonization in the temperature range of 850-900 °C. The 2-D biochars exhibit high-porosity and super-high surface area in a range of 1506-3064 m2/g, which contain high portions of micropores and mesopores. Moreover, 2-D biochars exhibit good electrochemical performance for supercapacitor application. The biochars exhibit excellent capacitive performances with an ultra-high specific capacitance range of 278-318 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. The electrochemical performance follows the order of WCG > SC > CH. In addition, the energy density of as-prepared biochars is in the range of 156-181 Wh/kg. The remarkably power density in the range of 19-22 kW/kg is obtained by these 2-D biochars. In addition, the as-prepared biochars can be used as promising adsorbent to absorb dyes, which is conducive to the pollutant removal and DSSC application Results shown in this study have demonstrated the feasibility of using 2-D biochars with high porosity and outstanding conductivity for multifunctional applications which can serve as effective adsorbents and electrode-active materials for energy storage devices including supercapacitor and lithium ion battery. Green & Sustainable Chemistry Conference 20180514
53 On-line detection of Ag nanoparticles released from household water purification filters by electrodialyzer-single particle ICP-MS Silver nanoparticles have been used in several kinds of household water purification filters due to their antimicrobial properties. However, the release of silver nanoparticles can lead to undesirable health effects and filter deactivation over time. Developing an analytical method for monitoring the release of silver nanoparticle is important from both health and ecological risk perspective. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging techniques which can provide information of particle size, size distribution, number concentration, and composition. However, the presence of dissolved ion can lead to inaccurate particle information. In this study, an on-line electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle release from household water purification filters was developed. The electrodialyzer-spICP-MS not only can effectively remove the dissolved silver ion (concentration from 1- 5 mg/kg) and other metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), but also show almost 100 % transport efficiency when particle passed through electrodialyzer. Three brands of silver nanoparticle containing water filters were tested for release experiment. All three filters showed both silver ion and nanoparticle released. In addition, the electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle was demonstrated. Acs National Meeting & Eexposition 20180819
54 Improvement in the detection of silver nanoparticle by on-line electrodialyzer-spICP-MS Silver nanoparticle has been widely used in consumer products due to its antimicrobial properties. Environmental release and potential adverse effects of silver nanoparticle on the environment and human health has raised public concern. To know the risk and implication of nanoparticles, developing accurate and reliable analytical methodologies for nanoparticle measurement in realistic environmental exposure concentration is highly demanded. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging techniques which enables simultaneous size and number concentration measurement of metallic nanoparticle in complex matrix. However, the presence of dissolved metal ions and matrix may lead to inaccurate particle size and number concentration. In this study, an on-line electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle in the presence of various metal ions was developed. In the absence of electrodialyer, the minimum size of silver nanoparticle which could be determined by spICP-MS increased as dissolved silver ion increased. In addition, the number concentration decreased from 2.5×104 particles/mL to 2×103 particlse/mL as silver ion concentration increased from 0 μg/kg to 5 μg/kg, indicating the influence of silver ion on data accuracy. By coupling spICP-MS with electrodialyzer, the dissolved silver ion (concentration from 1- 5 μg/kg) and other metal ions including Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ can be effectively removed, which allowed for the improvement in data accuracy, size detection limit, and resolution in measurement of multiple particles. In addition, the electrodialyzer show almost 100 % transport efficiency without the loss of nanoparticles. The on-line electrodialyer-spICP-MS technique made data processing simpler and more accurate in the measurement of nanoparticle, which render its possibility in various applications for particle monitoring in complex matrix. 環境分析化學研討會 20180503
55 Fast and Accurate Emissivity and Absolute Temperature Maps Measurement for Integrated Circuits The comparison of temperatures between measurement and simulation (i.e., temperature correlation) is commonly needed in many thermal studies. However, existing methods to measure temperature maps are either inaccurate or inconvenient due to various assumptions or measurement conditions needed. It still remains a missing piece in the literature how to accurately and flexibly measure temperature maps.  Toward this, we propose a practical and feasible method for emissivity map measurement. Two reference plates are utilized to obtain an emissivity map, from which real emissivity value of each pixel of the infrared thermographer is obtained. According to the experimental results herein, the deviation of the emissivity measured using this method is on the order of 0.01, consistent with the minimum resolution of all currently available infrared thermographic instruments.

With the emissivity map, highly accurate temperature map is then obtained. The method can be flexibly applied to various test samples whether the emissivity of the test sample changes with the wavelength or not. Experimental results on real ICs Indicate that compared with commonly used infrared thermographer with uniform emissivity setting or black coating approaches, our method can obtain significantly better temperature correlation.
56 Precision saturated absorption spectroscopy of H3+ In our previous work on the Lamb-dips of the v2 fundamental band transitions of H3 +, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). However, frequency modulation also caused errors in the absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we built a tunable offset locking system to

lock the pump frequency of the OPO to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this improvement, we were able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the saturated absorption profile using intensity modulation. Furthermore, ion concentration modulation was employed to subtract the background noise and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. To determine the absolute frequency of the

idlerwave, theOPOsignal frequencywas locked to an optical frequency comb. The absolute frequency accuracy of our spectrometer was better than 7 kHz, demonstrated by measuring the wavelength standard transition of methane at 3.39 m. Finally, we measured 16 transitions of H+3 and our results agree very well with other precision measurements. This work successfully resolved the discrepancies

between our previous measurements and other precision measurements.
The journal of chemical physics 20180327
57 System for measuring vacuum-pump performance using the standard throughput method Ultimate pressure of a vacuum system is determined by two parameters, namely the total gas load of vacuum system and the pumping speed (volume flow rate) of vacuum pump. After the total gas load of a system is estimated, the required pumping speed can be set. In this study, we constructed a system for measuring the pumping speed of vacuum pump according to ISO 21360-1:2012, in which three methods are described, i.e. the throughput method, the orifice method and the pump-down method. The vacuum pump under test is designed to be used in low vacuum range for evacuating a chamber at high pumping speed. For this reason, the throughput method was selected as the main method. The system consists of pressure gauges, thermometers, a flow meter and a test chamber. The system was used to measure the pumping speed at the inlet of the vacuum pump at several pressure points. We present the system setup, uncertainty evaluation and vacuum-pump performance results of this work. ACTA IMEKO 20180301
58 Introduction of Moisture Measurement of Rice and Techniques / Norms of Inspection of Moisture Meter Moisture content of rice is a critical quality indicator and influence factor of market price; therefore, countries establish standards of moisture measurement and inspection norms of moisture meters. This article briefly introduces related norms of OIML and ISO, and norms of moisture meters inspection in China and Japan. By comparing current regulation in Taiwan with them and taking APLMF Guide Document on Rice Moisture Measurement as reference, this article provides conclusion and suggestion to current regulations in Taiwan below. First, there is no suitable standards for measurement of high moisture at present. Second, rice to which is added water is consider unsuitable for a standard rice. Third, an appropriate method to measure standard moisture is not involved in current national standards. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20180101
59 Primary thermometer and the Measuring Methods of Thermodynamic Temperature The original definition of thermodynamic temperature is by means of the temperature of triple point of water. The transfer of temperature standard is completed by defining fix-points, interpolating instrument and formula of International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Due to correction of difference between thermodynamic temperature and temperature of ITS-90 and the incompetence of measurement below 20 K or above 1300 K, NMIs (National Metrology Institutes) started to determine Boltzmann constant k by primary thermometers and Boltzmann constant is defined k = 1.380 649 × 10-23 J·K-1 in CODATA 2017. Therefore, kelvin is defined by Boltzmann constant in the future.  Primary thermometers can find thermodynamic temperature by measuring energy kT with defined Boltzmann constant. This article is going to introduce the measuring method and principle of primary thermometers: acoustic gas thermometer, Johnson noise thermometer, and dielectric constant gas thermometer. 量測資訊雙月刊(量測中心) 20181101
60 Extraction of Laser Pulses from All-PM Figure-8 Femtosecond Er-fiber laser This paper reports an innovative output coupling method for all-PM figure-8 femtosecond fiber laser. In the unidirectional loop of a figure-8 fiber laser, a polarization beam splitter and a Farady rotator is used to extract the laser pulses from the rejection port. The rejected laser pulses are wasted in traditional figure-8 fiber laser. An average power of 23 mW is obtained from the fiber laser oscillator with a repetition rate of 112 MHz, which is the highest power ever reported from NOLM/NALM mode-locked fiber laser. 機械工業雜誌 20181206
61 Introduction to micro-combs This article introduces micro-comb technology, based on an example of developing multi-wavelength laser source for 100 GHz DWDM in optical fiber communication applications. The content includes micro-comb generation methods and principles, micro-comb characteristics, micro-comb applications, device fabrication methods and instrumentation designs, and experimental micro-comb evaluation results. The goal of the related researches is to enable equi-frequency, low-noise multi-wavelength laser and further to realize compact and portable mode-locked, multi-wavelength laser source. 機械新刊 20180501
62 Extraction of Laser Pulses from the Rejection Port of an All-PM Figure-eight Femtosecond Er-doped Fiber Laser An all-PM figure-eight femtosecond Er-fiber laser with a rejection port is demonstrated to deliver output power of 23 mW. This is the highest output power ever reported in all-PM Er-fiber lasers based on NOLM/NALM technique. Frontiers in Optics/ Laser Science 20180916
63 Determinating the outgassing rate of the environmental measurement instruments in the vacuum system We measured the outgas of the micro-sensor used in the vacuum environment,. The micro-sensor can measured the parameters in vacuum chamber. The main purpose is to determine whether the components can be used under specific requirements or not. As the rate of outgassing may affect the entire semiconductor manufacturing process. We used an appropriate vacuum system to determine the rate of outgassing of the micro-sensor under a vacuum chamber environment. The vacuum system included the load-lock chamber and the main vacuum chamber. Under a high vacuum, the pressure was lower than 10-3 torr to test micro-sensor electronic element then open the valve of the load-lock chamber which connected to the main chamber; the pressure changes in the process are measured via the known main chamber and the pressure by an ion vacuum gauge. We will get the upper limit of the outgassing rate of micro-sensor. In this paper,we will report the result of these measurements. 台灣工程與科技創新學會 20181104
64 Applying the measurement of speed of sound to determine the thermodynamic temperature For the time being, in the low and medium temperature range, to determine the thermodynamic temperature T, several thermodynamic temperature methods are used in national metrology institutes (NMIs), including the acoustic gas thermometry, the Johnson noise thermometry, the dielectric constant thermometry, and the constant volume gas thermometry…etc. Among the above methods, in which the thermodynamic temperature obtained by the acoustic gas thermometry has the smallest measurement uncertainty, and the measurement principle is based on the kinetic theory. The square of the propagation velocity u of the sound in the ideal gas is proportional to the square of the root mean square Vrms of the ideal gas at the thermodynamic temperature T. From the energy point of view, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecule is directly proportional to the thermodynamic temperature T by Boltzmann constant k, so the application of the sound velocity measurement can determine the thermodynamic temperature. In this paper, both of the microphones that generate and receive the sound waves as well as the antenna that emits and receives electromagnetic waves are installed in the resonator shell of the acoustic gas thermometer (AGT) to measure the acoustic resonant frequency and the microwave resonant frequency, respectively. Then, according to the wave equation, the measured microwave resonant frequency to derive the size of the resonator; which is varied with the temperature T. Combined with the acoustic resonant frequency, and according to the above dynamic theory and the wave equation, the speed of sound u is obtained, in turn, the thermodynamic temperature T is determined accordingly. 台灣聲學學會 20181109
65 Investigation of Digital Transformation on Legal Metrology As the fast development of technologies on digital transformation such as Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Cloud Service, it is possible to conduct partial works of legal metrology automatically for improving efficiency.

In recent years, application of digital transformation on metrology field develops gradually, the publications about development of intelligent measuring instruments corresponding to metrology field are also increasing year by year. This article will introduce the concept of European Metrology Cloud presented by PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) as reference for domestic development.
標準與檢驗月刊 20180529
  • Last Updated:2019/07/12
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