Skip to main content

Papers in Year 2019




Accepted By

Issued Date


Strontium Oxide Deposited onto a Load-Bearable and
Porous Titanium Matrix as Dynamic and
Strontium Oxide Deposited onto a Load-Bearable and Porous Titanium Matrix as Dynamic and High-Surface-Contact-Area Catalysis for Transesterification
for Transesterification

Strontium oxide (SrO) deposited onto a porous titanium (Ti)-based scaffold (P-Ti) is a
promising and novel approach for high-throughput transesterification. Notably, a highly porous and calcinated scaffold provides a load-bearable support for a continuous process, while the calcinated SrO catalyst, as it is well distributed inside the porous matrix, can extend its surface contact area with the reactant. In this work, the formation of transesterification reaction with the conversion and production of olive oil to biodiesel inside the porous matrix is particularly examined. The as-designed SrO-coated porous titanium (Ti)-based scaffold with 55% porosity was prepared via a hydrothermal procedure, followed by a dip coating method. Mechanical tests of samples were conducted by a nanoindentator, whereas the physical and chemical structures were identified by IR and Raman Spectroscopies. The results implied that SrO catalysts can be firmly deposited onto a load-bearable, highly porous matrix and play an effective role for the transesterification reaction with the oil mass. It is promising to be employed as a load-bearable support for a continuous transesterification process, such as a process for batch or continuous biodiesel production, under an efficient heating source by a focused microwave system.




CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel Design

Air speed is often an important parameter for performance test in various industries. such as atmospheric environmental monitoring, industrial ventilation air quality testing, residential performance verification, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and semiconductor clean rooms etc.. In order to ensure the accuracy of air speed measurement, the calibration wind tunnel structure and its flow field distribution will affect the accuracy of air speed measurement during air speed calibration.
In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics is mainly used for the structural design reference of the wind tunnel.The air speed range is 0.2 m/s to 60 m/s.The closed circuit wind tunnel includes the contraction section, the test section, the expanding section and fan section, etc., and the honeycomb and several screens are arranged in front of the contraction section to guide the airflow and suppress the eddy current generation. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) is used for the flow field distribution of the test area to verify the quality performance of the circulating wind tunnel. The measurement results show that the exit 200 mm position of the contraction section which conforms to the requirements of ISO 17713-1, ASTM D 5096-02, etc. The relative standard uncertainty of the calculated wind speed correction system is 0.52%.

36th National Conference on Mechanical Engineering of CSME



Optical frequency measurement comparison using fiber laser
combs between NIMT and CMS

A NIMT optical frequency comb was compared with an Er-fiber laser comb with
repetition frequency of 250 MHz made by the Center for Measurement Standards (CMS),
Taiwan by simultaneously measuring the frequency of a 633 nm He-Ne laser. The difference of
average frequency measurement is 283 Hz and corresponds to a relative difference of 6.0x10^-13.

Journal of Physics:Conference Series



Discussion on the writing of Measurement System Validation Procedure- take the length measurement system for example(Part 2)

Every measurement system in calibration laboratory can correspond to its technical documents. These documents like instrument calibration technique or measurement system validation procedure not only can make laboratory staff understand the measurement system, but also have the function of the measurement knowledge and technology inheritance. This paper discussion on the writing of measurement system validation procedure from the quality assurance point of view, and take the length measurement system for example to explain the concept. The content including classification of calibration method of measurement system, metrological traceability diagram drawing, classification of traceability level of measurement system, uncertainty analysis procedure, and measurement assurance program.




Quality assurance program and operational effectiveness of ISO/IEC 17025 accredited laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons – determination of performance evaluation and possible causes of unsatisfactory performance

Interlaboratory comparisons establish the technical basis of the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) for laboratory’s measurement capabilities. This article provides a brief introduction to the calculation of performance statistics and criteria for the determination of laboratory performance evaluation. The possible causes of unsatisfactory performance in interlaboratory comparisons and actions undertaken to resolve the problems were also discussed from the practical viewpoint to help laboratories implement any necessary corrective actions and identify opportunities for continuous improvement. It aims to help people working in calibration and testing laboratories better understand the role of interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testing activities for the assurance of valid measurement results.




Final report on force key comparison APMP.M.F-K2.a and APMP.M.F-K2.b (50 kN and 100 kN)

This report gives the results of the APMP.M.F-K2.a and APMP.M.F-K2.b key comparison in 50 kN and 100 kN force range. This regional key comparison was conducted under the Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) to establish a link to the global CCM.F-K2 ( key comparison. 13 laboratories participated in this key comparison. The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) served as the pilot laboratory. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST) and the National Metrology Institute (NIM) of China together with KRISS provided links to the CCM.F-K2.a and CCM.F-K2.b key comparison. Two pairs of force transducers of 50 kN and 100 kN nominal capacities were circulated among the participants in a star formation. The final results suggest that the nominal 50 kN force generated at one laboratory and 100 kN force at another laboratory may be different from the CCM.F-K2 key comparison reference value.




Highly porous 2-dimensional biochar-based nanocomposites produced from agricultural wastes for energy storage application

In this study, several agricultural solid waste-derived 2-D biochars from wasted coffee grounds (WCGs), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and corn husk (CH) were fabricated using chemical activation method. These 2-D biochars exhibit high-porosity and super-high surface area of 3064 m2 g-1 which contain high portions of micropores and mesopores after proper temperature treatment. Moreover, 2-D biochars exhibit good electrochemical performance for electric double layer capacitor with high energy density and remarkably power density. Results shown in this study have demonstrated the feasibility of using 2-D biochars with high porosity and outstanding conductivity for multifunctional applications which can not only to serve as effective adsorbents but also facilitate ion transport as electrode-active materials for energy storage devices including supercapacitor and lithium ion battery.

Industrial Materials



Heat Transfer Characteristics Testing and Evaluation of a Thermal Conductivity Meter with a Heat Pipe Probe

With the promotion of underground power cables for disaster prevention, it can not only beautify the city but also reduce the disaster loss of power outage caused by the effect of a typhoon. However, if the heat generated by the underground power cables cannot be passed out, a short-circuit of electric wire will occur due to the insulation of cables destroyed. It will affect efficiency the heat dissipation of cables that how to precisely evaluate the thermal conductivity of the surrounding soil and the filling materials of cables by using the thermal needle probe method.
In this paper, the traditional thermal needle probe with less accuracy, insufficient mechanical strength and uneven heating will be replaced by the heat pipe probe technology. The experimental result showed that the heat pipe probe can further reduce its error to less than 2 %, which is more accurate than 10 % of the traditional thermal needle probe. Therefore, the applicability of the heat pipe probe can be expanded for other geological engineering and filled plastics.




Comparing Temperature Measurement Capabilities of NMIs

The purpose of this article is to understand the temperature measurement capabilities and current developments of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from Taiwan (NML), Asia-Pacific, and the iconic western countries. This article evaluates the degrees of equivalence between NML and other NMIs to ensure the international competitiveness of NML. This not only helps to understand the strengths and weaknesses of other NMIs, the international development trend can be used as the reference for the future plan of NML. The measurement items, methods, ranges, and expanded uncertainties described in this article are analyzed by the information from Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) which are recorded on the Key Comparison Database (KCDB) of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).




The Development of X-ray Metrology for Thin Film Thickness in Semiconductor Inspection

Accurate and reliable monitoring of different thin film thickness is critical to quality of the chips in the advanced microelectronic devices. A soft X-ray reflecitivity was developed to monitor the film thickness for the production of nanoscale thin films. The soft X-ray reflectivity with an Al source was constructed to provide accurate thickness measurements, and small footprint on film surface, since X-ray reflectivity is very sensitive to surface and interface roughness, and also provides information about film density. Improvements in the soft x-ray reflectivity configuration were made to allow high throughput in line measurements on films as thin as 1.2 nm. Comparing to commercial XRR, our soft X-ray reflectivity system can increase incidence angle during reflectivity measurement. Because of this, not only was the measured area of our system down to 50x50 mm2 but we also used the focused beam to increasing the flux for raising the signal to noise ratio. Improvements in the soft x-ray reflectivity configuration were made to allow high throughput in line measurements on films Therefore, non-destructive XRR method can be provided as a powerful metrology tool for its fast and accurate measurement.

International Conference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrology for Nanoelectronics



Time-resolved X-ray reflection phases of the nearly forbidden Si(222) reflection under laser excitation

The covalent electron density, which makes Si(222) measurable, is subject to laser excitation. The three-wave Si(222)/(131) diffraction at 7.82 keV is used for phase measurements. It is found that laser excitation causes a relative phase change of around 4 deg. in Si(222) in the first 100 ps of excitation and this is gradually recovered over several nanoseconds. This phase change is due to laser excitation of covalent electrons around the silicon atoms in the unit cell and makes the electron density deviate further from the centrosymmetric

Journal of synchrotron radiation



Application of IoT on Smart Water Meter Management

As the fast development of technologies on digital transformation such as Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Cloud Service, and construction of NB-IoT, it is possible to make water meter, electric meter, and gas meter more intelligent. Because water resource is irreplaceable, efficient adjustment and management can not only reduce waste, but lower the influence to household use by flood and drought. Building a whole and effective water resource IoT needs the measurement instrument as device to provide necessary information. This article will introduce the application of smart water meter with IoT management, then the following value-added service and expected benefit.




SERS-Active Substrate with Collective Amplification Design for Trace Analysis of Pesticides

Health risks posed by the exposure to trace amounts of pesticide residue in agricultural
productshave gaineda lot of concerns, due to theirneurotoxicnature. The applications of surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as a detection technique have consistently shown its potential as a rapid and sensitive means with minimal sample preparation. In this study, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in elliptical shapes were collected into a layer of ordered zirconia concave pores. The porous zirconia layer (pZrO2) was then deposited with Au NPs, denoted as Au NPs (x)/pZrO2, where x indicates the deposition thickness of Au NPs in nm. In the concave structure of pZrO2, Au-ZrO2 and Au-Au interactions provide a synergistic and physical mechanism of SERS, which is anticipated to collect and amplify SERS signals and thereafter improve the enhancement factor (EF) of Au NPs/pZrO2. By taking Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the test molecule, EF of Au NPs/pZrO2 might reach to 7.0 107. Au NP (3.0)/pZrO2 was then optimized and competent to detect pesticides, e.g., phosmet and carbaryl at very low concentrations, corresponding to the maximum residue limits of each, i.e., 0.3 ppm and
0.2 ppm, respectively. Au NPs (3.0)/pZrO2 also showed the e
ectiveness of distinguishing between phosmet and carbaryl under mixed conditions. Due to the strong a
nities of the phosphoric groups and sulfur in phosmet to the Au NPs (3.0)/pZrO2, the substrate exhibited selective detection to this particular pesticide. In this study, Au NPs (3.0)/pZrO2 has thus demonstrated trace detection of residual pesticides, due to the substrate design that intended to provide collective amplification of SERS.




The definition and realization of the basic unit

This paper first describes the concept of SI unit definition and its realization, and then briefly describes the relationship between the units and physical constants and the development of new definitions of SI basic units. Finally, it introduces the historical evolution of SI unit realization.




Corrected Analysis Apparatus And Method Of Particles In Specialty Gases

A corrected analysis apparatus of particles and a using method thereof are provided. In the corrected analysis apparatus of particles, a gas exchange device and several flow rate controllers are disposed in front of a particle analyzer.   Therefore, when the corrected analysis apparatus is used, gases of a sample can be exchanged with a carrier gas suggested to be used with the particle analyzer. Hence, the accuracy of analyzing the particles can be increased, and possible hazards from dangerous or toxic materials can be avoided.




Introduction to the isotope dilution mass spectrometry

Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has been widely used in reference material development, environmental testing, geological research, raw material purity analysis, petrochemical and semiconductor industries. This article introduces the basic principles, implementation methods and related reference cases applied to elemental analysis to help readers understand this measurement technology. The advantages of isotope dilution include high-precision and high-accuracy measurements, very small measurement uncertainty, unaffected by the substrate, and no additional recovery analysis for sample preparation. Although the isotope dilution method has many advantages, this method has problems such as high cost, difficulty in obtaining concentrated isotope, and high technical threshold. Therefore, it is necessary to further solve the problem in order to maximize the use of this measurement technique.




New temperature definition realized by acoustic gas thermometry

The new definition of the unit for thermodynamic temperature; kelvin; was implemented on the International Metrology Day of 2019 (May 20th). After the formal implementation, the unit of the temperature is defined by the fixed-value Boltzmann constant, and thence the thermal energy kT is converted to a thermodynamic temperature T. After the temperature unit is redefined, the primary thermometry is carried out using a thermometer based on a well-understood physical system according to " Mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin in the SI, 2019 ". Facing this revision and to establish a temperature primary measurement system conforming to the new definition of temperature unit, the National Measurement Laboratory (NML)/Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), IITR and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) collaborated to develop an acoustic gas thermometer utilized in the low and medium temperature ranges to establish the new highest temperature standard in Taiwan and to meet the new international standards. In addition to introducing these changes, this article reveals the method of determining the new-defined thermodynamic temperature basing on the basic principles of acoustic gas thermometers.

Standards, Inspection and Metrology



Introduction for silicon isotope ratio measurement-sample preparation

Based on establishing and maintaining the national standards of measurements, Center for Measurement Standards has received the grants from the Taiwanese government in 2018 for developing the technology related to isotope ratio measurement. To realize the Avogadro constant, assessing the Molar mass of silicon is require and can be achieved by measuring the isotope ration of silicon. However, the precision of the proposed technology can be affected by the contamination induced during sample treatment. To enhance the isotope quantification, this article mainly focuses on the influential factors such as experimental environment and selected material in the process of silicon sample preparation. The environmental facilities and the future application of the technology are also described. In addition, the use of isotope dilution in Molar mass measurement and uncertainty evaluation will be discussed in another article and will be released in the near future.




Application of carbon dioxide isotope analysis to environmental change monitoring

In this paper, the composition of carbon dioxide isotope, the circulation of carbon dioxide in the biosphere, lithosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere in the earth environment, mass spectrometry and spectroscopy carbon dioxide isotope measurement method principle and comparison, carbon dioxide isotope reference material (including solid type and gas type), as well as the relationship between the carbon dioxide isotope ratio and climate change are introduced to provide readers the knowledge of carbon dioxide isotopes.




New kilogram definition - realization by X-ray crystal density method

The new International System of Units (SI) definition was announced at the 2018 International Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) meeting and will be officially implemented on May 20, 2019. The mass unit kilogram, the temperature unit gram, the current unit ampere and the mass unit of the molar are defined by the Planck constant, the Boltzmann constant, the elementary charge and the Avogadro constant. According to the new kilogram definition, kilogram is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck constant h to be 6.626 070 15 x 10–34 when expressed in the unit J s, which is equal to kg m2 s–1, where the metre and the second are defined by the speed of light and the ultrafine transition frequency of Cs atoms, respectively. This paper introduces one of the methods for realizing the new definition of kilogram, the X-ray crystal density method, which is the method we adopt to realize kilogram in the future. We introduce the basic principles and relevant technology that has been established by the National Measurement Laboratory. Finally, this article will also introduce the latest draft three-phase plan for the implementation and deissemination of kilogram standard.

Standards, Inspection and Metrology



Performance Evaluation of Commercially Available Air Quality Analyzers

In this work, we evaluate the performance of SO2 and NO2 analyzers from four different manufacturers, by the same protocol. Items we evaluated includes noise, detection limit, interferences, zero drift, span drift, lag time, rise time, fall time, precision, linearity. Our results indicate that zero drift and span drift are two items that most likely out of specifications claimed by manufacturers. And one SO2 analyzer is significantly affected by the concentration of moisture in the sample gas. Interestingly, the curve of concentration response of SO2 and NO2 analyzers from one manufacturer is highly different from others, which implies that the use of different data processing algorism with others.

Annual Conference on Chinese Environmental Analytical Society



Evaluation of three different sample introduction systems for single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) applications

To realize a ?100% transport efficiency (TE) and a high-throughput sample analysis for nanoparticle characterization using single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), three sample introduction systems, including a high-performance concentric nebulizer with a heated cyclonic spray chamber and a three-stage Peltier-cooled desolvation system (HPCN-APEX), a conventional sample introduction system (i.e., the commercially available MicroMist nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber), and a total consumption (TC) system1, were evaluated and compared. The TEs of the HPCN-APEX and TC systems were almost 100% at sample uptake rates of 103 and 9.8 μL min?1, respectively, whereas that of the conventional sample introduction system was only 10% at an uptake rate of 112 μL min?1. Because of the dried aerosol conditions in HPCN-APEX, the size and number detection limits of HPCN-APEX were 1.6-fold and 10-fold lower than those of the TC system. The HPCN-APEX showed better detection efficiency for smaller particles and lower particle numbers. This is beneficial not only for environmental monitoring but also for the ultra-trace analysis of particle impurities in semiconductor process chemicals.

The 67th Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry



Detection of silver ion and nanoparticles released from household water purification filters by electrodialyzer-single particle ICP-MS

Silver nanoparticles have been used in several kinds of household water purification filters due to their antimicrobial properties. However, the release of silver nanoparticles can lead to undesirable health effects and filter deactivation over time. Developing an analytical method for monitoring the release of silver nanoparticle is important from both health and ecological risk perspective. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging techniques which can provide information of particle size, size distribution, number concentration, and composition. However, the presence of dissolved ion can lead to inaccurate particle information. In this study, an on-line electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle release from household water purification filters was developed. In this study, an on-line electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle release from household water purification filters was developed. The electrodialyzer-spICP-MS show almost 100 % transport efficiency when particle passed through electrodialyzer. Three brands of silver nanoparticle containing water filters were tested for release experiment. All three filters showed both silver ion and nanoparticle released. In addition, the electrodialyzer-spICP-MS for accurate measurement of silver nanoparticle was demonstrated.

Conference on Chinese Environmental Analytical Society




Temperature above the freezing point of silver of the radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 which means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. Alternatively, by using Planck’s law directly, thermodynamic temperature can be determined by applying radiation detectors calibrated in absolute terms for their spectral responsivity. CMS study an absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer for realization and dissemination of thermodynamic temperature above the silver point. The primary radiometry measurements at CMS/ITRI will be carried out using the facility of the ATK which made from NPL. Research is focused on delivering the primary thermometry results and capability. The measurements was carried out using the facility of the silver fixed point and copper fixed point which manufactured by CHINO.
The colour filter of the ATK with a center wavelength of 715 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 76 nm. The output from the ATK is a voltage from a BNC connector together with a RS232 serial output string giving the photocurrent, the radiance temperature calculated based on calibration coefficients and the internal state of the instrument. In this thesis, we describe the steps of analysis, the method and results of measuring the spectral radiance of the blackbody radiation of silver and copper, and the evaluation of the uncertainty.





The CMS is developed a transfer blackbody cavity for calibration of infrared ear thermometers for international-laboratory comparison. The blackbody is designed a portable cavity type which simulates a tympanic membrane in ear canal. The blackbody with an open apertures of 10 mm diameter, inside diameter of the cavity is 20 mm and with a long cavity of 120 mm deep well which good to meet high emissivity performance. The effective emissivity of the cavity is maintained over 0.999 units for the range between 35.5 oC and 41.5 oC. A good temperature uniformity field in cavity is 0.007 oC for 105 hours. Where the uniformity of blackbody temperature is the difference between bottom and center of cavity. The blackbody is surrounded with heaters and the walls provide good heat conduction. For provide user to study the temperature performance of the blackbody, a check well is to add. The check well with a apertures of 6.5 mm diameter and with 65 mm deep well which allowed contact thermometer such as PRT to monitor the temperature of blackbody. For converging factor (k) equals to 2, the uncertainties of the whole standard blackbody system, without device-under-test (DUT), at 35.5 oC and 41.5 oC are 0.05 K and 0.06 K, respectively, which were also traceable to ITS-90.




Using Wind Turbine Noise to Inspect Blade Damage through Portable Device

Maintenance and repair of wind turbine components are important in the wind power industry. The wind turbine blades are damaged gradually because of long-term operation in severe weather conditions, especially the typhoon season in Taiwan. Wind farm operators still rely on the in-situ technician’s visual and auditory judgement to detect the wind turbine blade health condition. The traditional detection method by the human sense and subjective judge is inefficiency and inaccuracy. This paper is intended to provide the blade fault inspection method by using the wind turbine noise and to conduct on-site inspection of wind farm through designed portable devices. The advantage of this device is that it can inspect wind turbine blade during running operation. The routine inspection work can keep tracking the condition of each blade and the records furthermore could be used for maintain and repair in advance. It is expected that it will help improve the operational efficiency of Taiwan’s wind power industry in the future.

International Congress and Exhibition on Noise Control Engineering



Using Wind Turbine Noise to Inspect Blade Damage through Portable Device

Maintenance and repair of wind turbine blades are important in the wind power industry. The wind turbine blades are damaged gradually because of long-term operation in severe weather conditions, especially the typhoon season in Taiwan. Wind farm operators still rely on the in-situ technician’s visual and auditory judgement to detect the wind turbine blade health condition. The traditional detection method by the human sense and subjective judge is inefficiency and inaccuracy. This paper is intended to provide the blade fault inspection method by using the wind turbine noise and to conduct on-site inspection of wind farm through designed portable devices. The advantage of this device is that it can inspect wind turbine blade during running operation. The routine inspection work can keep tracking the condition of each blade and the records furthermore could be used for maintain and repair in advance. It is expected that it will help improve the operational efficiency of Taiwan’s wind power industry in the future.

2019 The 27th National Conference on Sound and Vibration



Evaluation of three different sample introduction systems for single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) applications

To realize a ?100% transport efficiency (TE) and a high-throughput sample analysis for nanoparticle characterization using single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), three sample introduction systems, including a high-performance concentric nebulizer with a heated cyclonic spray chamber and a three-stage Peltier-cooled desolvation system (HPCN-APEX), a conventional sample introduction system (i.e., the commercially available MicroMist nebulizer with a cyclonic spray chamber), and a total consumption (TC) system, were evaluated and compared. The TEs of the HPCN-APEX and TC systems were almost 100% at sample uptake rates of 103 and 9.8 μL min?1, respectively, whereas that of the conventional sample introduction system was only 10% at an uptake rate of 112 μL min?1. Because of the dried aerosol conditions in HPCN-APEX, the size and number detection limits of HPCN-APEX were 1.6-fold and 10-fold lower than those of the TC system. The HPCN-APEX showed better detection efficiency for smaller particles and lower particle numbers. This is beneficial not only for environmental monitoring but also for the ultra-trace analysis of particle impurities in semiconductor process chemicals.

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry



The study on the management and petition process of light pollution

This study selected four locations in Taipei City to verify and conduct an investigation of outdoor light pollution measurement methods for advertising signs, and to analyze the processing procedures for all petition of light pollution sources. The experimental results and analysis found that the key points are as follows:
First, outdoor measurement includes 4 advertising signs × 3 time period × 8 measurement items (maximum luminance, maximum vertical illuminance, average vertical illuminance, minimum vertical illuminance, maximum horizontal illuminance, average horizontal illuminance, minimum horizontal illuminance, 90th percentile flicker frequency magnitude), and 96 data in total. The maximum luminance can be used to evaluate the influence of the source glare. The minimum vertical illuminance can be used as the evaluation of background vertical illuminance of the measurement point. The 90th percentile flicker frequency magnitude can be used to evaluate the flicker of LED combined lamp. The remaining parameters (average vertical illuminance, maximum horizontal illuminance, average illuminance, minimum illuminance) can be included in the reference for assessing ambient light.
Second, five kinds of light pollution measurement methods are completed, which are luminance, vertical illuminance, glare luminance, flicker of LED multimedia billboard, and flicker of LED combination light, wherein the vertical illuminance is for evaluation the light intrusion of street lamp.  
Finally, the petition processing procedure is recommended. When processing the case, the information of the petition citizen is recorded, and the content, time and place (including the main time period affected by the light source) are recorded. Then send an officer to petition place to investigate and take a photo record. If officer do not find the light source, then contact or send an official letter to the petition citizen to ask for details of the location of the light source, and then arrange another investigation, or indicate that the light source is no longer on site and close the case. If the light source is found and the light source belongs to the jurisdiction of the light source management unit, a letter is sent to the light source management unit, and the unit handles the follow-up matters. If officer find the source, officer can send an official letter to the light source owner on the spot or send it to the light source owner to improve the light pollution. If necessary, officer can start a collaboration survey and pass the survey result to the light source owner to minimum the light pollution impact, or coordination through village representatives.

2019 Environmental Technology Forum




New technologies have established with an equipped vehicle for rapid measurements of photometric quantities of long lighted roads. The measurement ranges of illuminance and luminance are 1 ~ 1000 lx and 0.1 ~ 100 cd/m2, respectively. The resolution of the equipped vehicle is 0.3 m, and the sampling distance is less than 2 m. The matched results of illuminance distributions correspondingly measured by the new and conventional methods confirm the validity of this method.

Proceedings of CIE



The visibility studies of dynamic road-lighting on a foggy road

The studies on visibility of traffic sign, yellow raincoat and yellow helmet on an experimental road for dynamic road-lighting in a foggy environment were performed. We used an image luminance measuring device to measure the luminance images. The analysis of the experimental results were obtained by the defined contrast ratio and the threshold of fog index. The visibility of objects in HPS and LED lighting in the foggy environment can be analysed.

Proceedings of CIE



Discussion The Causes of Railbound Vehicle with Different Driving Conditions by the Noise Measurement Examples

This research first analyzes three standard of ISO 3095 Measurement of noise emitted by railbound vehicles, "land transportation system noise measurement method"
第二十七屆中華民國振動與噪音工程學術研討會 中原大學 中華民國一○八年六月二十二日
The 27th National Conference on Sound and Vibration, Taoyuan City, June 22th, 2019.
Chinese Society of Sound and Vibration
and "land transportation system noise control standard". According to the principles, methods and requirements of the above standards, consider the operating field, driving conditions and other relevant test parameters of the test target, formulate test procedures and measurement methods, and actually select the MRT vehicles in daily operation in Taiwan to complete the noise measurement. In the end of this research , the noise causes of the railbound vehicles in the idle, non-driving, operating speed and accelerated deceleration modes of the empty vehicles are discussed respectively. Finally, the average maximum volume of the orbital system (Lmax,mean) is specified according to the "land transportation system noise control standards". In order to ensure the reasonableness of the noise value, compared the measurement results of different driving conditions indispensable.

2019 The 27th National Conference on Sound and Vibration



APMP Low Frequency Accelerometer Key Comparison Results

Taiwan is located in a seismic belt, and has a number of high-end technologies such as global business electronics and semiconductor precision processing, which have high demand for seismic monitoring. To ensure accurate seismic monitoring values, ITRI CMS participates in and leads the international comparison of low-frequency accelerometers in the Asia-Pacific metrology organization’s vibration technology field (APMP.AUV.V-K3.1). In addition to ITRI-CMS, the participating laboratories include China, India, Thailand, South Korea, and South Africa. Linear vibration calibration in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 40 Hz is going to be validated in this comparison activity. After the approval, the comparison results will be used as the proof for the calibration and measurement capability registration of the International Weights and Measures Committee Mutual Recognition Agreement. This low-frequency metering related technology can apply to early warning of seismic monitoring, high-speed, railway, bridge safety monitoring, nuclear power plants and precision semiconductor plants. It will play a very important role in personnel safety and life comfort. ITRI CMS will keep improving the calibration technology in accordance with international standards and performing better in the development of low frequency vibration monitoring technology.

2019 The 27th National Conference on Sound and Vibration



Establishment and Verification of Mercury-Sealed Piston Prover for Primary Standard

This paper presents the establishment and verification of a mercury-sealed piston prover, which is commonly used for low pressure gas flow calibration. The calibration gases could be dry air, nitrogen, argon, helium, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The flow capacity of the new system covers from 0.002 L/min to 40 L/min at 23 °C and 101.325 kPa, and some overlapped flows are between various columns. The relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow measurement is less than 0.08 % at 95 % confidence level.
We were also successfully altering the temperature sensor construction, temperature sensor placement, data logger system to real-time monitor the temperature difference of the entering gas. The data showed that the temperature difference between the entering gas and column could approximate in the calibration period.
The newly piston prover measurement result between different column was less than 0.01 %. A comparison between new-constructed and original CMC submitted piston prover that both are in CMS was conducted, and the En value was less than 0.4. The results indicate that the measurement capabilities of each column of newly piston prover were identical with expectation.

The International Flow Measurement Conference



CFD Simulation of Two-Phase Flows in Anaerobic Digester

In recent years, the study of Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has become one of the important technologies in the development of biogas production as renewable energy source. It can reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and improve management of solid wastes. The production of biogas is influenced by many parameters including temperature, mixing, pH and hydraulic retention time etc. In this study, the mathematical model and numerical simulation of the turbulent, two-phase flow of liquid and gas in a Anaerobic Digester were conducted by Computational Fluid Dynamics. The hydrodynamic behaviours of the gas-lift and mechanical mixing digesters were investigated, such as velocity field, dynamic viscosity and optimal mixing type.

International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Industrial Applications



New Generation of Liquid-Helium-Free Quantum Hall Resistance System Measurement Technology

The liquid-helium-free quantum Hall resistance (QHR) measurement technology is one of the targets actively invested in research and development by National Metrology Institute in advanced countries. In order to achieve the goal of synchronizing the standard resistance measurement technology with the international standard, the NML has also invested considerable resources to upgrade the QHR system. Now, NML has completed the set up of the new generation of iquid-helium-free QHR system, and completed the measurement uncertainty evaluation of the system in April 2019.
This document describes the operation principle, measurement architecture and principle, and the measurement uncertainty of the liquid-helium-free QHR system.
The measurement method is based on the quantized resistance produced by the quantum Hall device under low temperature and high magnetic field. The values of the DC standard resistors under test with their measurement uncertainties can be obtained through a direct current comparator (DCC) with statistic processing from such a quantized resistance. This liquid-helium-free QHR system provides the measurement on the DC standard resistors of 1 kΩ. The relative expanded uncertainty is 0.06 μΩ/Ω with coverage factor k=2 under 95 % level of confidence.





Primary thermodynamic thermometry-absolute primary radiation thermodynamic thermometry,Which is based directly on Planck’s equation and Boltzmann constant.The relative primary thermometry requires the use of one or more fixed point blackbody sources as the reference value.This article description the measurement principle of the relative primary radiation thermometer and eutectic point .




Analysis of trace metallic particle impurities in TMAH by spICP-MS

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is widely used as a basic solvent in liquid crystal display (LCD) and semiconductor manufacturing. Metallic impurities present in TMAH can cause detrimental effect on the final product, so their levels must be strictly controlled. Generally, the metallic impurities in TMAH was determined by conventional ICP-MS, which provides the ionic information at ppt level. With the development of single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICPMS), the metallic particle impurity can be detected. spICP-MS is an emerging analytical method which can provide information of particle size, size distribution, number concentration, and composition.
In this study, we have developed an analytical method and validated for sizing and quantifying nanoparticles in TMAH by spICP-MS. Validation of the method by using Au NPs showed good performance with respect to trueness (95-110 % for size, 90-110 % for concentration), repeatability (< 3 % for size, < 10 % for concentration), and reproducibility (< 10 % for concentration). The size and number detection limit for Au NPs is <10 nm and 134 particles/mL, respectively. In addition, the size detection limit for 15 elements including Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Pb was also evaluated. Different brands of TMAH were also tested. The results show one brand of TMAH contain very high ionic impurity but very less particle impurities, while the other brand show opposite trend. The results in this study clearly demonstrate the feasibility of spICP-MS for analysis particle impurities in semiconductor grade reagents.

16th Taiwan Society for Mass Spectrometry annual conference



The Development of Long-Wavelength X-ray reflectivity for Thin Films Thickness Measurement in Semiconductor Industry

When semiconductor devices are keeping scaling, accurate and reliable monitoring of different thin film thickness is becoming critical to the quality of the chips in the advanced microelectronic devices. In semiconductor industry, the high-k/metal gate thickness will be reduced to several nanometers and even subnanometers for improved performance. Besides, the measured area will also be confined to tens of micrometers. The traditional optical measurement methods can no longer provide sufficient resolution and appropriate measurement area. Therefore, Long-wavelength X-ray reflectivity will be developed to solve these problems

International Conference on Metrology & Properties of Surfaces



APMP Key Comparison of DC Voltage at 10 V and 1.018 V

A key comparison of DC voltage at 10 V and 1.018 V has been conducted from 2013 to 2014
between NMIJ, CMS and KRISS. In this comparison, PJVS systems were compared via Zener
travelling standards. All the results agree well to the key comparison reference values, which
are provided by a conventional JVS system at KRISS, within 1 part in 10^7 for 10 V and 2 parts
in 10^7 for 1.018 V, respectively.




Development of a titanium dioxide-assisted preconcentration/on-site vapor-generation chip hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for online determination of mercuric ions in urine samples

In this study, a novel automatic analytical methodology using a titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )-assisted preconcentration/on-site vapor-generation (VG) chip hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for online determination of mercuric ions (Hg2+) was developed. Interestingly, the TiO2 nanoparticle (nano-TiO2) coating on the channel surface acted not only as a sorbent for preconcentration but also as a catalyst for photocatalyst-assisted VG. Under optimum operation conditions, the developed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference material (CRM) Seronorm? Trace Elements Urine L-2 (freeze-dried human urine). Based on the obtained results, the dramatic reduction of “hands-on” manipulation and the elimination of hazardous materials (e.g., sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and stannous chloride (SnCl2)) from the process enabled a simple and ultraclean procedure with an extremely low detection limit of 0.75 ng·L-1 for Hg2+ in urine samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the direct exploitation of a nano-TiO2-coated microfluidic device for online sample preconcentration and on-site VG prior to ICP-MS measurement.

Analytica Chimica Acta



Performance Evaluation of Commercially Available Air Quality Analyzers

Performance Evaluation of Commercially Available Air Quality Analyzers

Workshop of Focus Group of Climate Change and Clean Air



Development of sulfur dioxide reference gas mixture for environmental monitoring

Development of ppm level sulfur dioxide reference gas mixture for environmental monitoring

APMP/TCQM Gas Analysis Workshop



Measurement Quality Assurance of Metrology-The Criteria to Update the Control Chart

According to ISO/IEC 17025:2017 section 7.7.1, the laboratory shall have a procedure for monitoring the validity of results. Creating a control chart is the most frequently used method when we monitor the stability of measurement system in laboratory. Because the control limits of the control chart will influence the validity of monitoring, it is necessary to recalculate the control limits regularly. For this reason, this paper is focused on finding the right timing to recalculate the control limits, and using the hypothesis testing to establish the criteria for updating the control chart. Laboratory staff can follow this criteria to decide whether the previous and present data of the control chart are consistent or not, and update the central line (CL), the lower control limit (LCL) and the upper control limit (UCL). At the meantime, from the perspective of quality assurance, figuring out the mistakes that the laboratory staff usually make when they create the control chart. It will help the laboratory staff to recalculate the control limits more easily and monitor the stability of measurement system more efficiently.

National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI)



Calibration of Electromagnetic Field Strength Probe and Evaluation of Site Characteristics

The literature introduces procedure for measurement of the electric field probe by the electromagnetic field strength measurement system, and measurement method and result for characteristics of standard site. The purpose of measurement is to understand characteristic of used sites by evaluating variation of electromagnetic field distribution, and this factor of variation would be taken into uncertainty analysis in the system. The electromagnetic field strength measurement system of national measurement laboratory had been updated calibration capability to 200 V/m step by step to satisfy traceability of measurement.




A Novel Contactless Phase Comparison Method for Overhead Transmission Lines

We propose a new contactless phase comparison method for high-voltage overhead lines. Combined with single-axis electric field (EF) sensing technologies, the new phase comparison method can perform a remote field measurement before the measured two overhead lines are interconnected. In the new phase comparison method, two single-axis EF sensor arrays are placed below the two measured overhead lines individually. A synchronous driver system wirelessly triggers the two EF sensor arrays synchronously to measure space electric fields. Then, two sets of measured electric fields are received by the synchronous driver system, and these data are used to carry out 1) positive/negative sequence evaluation and 2) phase evaluation. Finally, the proposed method can determine whether the three-phase voltage phases of the two overhead lines are identical. In addition, in order to ensure that the EF sensor arrays can synchronously measure electric fields, each EF sensor is designed with a built-in GPS device. Firstly, we simulated the electric field distribution of overhead lines using a finite element analysis (FEA) software, and then designed the placemen of EF sensors on the ground. Finally, we validated the proposed method by experimental tests on a reduced scale model of overhead lines.

Monthly Journal of Taipower's Engineering



Introduction to the production and calibration of three-axis DC magnetic field monitoring module

The environmental magnetic field of the semiconductor factory process machine needs to be monitored immediately to ensure that the operator is not exposed to excessive magnetic fields.And can monitor the stability of equipment. This three-axis DC magnetic field alarm and signal output system has three triaxial DC magnets and provides real-time measurement and display of magnetic fields in the range of ±15 G (Gauss). Converted to a corresponding 4 mA to 20 mA analog signal for transmission to the control center. This article describes the actual use of three-axis magnetic field monitoring in the plant area, including its working principle, planning and design, production erection and calibration.




CFD Application in Water Treatment Industry

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a numerical method for solving the governing equations of fluid mechanics in a computer, so that the physical state of the flow field and heat conduction can be predicted. CFD has become a ubiquitous modeling tool, using numerical simulation software to calculate the research topics in the water treatment industry chain, from the process of front-end key components (such as membranes, pipes, etc.) to the back-end wastewater treatment and field design planning. Also, CFD can be used for simulation, and the basic physical quantity distribution and timing change status of each position in the flow field which can be obtained by numerical analysis. In addition, CFD is more popular than traditional wastewater treatment modeling methods, within a high-precision technology that can be used to evaluate engineering system performance, including laboratory scale, pilot scale or real field setup conditions. Therefore, CFD modeling can be used as a tool for new facility design or optimization of existing systems, improving facility performance and operating program optimization, saving time, economic cost and manpower. This article will discuss and study about the fluid phenomena such as pressure effect, laminar flow, turbulence and transitional flow of CFD simulated filtration membranes, and future research or applications.

Hydraulic Engineering Conference



The Development of X-ray Metrology for Thin Film Thickness in Semiconductor Inspection

In semiconductor industry nowadays the high-k/metal gate thickness will be reduced to a few nanometers while the measured area will also be limited to a few tens of micrometers. For films at this thickness range optical measurements can no longer provide sufficient resolution and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) has been widely used to fill this need, quantitative data of film thickness and density depth profile are routinely deduced from XRR using an Parratt algorithm. For a conventional XRR measurement, short wavelength at 1.54 A from a copper anode is often the preferred choice; the typical angular range of measurements is often between 0 ° to ~4 °. The footprint of incident beam will likely be in the cm range due to the low grazing incidence angle invoked whereas the available sampling area encountered in semiconductor applications is typical in tens of micrometers. In addition, the characteristic reflection peaks from sample with a thickness of few nanometers is located at high q region where the reflectivity is intrinsically low, typically in the 10-7 and below. This low reflectivity coupled with a miniscule sample area will render XRR measurements very challenging.   The purpose of this work is to address the abovementioned challenges with a novel XRR instrument using long wavelength X-ray sources. We will demonstrate that this new soft X-ray instrument can adequately address both the footprint and signal strength issues, concurrently it will also maintain a reasonable level of the q resolution in terms of δq/q.

The essence of the present work is to select an X-ray source with a long wavelength equipped with a point focusing optics. By increasing the X-ray wavelength, the angular range of XRR will increase and this results in a decrease the footprint size of the incident beam; a desirable feature when sample area is limited. With a large angular range invoked in the XRR measurement the divergence angle of both the incident beam and the reflected beam can afford to be increased while keeping the resolution, δq/q, at a desirable value.   A large divergence angle will result in an enhanced XRR signal.




Implementation of laboratory management system based on ISO/IEC 17025:2017 through internal audits – general, structural and resource requirements

The well-planned and properly performed internal audits play a significant role in ensuring the effective implementation and continuous improvement of laboratory management system. This article describes the key changes made in ISO/IEC 17025:2017 and conduction of laboratory internal audits which conforms the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 from a practical viewpoint. It aims to help people working in calibration and testing laboratories better understand the role of internal audit activities to laboratory operations. It also help the laboratories assess the operation of their quality management system and ensure the implementation conform to the new standard by introducing the focus areas of internal audits in the general, structural and resource requirements.




Introduction to the improvement of 1000 kg mass measurement system

The 1000-kilogram mass measurement system of the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) is the highest standard for traceability of large mass weights in Taiwan’s industry, Such as legal metrology, highway weighbridge test, aerospace-related mass and force test, and related heavy industry. NML’s original 1000 kg mass measurement system was suspended for service due to failure, and the measurement operation was not easy, resulting in extremely high safety risks. Therefore, the system was improved in 108. This paper describes the improvement process of the 1000 kg mass measurement system, and introduces the subdivision measurement method established according to the OIML R111-1. The improvement plan of this system is to optimize the measurement operation line and reduce the measurement vibration interference. The purpose is to make the measurement process safer, the instrument used more stable, reduce errors and improve measurement stability. The control limit of the standard deviation after the system improvement was reduced from 3.1 g to 1.9 g.




Power signal sampling technique of electric power primary system

In order to complete a self-traceability of electric power measurement standard, NML has built a digital sampling technique for the electric power signal. The core technology includes a synchronous sampling technique for voltage and current signals and several algorithms of calculating power parameters. It can be seen from measurement results, the new primary system based on proposed digital sampling technique shows higher accuracy in voltage/current harmonic measurement than the power standard meter. Regarding active/reactive power measurement, the new primary system shows slightly larger relative errors, about 120 uW/VA and 150 uvar/VA. In the future, the measurement accuracy of the new primary system can be improved when error compensation of all measurement equipment is taken into consideration.




Pratical realization and standard transfer of the new definition of kilogram.

This paper is mainly to explain the new definition of SI basic unit kilogram and briefly describe how it is realized in practice, then to discuss the measurement standard transfer of mass unit kilogram, and finally to describe the continuity before and after the new definition.




Nanoparticle Characterization – Supplementary Comparison on Nanoparticle Size

Nanoparticles with size in the range from 10 nm to 300 nm and from three different materials (Au 10 nm, Ag 20 nm, and PSL 30 nm, 100 nm and 300 nm) were used in this supplementary comparison. The selected nanoparticles meet the requirements of different measurement methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and for forth.




Establishing models for establishment of pumping water of wells by electricity consumption with machine learning methods

In this paper, the intelligent management of the amount of groundwater was explored. The mastery of time and space distribution was one of the important key factors of water resources dispatching. Nowadays, electronic water meters had been installed for the measurement of groundwater pumping. With functions of real-time transmission of information via wireless transmission, the amount of groundwater pumping could be grasped. However, the price of electronic water meters was expensive, which was not conducive to wide-area deployment. In this study, the electric power consumption of electric pumps for groundwater-pumping was used to estimate the pumping capacity of the well, and the two-way control wisdom learning becomes the best feasible technology and low cost wide-area deployment.

Taiwan-Fujian Metrology Forum



Calibration Technologies of High Temperature Thermocouples Applied to the Recovery of Precious Metals in Electronic Waste

This paper mainly introduces that the importance of high temperature thermocouples applies to the recovery of precious metals in electronic waste. Meanwhile, the establishment of metal-carbon eutectic point - cobalt-carbon alloy (Co-C; 1324 °C) and palladium-carbon alloy (Pd-C; 1492 °C) calibration technologies will be descripted. They are able to effectively control the temperature measurement uncertainty of high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods within 1 °C, improve the effect of refining, and reduce unnecessary energy loss to achieve the truly development of sustainable environment.

Taiwan-Fujian Metrology Forum



Design of Non-Contact Measuring Device for Rail Irregularity

The train runs on the two rails. In order to ensure the safety of the running train, the irregularity of the two rails needs to be measured periodically. The irregularity measurement is composed of the five items, namely the gauge, the horizontal alignment, the vertical alignment, the cant, and the twist. The irregularity is usually measured by the traditional measuring device with the contact measurement in Taiwan. In the traditional contact measuring device, the formula of the software is only based on the geometry of the lengths, and does not be based on the geometry of the angles. As a result, the hardware device with the contact measurement needs to become complexed, which easily produces the noise during the data collection, and is difficult to be maintained. Accordingly, the present study proposes a cost-down measuring device with the non-contact measurement. In this study, the formula of the circular curves contains both of the geometries of the angles and the lengths. Therefore, based on the formula in this study, the proposed structure of the hardware device is simple and robust, and is easily to be maintained. In the experiment of the two different measurements, the proposed non-contact measuring device with the inclination sensor is compared to the contact measuring device with the sensor of the linear variable differential transformer. The compared results shows that the proposed non-contact measuring device contains the less noise, the higher sensitivity, and the slighter weight, which is easier to be operated for the users.

International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation



The Development of Thin Film Thickness Measurement System by combining with X-ray Reflectivity and X-ray Fluorescence

In the semiconductor industry, the film thickness, density, and composition are the keys to process yield and reliability. Therefore, we developed the thin film thickness system by combining with grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) and grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXRR). In this study, we obtain the GIXRR-GIXRF data and algorithm to optimize the processing software and solve the accurate measurement of the sub-nano film thickness (0.9 ~ 2) nm. Besides, we also design the optics for the GIXRF measurement system and analyze the elemental depth distribution to build a better model for simulation in GIXRR measurement. In this study, we obtain the XRF signal by using TiN thin film (thickness is 2 nm). From the XRF signal, we can define the fitting model for XRR to improve the simulation results. Thus, GIXRF combined with GIXRR technology became the most accurate measurement system for thickness. In the future, we will present more and more results and the performance of this new in-line metrology tool will also be assessed.

International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation



Development of a combined XRF XPS surface analysis system

At 26th meeting of CGPM in Nov. 2018, the definition of the unit of mass, the kilogram, is redefined by a fixed value of Planck constant h = 6.626 070 15*10-34 J s to replace the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK). One of the primary method to realize the definition is the XRCD method (X-ray crystal density method) with a 28Si-enriched sphere whose mass can be expressed in terms of the number of atoms inside and take the mass of the surface layer into account.
The quantitative surface analysis of 28Si-enriched spheres is characterized via a combined x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis system. The surface layer is mainly composed of oxide layer, carbonaceous contamination and water. To identify the chemical elements and determine the mass present on a surface, the newly combined instrument was implemented to measure the XRF for the mass deposition of oxygen (ng/cm2) with the detector tested and calibrated by PTB and the XPS for the ratio between the elements (O, Si, C). These two complementary method of x-ray metrology allows an accurate determination of the mass of the surface layer which is applied to the realization of the kilogram by XRCD method.
The national measurement laboratory (NML) in Taiwan has established the combined XRF XPS surface analysis system in 2019. The construction work including the assembly of parts of the load lock chamber and UHV analysis chamber, software, hardware integration and light path adjustment was preliminarily completed. To give the mass of the 28Si-enriched sphere, the mass of the surface layer measured by the combined XRF XPS surface analysis system should be monitored for its stability and combined with the mass from the core of the sphere. However, since the measurement of the surface layer is carried out under vacuum (10-9 mbar), the sorption correction for evaluating the mass difference of the mass standards transferred between in air and in vacuum have to be considered for mass dissemination.

Asia Pacific Measurement Forum on Mechanical Quantities



CFD Application in Biogas Anaerobic Digester Design

Anaerobic digestion is wildly used in chemical and environmental engineering for agriculture waste and the biogas which is generated with the process, is considered as useful renewable energy. The mixing methods include mechanical and circular flow. Mechanical mixing uses the rotation from spinning fan to mix well the waste and the design about fan, mixing period would effect the biogas quality and construction cost. In this article, the circular flow mixing has limited by the blower ability within limited mixing efficiency and barely mixed. The applications and studies about CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) have increased rapidly in waste water treatment and anaerobic digestion system. Within high precision to evaluate the system efficiency, from laboratory scale to middle test field and on site condition. CFD is raising useful tool in the near future.

Annual Conference on The Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering



Bell Prover System Improvement-Gas Temperature control and Measurement Method Improvement

Bell Prover is primary standard system of The National Measurement Laboratory (NML).During the calibration process.The density of the gas inside the bell   must be determined by measuring the pressure and temperature of the gas.The focus of this study is on how to accurately measure the representative temperature inside the bell.This system has been redesigned with an ambient temperature control system and add heat exchange fins, as well as used the innovative temperature measurement methods.The temperature measurement range inside the bell due to gas stratification decreased from 0.20 °C to 0.08 °C.The relative expansion uncertainty of mass flow rate decreased from 0.11% to 0.10%.

36th National Conference on Mechanical Engineering of CSME


  • Last Updated:2022/05/20
Articles View Hits

Pass A Web Accessibility Detection