Reports in Year 2020

 

No. Report Summary
1 2015-2018 NML Customer Analytics Customer Relation Management is a powerful tool to integrate all of the activity about customers. It is convenient to analyze customer information with IT to reply the customers’ demands quickly. The added value between organization and customers was created from the concept of customer orientation. The enterprise needs to organize and realize the controllable information and knowledge from database with data mining technique. Based on the Laboratory Information Management System, we can find the calibration service amount, economic trend, the important customers and so on. The customer classification using Statistical Method, BCG matrix and cluster analysis are also shown in this paper. All of these results are useful for the management to create the policies, the strategies and the perspectives.
2 Measurement Results of the Environmental Temperature and Humidity of New SI Laboratory The mission of National Measurement Laboratory (NML) is to establish and maintain the national measurement standards. In response to the new definition of base units of the International System of Units (SI), which was announced at 2018 General Conference of Weights & Measures (CGPM) and officially implemented on May 20, 2019, NML has started the establishment of the new SI measurement systems based on four base units since 2017. The four base units include the kilogram, the kelvin, the ampere and the mole.Due to the instruments of the new SI laboratories with high precision, it is necessary to confirm that the environmental conditions meet the requirements to ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of the calibration results. Therefore, each of the eight laboratories has been measured temperature and relative humidity for at least forty eight hours using multiple hygrometers between November 2018 and February 2020. The measurement results show that the variation of temperature and humidity in the laboratories meet the specifications of environment.
3 The Customer’s Satisfaction Report of NML in 2020 This research report was to evaluate the customer’s satisfaction on the calibration/certification services provided by the National Measurement Laboratory, R.O.C. (NML).  In order to evaluate the customer’s satisfaction, a customer satisfactory survey was done to gather valuable opinions and reactions from customers.  Through evaluation, the correspondence between NML’s services and customers’ demands and expectations was examined and identified.  Furthermore, the analysis of the customer satisfactory survey can be used to determine the future directions of calibration/certification service items and to improve the quality of the calibration/certification services.  Through analyzing the data, the average rate of satisfactory degree to the NML’s services was 9.3 out of 10 in 2020.  However, based on the opinions and expectations from customers, NML still had parts of the service items need to be improved.  Therefore, this research report summarizes the opinions and expectations from customers and provides them to the departments of NML for reference.  In addition to improving the unsatisfied service items, NML will provide better quality of the calibration/certification service for customers continuously.
4 Final Report of 2020 NML Internal Audit According to section 8.8 of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 and 8.7 of ISO 17034:2016, the laboratory and the reference material producer shall periodically and in accordance with a predetermined schedule and procedure, conduct internal audits of its activities to verify that its operations continue to comply with the requirements of the management system and standards. Therefore, NML implements the internal audit every year to confirm that each department’s operation fits the requirements of NML, ISO/IEC 17025:2017 and ISO 17034:2016. The effectiveness and suitability of NML management system are also ensured in addition. The task items and relevant records of NML internal audit in 2020 are shown as this research report.
5 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Photodetector Spectral Responsivity of Spectroradiometric System Abstract
This document discribes the evaluation of the measurement uncertainties of photodetector spectral responsivity calibration of the Spectroradiometric System (System ID number: O03). The devices under test could be a Si photodiode, a Ge photodiode, an InGaAs photodiode, or a V(λ) detector. The system provides calibration services for the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1650 nm. The uncertainties varies by different quantaties (relative spectral responsivity or absolute spectral responsivity), devices under test, and wavelength ranges.
Chapter 2 describes the system setup and the principles of measurement. Chapter 3 illustrates uncertainty analysis according to ISO/IEC 17025 Guide 98-3: 2008 [7.1]; the calibrated uncertainty results are included. Chapter 4 describes measurement quality assurance. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 summarise the previously described contents and conclude measurement capability of photodiode spectral responsivity.
I. Relative Spectral Responsivity
Type Wavelength (nm) Coverage factor Relative expanded uncertainty (%)
Si detector
300 ≦ λ < 410 2.00 2.0
410 ≦ λ < 480 2.26 0.87
480 ≦ λ < 930 2.03 0.58
930 ≦ λ ≦ 1100 2.01 1.1

Type Wavelength (nm) Coverage factor Expanded uncertainty
V(λ) detector
        380 ≦ λ< 440 1.96 0.0002
440 ≦ λ< 500 1.96 0.0015
500 ≦ λ< 610 1.96 0.0042
610 ≦ λ< 660 1.96 0.0025
660 ≦ λ< 710 1.96 0.0006
710 ≦ λ≦ 780 1.96 0.0001

 

II. Spectral Responsivity
Type Wavelength (nm) Coverage factor Relative expanded uncertainty (%)
Si detector
300 ≦ λ< 380 1.96 1.8
380 ≦ λ< 540 1.98 0.98
540 ≦ λ< 930 1.96 0.44
930 ≦ λ< 1050 1.96 0.81
1050 ≦ λ ≦ 1100 2.44 1.9

Type Wavelength (nm) Coverage factor Relative expanded uncertainty (%)
Ge detector / InGaAs detector
        800 ≦ λ< 870 3.18 3.2
870 ≦ λ<1590 2.05 1.2
1590 ≦ λ≦ 1650 1.96 1.7
6 The International System of Units (SI) The International System of Units, the SI, has been used around the world as the preferred system of units, the basic language for science, technology, industry and trade since it was established in 1960 by a resolution at the 11th meeting of the Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures, the CGPM (known in English as the General Conference on Weights and Measures). This brochure is published by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the BIPM (known in English as the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) to promote and explain the SI. It lists the most significant Resolutions of the CGPM and decisions of the Comite International des Poids et Mesures, the CIPM (known in English as the International Committee on Weights and Measures) that concern the metric system going back to the 1st meeting of the CGPM in 1889. The SI has always been a practical and dynamic system that has evolved to exploit the latest scientific and technological developments. In particular, the tremendous advances in atomic physics and quantum metrology made over the last 50 years have enabled the definitions of the second, the metre, and the practical representation of the electrical units to take advantage of atomic and quantum phenomena to achieve levels of accuracy for realizing the respective units limited only by our technical capability and not by the definitions themselves. These advances in science together with developments in measurement technology have enabled changes to the SI which have been promoted and explained in the previous editions of this brochure.
This 9th edition of the SI brochure has been prepared following the adoption by the 26th meeting of the CGPM of a set of far-reaching changes. The meeting introduced a new approach to articulating the definitions of the units in general, and of the seven base units in particular, by fixing the numerical values of seven “defining” constants. Among them are fundamental constants of nature such as the Planck constant and the speed of light, so that the definitions are based on and represent our present understanding of the laws of physics. For the first time, a complete set of definitions is available that does not make reference to any artefact standards, material properties or measurement descriptions. These changes enable the realization of all units with an accuracy that is ultimately limited only by the quantum structure of nature and our technical abilities but not by the definitions themselves. Any valid equation of physics relating the defining constants to a unit can be used to realize the unit thus creating opportunities for innovation, realization everywhere with increasing accuracy as technology proceeds. Thus, this redefinition marks a significant and historic step forward. The changes were agreed by the CGPM in November 2018 with effect from May 20th 2019, a date chosen because it is World Metrology Day, the day when the Metre Convention was signed in 1875.
7 Measurement technology trend report of 5G mmWave and terahertz wave in USA and Japan The 5G mmWave NIST Test Bed capabilities include a stand-alone information technology network and “carrier-grade” commercial base stations, and support of 5G, older 4G systems, Wi-Fi and GPS. It can also be reconfigured to support other networks of interest. With such new test bed, it will enable NIST to develop and perform quantitative measurements of spectrum sharing or interference scenarios that are either already deployed or under consideration. The survey study from AIST, Japan is to report about the precision measurement, basics and international trends of power spectrum in the frequency range of terahertz wave. The trend of applied research on terahertz waves has confirmed that with the practical work of terahertz wave spectroscopy and imaging applications, research on wireless telecommunication applications is also increasingly active. The demand for the measurement standard in the frequency range of terahertz wave is well recognized and will become increasingly important in the future.
8 國家標準CNS 14607與國際建議規範OIML R46的比較與及國內檢測單位能力調查與評估 The technical report is one mid-term outcome of the project titled “Preliminary Study on the Requirements for Type Approval of Static Electricity Meters.” This report explains the difference between CNS 14607 and OIML R46, and explains the test capability assessement of domestic testing industries.
9 Instrument Calibration Technique for DC High Voltage Measurement System This document is a calibration procedure of DC High Voltage Measuement system in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). This DC High Voltage system can be used to calibrate the DC voltage from 1kV to 200kV. The unit under test is calibrated by comparing its output voltage to the system reference standard via a self-calibration divider and a digital voltmeter(DVM) which is traceable to Josephson voltage standard.
10 Measurement System Validation Procedure for DC High Voltage Measurement System This document is an assessment report of DC High Voltage Measurement system in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). This DC High Voltage system can be used to calibrate the DC voltage from 1 kV to 200 kV. The unit under test is calibrated by comparing its output voltage to the system reference standard via a self-calibration divider and a digital voltmeter (DVM) which is traceable to Josephson voltage standard. The reference standard is calibrated by Hamon method.
 The uncertainty analysis is according to the “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement”, published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1995.
11 Instrument Calibration Technique for Electromagnetic Field Strength Meter by Using TEM Cell Field Strength Measurement System This document describes the procedure to calibrate an electromagnetic field strength meter by the Electromagnetic Field Strength Measurement System (U06). A uniform electromagnetic field is generated in a TEM Cell to calibrate the electromagnetic field strength meter.
The capability and measurement uncertainty of this system are stated as follows with a coverage factor (k = 2) corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.

Frequency Range:100 kHz to 500 MHz
Maximum Electric Field:200 V/m
Relative Expanded Uncertainty:0.7 dB
12 Instrument Calibration Technique for Anechoic Chamber Electromagnetic Field Strength Measurement System This document describes the procedure to calibrate an electromagnetic field strength meter by the Electromagnetic Field Strength Measurement System (system code : U06).  A uniform EM field is generated in a full anechoic chamber to calibrate the electromagnetic field strength meter. The strength of this field is determined by the RF power fed to the transmitting antenna and the distance between the antenna and the probe of the electromagnetic field strength meter to be calibrated. The capability  of this system are stated as follows:
Frequency range:0.5 GHz to 8 GHz
Maximum electric field:200 V/m
13 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Anechoic Chamber Electromagnetic Field Strength Measurement System This document introduces the uncertainty analysis method and procedure for the calibration of an electric field probe by the Anechoic Chamber Electromagnetic Field Strength Measurement System (system code: U06).  The contents of this report consist of introduction of the system, principle of measurement, and the uncertainty analysis of this system.
The evaluation method of this system follows “ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement —Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM: 1995)”, which is issued by ISO. According to the evaluation method, Type A and Type B uncertainties evaluation are included. This document states the detail information about the source of system errors and the evaluation method. According to the series analysis of measurement data, the capability and expanded uncertainty of this system was stated as follows with a coverage factor (k = 2) corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
Frequency range:0.5 GHz to 8 GHz
Maximum electric field:200 V/m
Relative expanded uncertainty:0.77 dB(0.5 GHz to 1 GHz)、0.95 dB(1 GHz to 8 GHz)
14 Measurement System Validation Procedure for TEM Cell Electromagnetic Field Strength System This document introduces the uncertainty analysis method and procedure for the calibration of an electric field probe by the Transverse Electromagnetic Transmission Cell Field Strength Measurement System (system code: U06).  The contents of this report consist of introduction of the system, principle of measurement, and the uncertainty analysis of this system.
The evaluation method of this system follows “ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement —Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM: 1995)” [7.1], which is issued by ISO. According to the evaluation method, Type A and Type B uncertainties evaluation are included. This document states the detail information about the source of system errors and the evaluation method. According to the series analysis of measurement data, the capability and expanded uncertainty of this system was stated as follows with a coverage factor (k = 2) corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.

Frequency Range:100 kHz to 500 MHz
Maximum Electric Field:200 V/m
Relative Expanded Uncertainty:0.7 dB
15 Instrument Calibration Technique for Programmable Josephson Voltage Measurement System This instrument calibration technique describes the calibration procedures for programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) measurement system (system code:E01). The system is the primary voltage standard in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). It provides the calibration service to the DC standard voltage outputs of Zener references and DC digital voltmeters. The measurement method is based on the quantized voltage values produced by the programmable Josephson chip at low temperature. The calibrated voltage and its uncertainty are obtained by statistic processes.
The uncertainty analysis is according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995). The following shows the measurement range, expanded uncertainty, level of confidence, and coverage factor of this system:
Measurement range:1 mV to 10 V,
Expanded uncertainty:50 nV to 98 nV,
Level of confidence:95 %,
Coverage factor:2
16 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Programmable Josephson Voltage Measurement System This report is the measurement system validation procedure for 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) measurement system (system code:E01). This system is the primary voltage standard at National Measurement Laboratory (NML). It provides the calibration service to the DC standard voltage outputs of Zener references and DC digital voltmeters. The measurement method is based on the quantized voltage values produced by the programmable Josephson chip at low temperature. The calibrated voltage and its uncertainty are obtained by statistic processes. The uncertainty analysis is according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995). The following shows the measurement range, expanded uncertainty, level of confidence, and coverage factor of this system: Measurement range:1 mV to 10 V;Expanded uncertainty:50 nV to 98 nV;Confidence level:95 %;Coverage factor:2.
17 Instrument Calibration Technique for AC Programmable Josephson Voltage Measurement System This document describes the calibration procedures for AC programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC PJVS) measurement system (system code:E01). The system is the primary voltage standard in National Measurement Laboratory. It provides the calibration service to the low-frequency (< 500 Hz) AC voltage outputs of the AC voltage source, the voltage divider, and the current shunt. The measurement method is based on the differential sampling technique and the fast Fourier transform analysis. The standard AC voltage of stepwise-approximated sinusoidal waveforms is synthesized with quantum voltage steps produced by the PJVS chip at low temperature. The calibrated AC voltage with its phase displacement and uncertainty are obtained by statistic processes.
The following shows the measurement range, expanded uncertainty, level of confidence, and coverage factor of this system for different units under test:

(1) For AC voltage source calibration:
     Measurement voltage range:0.1 V to 7 V
     Measurement frequency range:1 Hz to 500 Hz
     Relative expanded uncertainty:0.4 μV/V to 16 μV/V
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2

(2) For voltage divider calibration:
     Measurement voltage ratio range:0.001 to 1.0
     Measurement frequency:50 Hz and 62.5 Hz
     Relative expanded uncertainty of the ratio error:1.4 μV/V
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2

(3) For current shunt calibration:
     Measurement input current range:10 mA to 80 A
     Measurement frequency:50 Hz and 62.5 Hz
     Expanded uncertainty of the phase displacement:0.00080 
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2
18 Measurement System Validation Procedure for AC Programmable Josephson Voltage Measurement System This report describes the measurement system validation procedure for AC programmable Josephson voltage standard (AC PJVS) measurement system (system code:E01). The system is the primary voltage standard in National Measurement Laboratory. It provides the calibration service to the low-frequency (< 500 Hz) AC voltage outputs of the AC voltage source, the voltage divider, and the current shunt. The measurement method is based on the differential sampling technique and the fast Fourier transform analysis. The standard AC voltage of stepwise-approximated sinusoidal waveforms is synthesized with quantum voltage steps produced by the PJVS chip at low temperature. The calibrated AC voltage with its phase displacement and uncertainty are obtained by statistic processes.
The following shows the measurement range, expanded uncertainty, level of confidence, and coverage factor of this system for different units under test:

(1) For AC voltage source calibration:
     Measurement voltage range:0.1 V to 7 V
     Measurement frequency range:1 Hz to 500 Hz
     Relative expanded uncertainty:0.4 μV/V to 16 μV/V
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2

(2) For voltage divider calibration:
     Measurement voltage ratio range:0.001 to 1.0
     Measurement frequency:50 Hz and 62.5 Hz
     Expanded uncertainty of the ratio error:1.32 μV/V
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2 

(3) For current shunt calibration:
     Measurement input current range:10 mA to 80 A
     Measurement frequency:50 Hz and 62.5 Hz
     Expanded uncertainty of the phase displacement:0.80 mdeg
     Level of confidence:95 %
     Coverage factor:2
19 Development of measurement methods and measurement procedures This document uses the SOLT (Short-Open-Load-Through) calibration method to obtain the residual error and uncertainty of the network analyzer, and is verified by the verification kit to ensure the measurement accuracy.
20 Collaborative Robots of Smart Machinery for EMC, safety and functional safety test standards for technical report A collaborative robot is a new type of robot. This robot is defined as a robot that can work with humans without using a safety fence for isolation. Collaborative robots and humans work together, which can effectively combine the advantages of machines and humans to make up for each other’s shortcomings. It can not only ensure basic operation accuracy and production speed, but also can be flexibly adjusted and quickly deployed according to specific needs to meet diverse, Individualized production needs of the new industrial era. Collaborative robots can also perform well in various fields such as agriculture, medical care, military, energy, logistics, etc., which makes collaborative robots one of the most promising development projects.
21 EMC and Safety Detection Energy of Smart Machinery Cooperative Robot Research Report Cooperative robots are a new type of robots that can directly work side by side with humans without using safety fences for isolation. Cooperative robots are expected to fill the gap between fully manual assembly lines and fully automated production lines. In some product processes in the manufacturing industry, traditional industrial robots can no longer meet the needs of industry players. Robots that can work together with humans and machines are emerging. International robot manufacturers such as ABB, KUKA, FANUC, etc. have also launched this type of product. , This study will check the domestic institutions that currently have the ability to test and verify the safety and functional safety of collaborative robots, as a reference for the subsequent planning of the testing and verification energy required by the smart machinery industry.
22 Time calibration procedure of moving a portable cesium clock In this paper, we introduce a time calibration procedure of moving a portable cesium clock.
23 Uncertainty evaluation of GNSS remote frequency calibration system We develop a remote frequency calibration system based on GNSS common-View method. The frequency signal under calibrating is limited to the 10 MHz sine wave. The total uncertainty of the system with a coverage factor of k=2 is equal to 1.0 E-13.
24 Uncertainty estimation of time interval measurement system by moving a portable Cesium clock The calibration laboratory follows the rule of ISO 17025 to provide the uncertainty estimation for the calibration system. At present, the Telecommunication Laboratories(TL) provide frequency and time interval calibration services. The time interval calibration compares the difference of the 1 PPS signals between the reference UTC(TL) and the test clock by using a SR620 universal time interval counter. In this remote time interval measurement system, an interpolation method is used to compare the local reference and remote clocks with the help of a portable Cesium clock. For the result of 1 PPS time interval measurements, a conservative estimate of the expanded time uncertainty of the measurement system is 10.0 ns. For the result tracked to the international reference time scale UTC, which is published by the BIPM every month, a conservative estimate of the expanded time uncertainty of the measurement system is 15.0 ns. (Above values are estimated with a coverage factor of k=2, that is a 95% confidence interval.)
25 EMC Test Specification of Smart Machinery Cooperative Robot In this paper, we introduce the EMC test specification of Smart Machinery Cooperative Robot.
26 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Comparative Calibration of Radiation Thermometers The calibration procedures for radiation thermometers in radiation thermometers calibration system, labeled as T01, of the National Measurement Laboratory are described in this document. The measurement range of this calibration system is  90 ℃ to 3000 ℃.
Temperature (°C) Expanded uncertainty(°C) Coverage factor
k
> 90 to 200 0.24 1.99
> 200 to 300 0.2 2.03
> 300 to 400 0.4 2.16
> 400 to 500 0.5 2.36
> 500 to 700 0.6 2.36
> 700 to 800 0.9 2.36
>800 to 900 0.5 2.00
> 900 to 1000 0.6 2.00
>1000 to 1100 0.4 2.00
>1100 to 1300 0.5 2.00
>1300 to 1400 0.6 2.00
>1400 to 1600 0.7 2.00
>1600 to 1700 1.0 2.00
>1700 to 2000 1.5 2.14
>2000 to 2200 2.0 2.23
>2200 to 2500 2.6 2.20
>2500 to 3000 4.8 2.03
27 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Comparative Calibration of Radiation Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures for comparative calibration of radiation thermometers are described in this technical report. The contents of this report include the introduction of the calibration system, the measurement principles and methods, and the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008.
28 Instrument Calibration Technique for Resistance Thermometers This technical document describes the calibration procedures for resistance thermometers in the National Measurement Laboratory.  This calibration system is subordinated to the resistance thermometer measurement system with code of T04.  This calibration system conforms to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and its capability of calibration ranges from -70 ℃ to 300 ℃.  The contents give detailed descriptions on the calibration instruments used, calibration principles and calibration steps.
29 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Fixed-Point Calibration of Platinum Resistance Thermometers This technical document describes the fixed-point calibration procedures for platinum resistance thermometers in the National Measurement Laboratory.  This calibration system is subordinated to the platinum resistance thermometer fixed-point measurement system with code of T05.  This calibration system conforms to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and its capability of calibration ranges from -189.3442 ℃ to 961.78 ℃.
30 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Resistance  Thermometers This technical document presented the system validation procedures for the resistance thermometers measurement system (labeled T04) of the National Measurement Laboratory. The measurement principle, methods and equipment are illustrated in this document.  According to ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008, each of the uncertainty source was estimated by statistical analysis to evaluate the expanded uncertainty of this measurement system. According to the evaluation results, the expanded uncertainties corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 % for the temperature range from –70 °C to 300 °C are shown in the following table.
31 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Fixed-Point Measurement for Noble Metal Thermocouple Thermometers and Pure Metal Thermocouple Thermometers The fixed-point calibration procedures, of National Measurement Laboratory, for noble metal thermocouple thermometers and pure metal thermocouple thermometers are elucidated in this technical report. The measurement range of this calibration system, labeled as T03, for thermocouple thermometers is between 0 ℃ to 1100 ℃. The temperature scale is defined according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90).
32 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Fixed-Point Calibration of Noble Metal Thermocouple Thermometers and Pure Metal Thermocouple Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures, of National Measurement Laboratory, for the fixed-point calibration of noble metal thermocouple thermometers and pure metal thermocouple thermometers are elucidated in this technical report. This calibration system, for noble metal thermocouples, is labeled as T03. The measurement range of this system is between 0 ℃ to 1100 ℃, which is defined by the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90).
33 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Fixed-Point Calibration System of the Radiation Thermometers The calibration procedures for radiation thermometers in radiation thermometers calibration system, labeled as T01, of the National Measurement Laboratory are described in this document. The radiation temperature of the fixed-point blackbody is acquired from measuring its absolute radiance via a standard precision linear pyrometer/radiation thermometer. Besides, the fixed-point blackbodies of In、Sn、Zn、Al、Agand Cu are utilized as the standards for the radiation measurement.The expanded uncertainty of the temperature from 160 ℃to 960 ℃ is
0.07 ℃to 0.20 ℃ @1600 nm, the temperature from 660 ℃to 1324 ℃ is
0.24 ℃to 0.28 ℃ @900 nm, the temperature from 960 ℃to 1085 ℃ is
0.14 ℃to 0.25 ℃ @650 nm。All with a coverage factor k = 2.00 at a confidence level of 95 %.
34 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Fixed-Point Calibration of Platinum Resistance Thermometers The measurement uncertainty evaluation of the fixed-point measurement system for platinum resistance thermometers, labeled T05, is being elucidated in this technical report. This measurement system includes: (1) Triple point cells, freezing point cells, and melting point cells for realizing the fixed-point temperatures (2) Fixed-point furnace or uniform-temperature bath for providing a uniform and stable temperature environment, and the electrical bridge employed as a measurement instrument (3) Standard platinum resistance thermometers used as the check standards or transfer standards.
The descriptions of this measurement system as well as the related measurement principles were introduced in this report. According to the statistical theorem specified in ISO-GUM, the uncertainty of this measurement system was evaluated by steps composing of modeling the measurement, analyzing the uncertainty sources, evaluating the covariances associated with any input estimates, determining the combined standard uncertainty, and determining the expanded uncertainty on the basis of effective degrees of freedom and the level of confidence. The calibration capability of this system, obtained by the evaluation, is stated as follows :

(1) Temperature range: -189.3442 ℃ - 961.78 ℃
(2) Expanded uncertainty (with a confidence level of approximately 95 %):

Temperature Fixed Point Temperature
(℃) Expanded Uncertainty (mK) Coverage Factor
FP of Ag 961.78 4.6 2.00
FP of Al 660.323 3.0 2.00
FP of Zn 419.527 1.2 2.00
FP of Sn 231.98 0.74 2.00
FP of In 156.5975 0.80 2.00
MP of Ga 29.3646 0.40 2.00
TP of H2O 0.01 0.09 2.00
TP of Hg -38.8344 0.41 2.00
TP of Ar -189.3442 0.74 2.00
FP: Freezing point MP: Melting point TP: Triple point
35 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Fixed-Point Calibrtion System of the Radiation Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures for fixed-point calibrtion system of radiation thermometers are described in this technical report.  This calibration system of National Measurement Laboratory is labeled as T01.  The contents of this report include the introduction of the calibration system, the measurement principles and methods, and the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty.  The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008[7.1]
The calibration capabilities of this measurement system are evaluated as:
The expanded uncertainty of the temperature from 160 ℃to 960 ℃ is
0.07 ℃to 0.20 ℃ @1600 nm, the temperature from 660 ℃to 1324 ℃ is
0.24 ℃to 0.28 ℃ @900 nm, the temperature from 960 ℃to 1085 ℃ is
0.14 ℃to 0.25 ℃ @650 nm。All with a coverage factor k = 2.00 at a confidence level of 95 %.
36 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Fixed-Point Calibration of Platinum Resistance Thermometer The measurement uncertainty evaluation of the fixed-point measurement system for platinum resistance thermometers, labeled T05, is being elucidated in this technical report. This measurement system includes: (1) Triple point cells, freezing point cells, and melting point cells for realizing the fixed-point temperatures (2) Fixed-point furnace or uniform-temperature bath for providing a uniform-temperature environment, and the electrical bridge employed as a measurement instrument (3) Standard platinum resistance thermometers used as the reference standards, the check standards, or the transfer standards.
The descriptions of this measurement system as well as the related measurement principles were introduced in this report. According to the statistical theorem specified in ISO-GUM, the uncertainty of this measurement system was evaluated by steps composing of modeling the measurement, analyzing the uncertainty sources, evaluating the covariance associated with any input estimates, determining the combined standard uncertainty, and determining the expanded uncertainty on the basis of effective degrees of freedom and the level of confidence. The calibration capability of this system, obtained by the evaluation, is stated as follows :
(1) Temperature range: -189.3442 ℃ - 961.78 ℃
(2) Expanded uncertainty (with a confidence level of approximately 95 %):

Temperature Fixed Point Temperature
(℃) Expanded Uncertainty (mK) Coverage Factor

FP of Ag 961.78 4.6 2.00
FP of Al 660.323 3.0 2.00
FP of Zn 419.527 1.2 2.00
FP of Sn 231.98 0.74 2.00
FP of In 156.5975 0.80 2.00
MP of Ga 29.3646 0.40 2.00
TP of H2O 0.01 0.09 2.00
TP of Hg -38.8344 0.41 2.00
TP of Ar -189.3442 0.74 2.00
FP: Freezing point MP: Melting point TP: Triple point
37 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Fixed-Point Calibration of Platinum Resistance Thermometer This technical document describes the fixed-point calibration procedures for platinum resistance thermometers in the National Measurement Laboratory.  This calibration system is subordinated to the platinum resistance thermometer fixed-point measurement system with code of T05.  This calibration system conforms to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and its capability of calibration ranges from --189.3442 ℃ to 961.78 ℃.
38 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Comparative Calibration of Room Temperature Radiation Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures for comparative calibration of low/room radiation thermometers are described in this technical report. This calibration system of National Measurement Laboratory is labeled as T01.The measurement range is -40 C to 90 °C. The contents of this report include the introduction of the calibration system, the measurement principles and methods, and the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty.  The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008
39 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Comparative Calibration
of Room Temperature Radiation Thermometers
The calibration procedures for radiation thermometers in radiation thermometers calibration system, labeled as T01, of the National Measurement Laboratory are described in this document. The measurement range of this calibration system is 10 °C ~ 90 °C
40 Instrument Calibration Technique for RH Hygrometer and Dew-Point Meter This technical document is the instrument calibration technique of various types of hygrometer and dew-point meter by two-pressure humidity generator for the two-pressure humidity generator measurement system (system code: H01) in National Measurement Laboratory. The steps of the calibration procedure, equipment, preparations before calibration, and the example of calibration report are listed in this document.
According to the system evaluation result, the measurement range and the expanded uncertainty provided for calibration service are defined as the table below.
41 Measurement System Validation Procedures for RH Hygrometers and Dew-point Meter This document states the uncertainty evaluation procedures for two-pressure humidity generator. This system can generate standard gas by mean of two-pressure principle to calibrate various type of hygrometers. This documentation is to be attached to the two-pressure calibration system (system code: H01). The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008. According to the result of evaluation, the calibration capability of this calibration system is finally defined as below. Coverage factor k = 2.00 with a confidence level of 95 %.
42 Measurement System Validation Procedure for pressure sensitivity calibration system of half-inch laboratory standard microphone - reciprocity method This document of measurement system validation procedure (MSVP) describes the estimation of measurement uncertainty for calibration system of half-inch laboratory standard microphones by reciprocity technique (System code A01). It includes system introduction, calibration principle, uncertainty estimation and measurement verification, and serve as a reference guide for the operator and system team leader.
The system provides calibrating sound pressure sensitivity for half-inch (13.2 mm) condenser microphone. The suitable calibration ranges are compliant to IEC 61094-1 LS2P of half-inch condenser microphone (Frequency range: 10 Hz to 25 kHz).
43 instrument calibration technique for pressure sensitivity of half-inch laboratory standard microphone - reciprocity method This document of instrument calibration technique (ICT) mainly functions as an operational guide for microphone sound pressure sensitivity calibration system ¾ reciprocity method (System code A01). It comprises preliminary operation, calibration steps, the post-calibration and shutdown procedure, data analysis, and providing examples of calibration report during calibration.
The system provides calibrating sound pressure sensitivity for half-inch laboratory standard microphone. The suitable calibration ranges are compliant to IEC 61094-1 LS2P of half-inch laboratory standard microphone (Frequency range: 10 Hz to 25 kHz).
44 Instrument Calibration Technique for Dew-Point Hygrometer at Low Dew Point Temperature This technical document is the instrument calibration technique of dew-point hygrometers by low humidity generator for the two-pressure humidity generator measurement system (system code: H01) in National Measurement Laboratory. The calibration step, required equipment for this calibration is stated in this document. An example of calibration report is given.

According to the system evaluation result, the measurement range and the expanded uncertainty provided for calibration service are defined as the table below.
45 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Low Dew-Point Hygrometer at Low Dew Point Temperature This document states the uncertainty evaluation procedures for two-pressure humidity generator for calibration of various type of hygrometers and dew-point hygrometer. This documentation is to be attached to the two-pressure calibration system (system code : H01).
The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3 :2008. According to the result of evaluation, the expanded uncertainty of this calibration system is defined as below.
46 Instrument Calibration Technique for the High Temperature Eutectic Fixed-Point Measurement for Noble Metal Thermocouple Thermometers and Pure Metal Thermocouple Thermometers The fixed-point calibration procedures, of National Measurement Laboratory, for noble metal thermocouple thermometers and pure metal thermocouple thermometers are elucidated in this technical report. The measurement range of this calibration system, labeled as T03. The temperature scale is defined according to the supplementary guides for International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The calibration of thermocouple thermometers are carried out at the eutectic fixed-points of Cobalt-Carbon alloy (Co-C;~1324 °C) Palladium-Carbon alloy (Pd-C;~1492 °C). The temperature measurement range is between 1100 °C and 1500 °C.
47 Final Report of APMP.AUV.V-K3.1:
Key comparison in the field of Acceleration on the complex voltage sensitivity
This report presents the results of the APMP.AUV.V-K3.1 key comparison in the area of ‘vibration’, which here refers to the calibration of the accelerometer standards set in compliance with method 1 or method 3 as recommended in the international standard ISO 16063-11:1999.
All participating laboratories had their results linked to the KCRV of the relevant CIPM level key comparison, namely CCAUV.V-K3, via linking laboratory NIM. The degrees of equivalence of the participants to the KCRV can be used to support their calibration and measurement capabilities.
48 Entrusted and integrated development a set of high stability temperature control circuit system High stability temperature control circuit design and related material specification record report
49 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the High Temperature Eutectic Fixed-Point Measurement for Noble Metal Thermocouple Thermometers and Pure Metal Thermocouple Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures, of National Measurement Laboratory, for the high temperature eutectic fixed-point calibration of noble metal thermocouple thermometers and pure metal thermocouple thermometers are elucidated in this technical report. The measurement range of this calibration system, labeled as T03. The temperature scale is defined according to the supplementary guides for International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The calibration of thermocouple thermometers are carried out at the eutectic fixed-points of Cobalt-Carbon alloy (Co-C;~1324 °C) Palladium-Carbon alloy (Pd-C;~1492 °C). The temperature measurement range is between 1100 °C and 1500 °C.
50 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Eitectic Fixed-Point Calibration System of the Radiation Thermometers The measurement system validation procedures for eutectic points calibrtion system of radiation thermometers are described in this technical report.  This calibration system of National Measurement Laboratory is labeled as T01.  The contents of this report include the introduction of the calibration system, the measurement principles and methods, and the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty.  The measurement uncertainty of this system was evaluated according to statistical analysis theory of ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008
The calibration capabilities of this measurement system are evaluated as:the expanded uncertainty of the temperature from 1085 ℃ to 3000 ℃ is
0.14 ℃to 3.6 ℃ with a coverage factor k = 2.00 at a confidence level of 95 %.
51 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Eutectic Fixed-points Calibration System of the Radiation Thermometers The calibration procedures for radiation thermometers in radiation thermometers calibration system, labeled as T01, of the National Measurement Laboratory are described in this document. The radiation temperature of the eutectic fixed-point blackbody is acquired from measuring its absolute radiance via a standard precision linear pyrometer. Besides, the fixed-point blackbodies of Co-C、Pt-C and Re-C are utilized as the standards for the radiation measurement.The expanded uncertainty of the temperature from 1085 ℃ to 3000 ℃ is
0.14 ℃to 3.6 ℃ with a coverage factor k = 2.00 at a confidence level of 95 %.
52 The System Integration Test Report of Blackbody Simulator This research is for the development of the blackbody simulator measurement system for the in-line calibration of radiation thermometer. It contains the measurement principle of radiation thermometers, measurement technology of simulation blackbody and the preliminary research result. The blackbody simulator taking SLD, as light source, tuned with optical lens, and measured by radiation thermometer under calibration, is substitute for traditional calibration. It enables user to conduct in-line and on-time calibration of radiation thermometer with blackbody simulator.
53 Instrument Calibration Technique fro Resistance Thermometers This technical document describes the calibration procedures for resistance thermometers in the National Measurement Laboratory.  This measurement system is subordinated to the resistance thermometer measurement system code: T04.  This measurement system conforms to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and its capability of calibration ranges from -70 °C to 300 °C.  The contents give detailed descriptions on the calibration instruments used, calibration principles and calibration steps.
54 Technical Report on Blackbody and System of Temperature Measurement This research is for the development of the blackbody simulator measurement system for the in-line calibration of radiation thermometer. It contains the measurement principle of radiation thermometer, measurement technology simulation blackbody and the preliminary research result. The blackbody simulator taking SLD, as light source, tuned with optical lens, and measured by radiation thermometer under calibration, is substitute for traditional calibration. It enables user to conduct in-line and on-time calibration of radiation thermometer with blackbody simulator.
55 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Resistance Thermometers This technical document presented the system validation procedures for the resistance thermometers measurement system (system code:T04) of the National Measurement Laboratory. The measurement principle, methods and equipment are illustrated in this document. According to ISO/IEC GUIDE 98-3:2008, each of the uncertainty source was estimated by statistical analysis to evaluate the expanded uncertainty of this measurement system.
56 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement of Platinum Resistance Thermometer This technical document describes the thermodynamic temperature calibration procedures for platinum resistance thermometers in the National Measurement Laboratory.  This measurement system is subordinated to the fixed-point measurement system for platinum resistance thermometers with code of T05.  This measurement system conforms to the International System of Units (SI Units) implemented 20 May 2019, having the capability of 213.15 K to 373.15 K (-60 ℃ to 100 ℃) calibration range, and associated expanded uncertainties with a confidence level of approximately 95 % is 0.40 mK.
57 Measurement System Validation Procedures for the Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement of Platinum Resistance Thermometers The uncertainty evaluation of the thermodynamic temperature measurement system for platinum resistance thermometers, labeled T05, is being elucidated in this technical report. This measurement system is a primary acoustic gas thermometry system that utilizes the method of measuring acoustic gas speed to determine the thermodynamic temperature, and is also called PAT-Q system for short. It is composed mainly of four sub-systems, including air pressure control system, temperature system, microwave system, and acoustic system.
The descriptions of this measurement system as well as the related measurement principles were introduced in this report. According to the statistical theorem specified in ISO-GUM, the uncertainty of this measurement system was evaluated by steps composing of modeling the measurement, analyzing the uncertainty sources, evaluating the covariance associated with any input estimates, determining the combined standard uncertainty, and determining the expanded uncertainty on the basis of effective degrees of freedom and the level of confidence. The calibration capability of this system, obtained by the evaluation, is stated as follows :
(1) Temperature range: 213.15 K to 373.15 K
(2) Expanded uncertainty with a confidence level of approximately 95 % is 0.40 mK (coverage factor k=2.00)
58 Operating manual for beamline users at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center This manual describes operating instructions for the users of the BL08B beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Taiwan. Current available functions include energy/wavelength scan and x/y/z 3-axis sample stage control. Using above functions, the users can do experiments such as EUV photodiodes/detectors stability evaluation, spatial responsivity evaluation, spectral responsivity calibration, synchrotron beamline stability evaluation, spot size evaluation.
59 The design and technique of vacuum extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation In order to calibrate the spectral responsivity (unit: A/W) of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical power meter designed to be used in EUV lithography chambers, a wavelength switchable EUV light source has been developed. The EUV light source includes a table-top coherent light source based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and a custom-built EUV spectrometer. The energy (wavelength) range of the reporting EUV light source is from 40 eV to 120 eV (~ 10 nm to 30 nm), covering the mostly used wavelength of 13.5 nm for EUV lithography. Instead of conventional diffraction mounting of gratings, the EUV spectrometer is based on the conical diffraction mounting geometry. Such design successfully increases light emitting efficiency. The output optical power of this EUV light source is close to 1μW. In the future, the reporting EUV light source will be considered as a standard light source for EUV detector responsivity calibration.
60 Pilot study on spectral responsivity calibration of EUV detectors In order to cope with local semiconductor industry in developing advanced lithography techniques, the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) initiated to establish EUV radiometry-related measurement and calibration capabilities, starting with spectral responsivity calibration for EUV detectors. Related measurement facilities have been built at the National Synchrotron Radiation Center (NSRRC); related measurement functions and calibration procedures have also been tested. This report records the experiment results and our experience obtained through the development of EUV spectral responsivity calibration system at the NSRRC this year. It is a valuable document for further improvement. The content of this report includes: calibration principles, facilities for vacuum radiometry, related measurement functions for spectral responsivity calibration, experimental results, and practical issues to be solved and/or improved.
61 Instrument Calibration Technique for weights by the Kilogram Weighing System-METTLER M_one Vacuum Mass Comparator This procedure provides the laboratory colleague as reference to weigh 1 kg weights. In practical weighing, double substitution method is used to do the mass comparison of weights. Controlling the load alternator by computer during weighing, the readings of the weights (weights combination) at each position can be obtained from the readout of display. After several weighing, the differences of weights, the mean deviation and the standard deviation can be calculated out, and then the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can also be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
This system belongs to the Kiolgram Mass Measurement System(M02).
62 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the kilogram weighing system-METTLER M_one vocuum mass comparator Uncertainty evaluations were described in this document for the Mettler-Toledo M_ONE, which is the key instrument of the prototype balance system. The uncertain evaluation for the mass of the primary stainless standard weight is obtained from the mass of Pt-Ir prototype kilogram.
After evaluations, the calibration capability of this system is shown below:
Calibration range:1 kg
Expanded uncertainty:29 μg (coverage factor , corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.)

This system belongs to prototype balance measurement system (M02).
63 Instrument Calibration Technique of Vickers Hardness Standard Machine This calibration procedure is used as a guide to operate the Micro Vickers hardness standard machine. This document explain the items should be prepared before calibrating, the calibrating steps and how to deal with the instruments and raw data after calibrating, besides it also explain some adjustment processes. The measurement range is form 100 HV to 900 HV.
64 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Micro/Nano Mechanical Properties Measurement System The main purpose of this document is to find out the measurement ability of length and force of Micro/Nano Mechanical Properties Measurement System. This document can be used as the basis for calculating measurement uncertainty in performing material tests. A copper wire was used as referenced material for evaluating the uncertainty of Young’s modulus.
65 Instrument Calibration Technique for weights by the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System - METTLER a107XL Robotic Automatic Mass Comparator This procedure provides the laboratory colleague as reference to use Mettler a107XL robotic mass comparator to weigh 10 g、20 g、50 g and 100 g weights. The maximum weighing range is 111 g and the readability is 0.1 μg.
In practical weighing, double substitution method is used to do the mass comparison. Controlling the load alternator by computer during weighing, the readings of the weights at each position can be obtained from the readout of display. After several weighing, the differences of weights, the mean deviation and the standard deviation can be calculated out, and then the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can also be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
66 Instrument Calibration Technique for weights by  the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System – METTLER a10XL Robotic Mass Comparator This procedure provides the laboratory colleague as reference to use Mettler a10XL robotic mass comparator to weigh 10 g、5 g、2 g、1 g、500 mg、200 mg、100 mg、50 mg、20 mg、10 mg、5 mg、2 mg and 1 mg weights. The maximum weighing range is 10.1 g and the readability is 0.1 μg.
In practical weighing, double substitution method is used to do the mass comparison of  10 g、5 g、2 g、1 g、500 mg、200 mg、100 mg、50 mg、20 mg、10 mg、5 mg、2 mg and 1 mg. Controlling the load alternator by computer during weighing, the readings of the weights (weights combination) at each position can be obtained from the readout of display. After several weighing, the differences of weights, the mean deviation and the standard deviation can be calculated out, and then the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can also be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
This system belongs to the Low-Capacity Mass Measurement System(M01).
67 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System – Sartorius CCR10-1000 Robotic Mass Comparator This document provides laboratory colleagues a reference for evaluating the uncertainty of weighting 100 g, 200 g, 500 g and 1 kg.
In practical weighing, the double substitution method is adopted to do mass comparison of 100 g, 200 g, 500 g and 1 kg weights. During weighing, the readings of the weighting can be obtained and the mean value and standard deviation can be calculated out by computer, the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
Measurement scope of the system: 100 g, 200 g, 500 g and 1 kg.
Coverage factor and expanded uncertainty with a 95% confidence level are shown as below.
Measurement scope Coverage factor Expanded uncertainty (mg)
1 kg        1.96 0.050
500 g 1.97 0.023
200 g 1.97 0.011
100 g 1.97 0.010
The system belongs to the low-capacity mass measurement system (M01).
68 Instrument Calibration Technique for weights by the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System – Sartorius CCR10-1000 Robotic mass comparator This procedure provides the laboratory colleague as reference to use Sartorius CCR 10-1000 robotic mass comparator to weigh 200 g、500 g and 1 kg weights. The maximum weighing range is 1002 g, electronic weighing capacity is 2.1 g and the readability is 1 μg.
In practical weighing, double substitution method is used to do the mass comparison. Controlling the load alternator by computer during weighing, the readings of the weights at each position can be obtained from the readout of display. After several weighing, the differences of weights, the mean deviation and the standard deviation can be calculated out, and then the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can also be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
This system belongs to the Low-Capacity Mass Measurement System(M01).
69 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System – METTLER a10XL Robotic Mass Comparator This document provides the uncertainty evaluations of weighting 1 mg, 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 5 g and 10 g for the Mettler a10XL robotic mass comparator.
In practical weighing, the double substitution method is adopted to do mass comparison of 1 mg, 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 5 g and 10 g weights. During weighing, the readings of the weighting can be obtained and the mean value and standard deviation can be calculated out by computer, the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
Measurement scope of the system: 1 mg, 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 5 g and 10 g.
70 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Low-Capacity Mass Weighing System – METTLER a107XL Robotic Automatic mass comparator This procedure provides a reference for evaluating the uncertainty when performing mass calibrations of weights of 10 g, 20 g, 50 g and 100 g.
In practical weighing, double substitution method is used to do the mass comparison of 10 g, 20 g, 50 g and 100 g. During weighing, the reading of the weight at each position can be obtained. After performing several measurements, the mean value and standard deviation can be calculated by computer, and the mass value and uncertainty of the unknown weight can be calculated out from the values of standard weight.
Measurement scope of the system: 10 g、20 g、50 g and 100 g
71 Instrument Calibration Technique for Force Transducer by Small Force Calibration System The contents of this calibration procedure for the 10 N small force calibration system include procedures of preparations, calibration procedure, post-calibration, data analysis and calibration report. The force transducer in the range from 1 mN to 10 N can be calibrated by the system.
This instruction can also serve as a reference for practical training of new staffs who are designated to perform calibrations using the 10 N universal calibration system.
72 The Report of Silicon sphere Mass determination At the 26th meeting of CGPM in November 2018, the definition of the unit of mass, the kilogram, is redefined by a fixed numerical value of Planck constant h = 6.626 070 15×10-34 J s to replace the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK). One of the primary methods to realize the definition is the XRCD method (X-ray crystal density method) using a 28Si-enriched sphere whose mass can be expressed in terms of the number of Si atoms inside and the mass of the surface layer. The document describes the procedure in determining the mass and uncertainty of the 28Si-enriched sphere using the Planck constant and the sphere’s calibration certificates including molar mass, sphere volume, defects and mass of surface layer, which is a necessary step for its onward mass standard dissemination.
73 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Small Force Calibraton System This document describes the uncertainty evaluation for force transducer calibration at the range of 10 mN to 10 N (1 gf to 1000 gf) by the 10 N small force calibration system. The uncertainty was evaluated according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. A measurement assurance program is designed using check standards and control charts to insure the system’s stabilization and reliability. This system is belong to 200 mN Force Universal Calibration System (System code: N11).
74 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Line Scale Standards This document is an assessment report on the calibration system of the standard scale. The standard calibrated scales shall be grade 0 (CNS 7870-B6049) with 0.01 mm to 1000 mm in length. The uncertainty and analysis of measurement results are based on "ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement - Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995)". The error sources caused by measuring the line scales are considered and evaluated.
75 Instrument Calibration Technique for Line Scale Standards This document describes the calibration procedures for the standard scale of different materials (ex. steel, glass…)of grade 0 (CNS 7870-B6049) with lengths 0.1 to 1000 mm. The calibration system developed by the National Measurement Laboratory was composed by a MOORE M-48X single axis instrument to position the graduation and a PZT-drive fine adjustment table with CCD camera to fine position the graduation.
76 Promotion and Introduction of Quality Information Framework in Taiwan Industry Quality Information Framework
77 Stitching and reconstruction technology for 3D point cloud Using images taken continuously, we can find the camera’s shooting position, angle, and their spatial relationships with each other, and obtain a homogeneous transformation matrix. Then, we transform these point clouds to the same coordinate by the matrices. After the transformation, we show the result of point clouds on the screen.Apply the point cloud information to the homogeneous transformation matrix to know the point cloud shooting position, direction, and the point cloud splicing position. Reconstruct the point cloud information in the 3D coordinate system and present the 3D point cloud splicing result. The steps are below 1. Scan and capture: Use a 3D scanner to go around the object to capture images and point clouds; 2. Camera Calibration: Before calculating the camera pose, we need to find the internal parameters to correct the image caused by the camera lens distortion; 3. Feature Detection: To know the shooting position and direction, it needs to find features on the images, and matching two images with features, which are at the same position of the object; 4. Homogeneous transformation matrix: obtain the transformation matrix between different camera positions (R t, rotation, and translation) through the matching features on the images; 5. Initial registration: After obtaining homogeneous transformation matrices, we applied it to the point cloud. That is, the point cloud is rotated and translated, placed on the same coordinate system as other point clouds. 6.ICP: Using Iterative Closest Point(ICP), we can correct the result above from the point clouds. Thus, we can achieve the precise registration. 7. Point cloud registration: Transform the point cloud by the transformation matrix from ICP, and visualize. 8. CMM verification: Compare our result with the Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM).
78 Automated measurement technology of 3D point cloud for highly-reflective objects The technical document contains two parts: first part is the 3D point cloud measurement technology of fringe projection, and second part is automated image processing technology for highly-reflective objects. The former one explains the technical principles of fringes projection and the calculation method of 3D point cloud. The latter one explains the influence of the metal object with highly-reflective surface, also includes the proposed method of the automated highly-reflective object image processing technology to satisfy the measurement application without matting powder. The content of the technical document includes technical principles, algorithm and the actual measurement results of highly-reflective object.
79 Measurement System Validation Procedures for Angular Encoder This document states the uncertainty evaluation procedures for the angular encoders calibration system at National Measurement Laboratory. The calibration method bases on comparison method. The angle standard is self-calibiratable angle measurement equipment which includes a rotary table, a tracable angular encoder and twelve optical readheads. By using self angle calibration, every angle of the angle standard can be calculated. Comparing the angle between the angle standard and the angular encoder, the deviation angle of angular encoder can be calculated. The effects of the influential factors on this calibration system will be considered to estimate the uncertainty according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. The confidence level of this system is 95 %. This calibration system is attached to the Angle Blocks Calibration System (System code: D06).
80 Instrument Calibration Technique For Angular Encoder This document describes the calibration procedures for angular encoders at National measurement Laboratory. The angular encoders to be calibrated are compared with the angle standard. The angle standard is self-calibiratable angle measurement equipment which includes a rotary table, a tracable angular encoder and twelve optical readheads. By using self angle calibration, every angle of the angle standard can be calculated. Comparing the angle between the angle standard and the angular encoder, the deviation angle of angular encoder can be calculated. This calibration system is attached to the Angle Blocks Calibration System (System code: D06).
81 Geometrical Errors Measurement and Monitoring Technique for Rotary Tables The project focuses on developing a software for geometrical error measurement and a monitoring technique for machine abnormality aiming for the c-axis of five-axis machine tools. Accelerometers and displacement sensors are utilized to measure the vibration and displacement signal of the c-axis, respectively. In the first stage of the project, signal processing methods such as spindle error analysis, Vold-Kalman filter order tracking analysis and noise reduction are developed and validated for their respective effectiveness. With a pair of displacement sensors mounted 90° apart,  the roundness due to synchronous and/or asynchronous of c-axis spindle error motion is quantified to assess the spindle performance. With the Vold-Kalman filter order tracking technique, the amplitude and the phase measured by the accelerometers or displacement sensors are more accurate in constructing the displacement and/or vibration holospectrum. Moreover, a corresponding software has been developed, which provides a user-friendly tool in utilizing this technique. Features extracted from the vibration/displacement holographic spectrum can be further utilized in monitoring the c-axis health condition based on the unsupervised learning method.
82 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Nanoparticles Size Calibration System-Differential Mobility Analysis This document describes the uncertainty evaluation of nanoparticles size calibration system characterized by differential mobility analysis (DMA), belonging to nanoparticle measuring system (D26). The measuring system is assembled by TSI commercial instruments and can currently provide the particle size calibration service from 20 nm to 500 nm.
The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. The error sources from the measurement instruments and process are considered and evaluated. After a practical evaluation of uncertainty, the existing measuring system provides the following capability.
‧ Calibration item: Particle Size Standards (Polystyrene)
‧ Measuring range: 20 nm to 500 nm.
‧ Confidence level: 95 %
‧ Expanded uncertainty:
Measuring range Expanded uncertainty Coverage factor
20 nm ≦ D ≦ 250 nm 0.067D - 0.149 nm 1.97
250 nm < D < 350 nm 0.062D 1.97
350 nm ≦ D ≦ 500 nm 0.066D + 0.081 nm 1.96
83 Instrument Calibration Technique for Nanoparticles Size-Differential Mobility Analysis This document describes the calibration procedures for nanoparticle size characterized by differential mobility analysis (DMA), belonging to nanoparticle measuring system (D26). The measuring system is assembled by TSI commercial instruments and can currently provide the particle size calibration service from 20 nm to 500 nm.
The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. The error sources from the measurement instruments and process are considered and evaluated. After a practical evaluation of uncertainty, the existing measuring system provides the following capability.
‧ Calibration item: Particle Size Standards (Polystyrene, PSL)
‧ Measuring range: 20 nm to 500 nm
‧ Confidence level: 95 %
‧ Expanded uncertainty:
Measuring range Expanded uncertainty Coverage factor
20 nm ≦ D ≦ 250 nm 0.067D - 0.149 nm 1.97
250 nm < D < 350 nm 0.062D 1.97
350 nm ≦ D ≦ 500 nm 0.066D + 0.081 nm 1.96
where D is particle diameter in nm.
84 Instrument Calibration Technique for Scanning Electron Microscope System - Standard Particle Size This document describes the uncertainty evaluation of standard pitch calibration by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The calibration system is belonging to Scanning Electron Microscope Calibration System (D28). The system will provide pitch calibration from 10 nm to 60 nm.The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement”, ISO/IEC 98-3:2008. The measurement system currently provides the following capability.
85 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Scanning Eletron Microscopy System -Standard Particle Size This document describes the uncertainty evaluation of standard particle calibration by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The calibration system is belonging to Scanning Electron Microscopy Calibration System (D28). The system will provide particle size calibration from 10 nm to 60 nm.
86 Instrument Calibration Technique for Nanoparticle Size Measurement System- Calibration of Zeta Potential This document describes the procedure to calibrate the Zeta potential of polystyrene latex beads utilizing the electrophoretic light scattering method. The calibration system belongs to Nano Particle Functional Property Measurement System (system code D27) with Zetasizer Nano ZS analyzer (Malvern Instruments) as the measuring apparatus. This system currently provides Zeta potential calibration service for polystyrene standards with particle diameter larger than 20 nm and the absolute value of Zeta potential smaller than 75 mV. Utilizing the light scattering method and Doppler effect, the instrument measures the moving speed and electric mobility of charged particles under the influence of an external electric field. The Zeta potential can thus be calculated based on a suitable theoretical model. The details of the preparation steps, calibration procedure, and data analysis are also included in this document, which is the reference for calibration services of Zeta potential in National Measurement Laboratory (NML).
87 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Nanoparticle Size Measurement  System – Calibration of Zeta Potential This document describes the uncertainty evaluation of Zeta potential calibration system characterized by Electrophoretic Light Scattering, ELS. The calibration system belongs to Nano Particle Functional Property Measurement System (system code D27) with Zetasizer Nano ZS analyzer (Malvern Instruments) as the measuring apparatus. This system currently provides Zeta potential calibration service for polystyrene standards with particle diameter larger than 20 nm and the absolute value of Zeta potential smaller than 75 mV. The uncertainty evaluation of the measurement system follows the guidance of ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. The sources of error are identified and their impacts on the measurement results are evaluated.
88 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Nanoparticle Size Measurement System - Calibration of Sepcific Surface Area by Gas Adsorption BET Method This document describes the calibration procedures to calibrate the specific surface area of the standard particles according to the physical gas adsorption behavior with BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method. The calibration system belongs to nanoparticle size measurement system (system code D27) with the measuring instrument ASAP 2020 analyzer manufactured by Micromeritics, USA. It provides an ideal calibration approach for measuring specific surface area of standard nanoparticles within 3 m2/g to 600 m2/g.
The uncertainty analysis of measurement system is based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. All uncertainty sources occurred from the measurement instruments and process are considered and evaluated essentially. The measurement system currently provides the following measurement capabilities.
‧ Calibration item: specific surface area of standard particle (gas adsorption – BET method)
‧ Measurement range: 3 m2/g to 600 m2/g
‧ Relative expanded uncertainty: 2.1 %
‧ Confidence level: 95 %
‧ Coverage factor: 2.13
89 Instrument Calibation Technique for Nanoparticle Size Measurement System -Calibration of Specific Surface Area by Gas Adsorption BET Method This document describes the calibration procedures to calibrate the specific surface area of the standard particles according to the physical gas adsorption behavior with BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method. The calibration system belongs to nanoparticle size measurement system (system code D27) with the measuring instrument ASAP 2020 analyzer manufactured by Micromeritics, USA. It provides an ideal calibration approach for measuring specific surface area of standard nanoparticles within 3 m2/g to 600 m2/g. The BET method is applicable only to adsorption isotherms of type II (nonporous or macroporous solids, pore with width greater than approximately 50 nm) and type IV (mesoporous solids, pore diameter between 2 nm and 50 nm).
90 Ultra-thin film long wavelength XRR measurement technology Semiconductor components have rapidly evolved from 2D-structured Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) to 3D-structured Fin Field Effect Transistors (FinFET). In 2020, the semiconductor industry has developed Gate All Around (GAA) transistor, the three-dimensional structure and material composition are more complex. This has led to a significant increase in the number of key dimension parameters required for measurement.
TSMC expects to advance the process node to 2 nm in 2024, and the key dimensions will continue to shrink. For example, the overlay error is less than 0.2 nm, and the film thickness is less than 0.9 nm. Under the circumstances of complicated structure, miniaturization and new material composition, the measurement difficulty is increased. Therefore, the development of ultra-thin long-wavelength measurement technology is to meet the metrology demands of the semiconductor industry.
91 Design of Long Wavelength GISAXS Measurement Technology Semiconductor components have rapidly evolved from 2D-structured Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) to 3D-structured Fin Field Effect Transistors (FinFET). In 2020, the semiconductor industry has developed Gate All Around (GAA) transistor, the three-dimensional structure and material composition are more complex. This has led to a significant increase in the number of key dimension parameters required for measurement.
TSMC expects to advance the process node to 2 nm in 2024, and the key dimensions will continue to shrink. For example, the minimum line pitch has reached 20 nm, and the overlay error (Overlay) is less than 0.6 nm. Under the circumstances of complicated structure, miniaturization and new material composition, the measurement difficulty is increased. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new critical dimension measuring technologies to meet the measurement needs of the semiconductor industry.
92 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System-Piston Prover This instrument calibration technique is the operational guide for the calibration of gas meters by Volume—time method. The meter to be calibrated is installed in series with the standard device. With a preset flowrate, the piston prover then collects gas that passes through the meter. During calibration, the temperature, pressure, volume or flowrate for the meter under test, and the temperature, pressure, volume, and time for the calibration system are measured. Based on the above-measured results, the deviation or the discharge coefficient can be estimated. Based on ISO GUM, calibration uncertainty of the meter can be evaluated with Type A and Type B evaluations for various uncertainty sources. The standard uncertainties (or relative uncertainties), and degrees of freedom of various sources were evaluated individually, and then combined together to give a combined standard uncertainty (or relative combined standard uncertainty) and effective degree of freedom. Finally, an expanded uncertainty (or relative expanded uncertainty), obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty (or relative combined standard uncertainty) with a coverage factor of 1.98 at 95 % confidence level, gives the uncertainty or relative uncertainty of the measurement process. The applicability of this calibration system is as follows: Volume flowrate : 2 cm3/min to 24 L/min Pressure upstream of the meter : (100 to 700) kPa Environmental temperature : (22 to 24) ℃ Gas : Dry Air, N2, Ar, He, O2, CO2,SF6 Relative expanded uncertainty of standard flowrate: 0.10 % at 95 % confidence level
93 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Sonic Nozzle by High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System - Gravimetric Method This instrument calibration technique is the operational guide of the High Pressure Air-Flow Primary Calibration System for the calibration of sonic nozzles or flowmeters by weighing method. The amount of the gas flowing over a period of time is weighed such that its mass is known directly with no dependence on the gas thermodynamic properties. Then the actual flowrate can be obtained from dividing the collection mass with time. The discharge coefficient is the ratio of the actual flowrate to the theoretical flowrate. The latter is calculated based on the gas temperature and pressure upstream of the sonic nozzle.
Based on ISO GUM, calibration uncertainty of the sonic nozzle was evaluated with Type A and Type B evaluation for various uncertainty sources. The standard uncertainties and degrees of freedom of various sources were evaluated individually, and then combined together to give a combined standard uncertainty and effective degree of freedom. Finally, an expanded uncertainty, obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with a coverage factor of k at 95 % confidence level, gives the uncertainty of the measurement process.
The applicability of this calibration system is as follows:
Volume flow rate range : (15 to 12000) m3/h (at 101.325 kPa, 23 ℃)
Mass flow rate range: (18 to 14000) kg/h
Pressure range of the meter: (5 to 60) bar
Temperature Range: ambient temperature
Calibration medium is air.
94 Instrument Calibration Technique for Low Viscosity Oil Flow System-Weighing Method This document describes the detail of calibrating flowmeters for Low Viscosity Oil Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method at the National Measurement Laboratory-Fluid Flow Group. The standing-start-and-finish mode is used and only suitable to calibrate flowmeters of quantity type with quick response output. The oil passing through the flowmeter is completely collected in the weighing tank, and the actual average temperature and average pressure of the test fluid passing through flowmeter is taken as the reference state. The net oil weight is compensated with air buoyancy effect, with oil density measurement, and is transformed to the volume at reference temperature. Because volume is also affected by pressure effect, referred to actual pressure at flowmeter section, volume is corrected as the standard volume. Comparing the standard volume with measured value gives the characteristics of the flowmeter, which is expressed in meter factor, K-factor or relative error.
Measurement ranges of the system: flowmeter size 50 mm to 250 mm, volume flowrate 3.6 m3/h to 360 m3/h, mass flowrate 50 kg/min to 1800 kg/min, temperature 15 ℃ to 45 ℃, viscosity 2.6 mm2/s to 4.8 mm2/s.
95 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Large Water Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method This document provides details of calibrating flowmeters for the large water flow calibration system at the National Measurement Laboratory. The calibration method for water flowmeters is static weighing that carried out in the flying-start-and-finish mode. By use of the diverter device, the weighing tank start and stop to accumulate water that flow through the meter. Both quantity-type and rate-type flowmeters could be calibrated by the system. The output of flowmeters could be volume, mass, volume flowrate or mass flowrate. The parameter used to express the calibration result could be relative error, error, meter factor, K-factor or converting factor for current to flow.
The uncertainty evaluation in this document refers to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). All considered uncertainty sources in the flow measurement are quantified by and expressed with either Type A or Type B evaluations of uncertainty. The two main sources of uncertainty in a calibration are the measurement of standard value and flow meter value. The uncertainty of flowmeter measurement is related to the output type of flowmeter. The expanded uncertainty having a level of confidence of 95 % is used to express the result of calibration.
The calibration capability of the system is expressed as follows:
Temperature: 15 ℃ to 35 ℃
Pressure: 40 kPa to 500 kPa
Volume flowrate: 1.8 m3/h to 480 m3/h
Mass flowrate: 1800 kg/h to 480000 kg/h
Accumulated volume: 0.375 m3 to 6 m3
Accumulated mass: 375 kg to 6000 kg

According to the operation mode and the system measurand, the relative expanded uncertainty and coverage factor with a known effective degrees of freedom based upon a confidence level of approximately 95 % are summarized as follows.

Mass: UCMC,m = 0.04 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, and kCMC = 2.10.
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.04 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, and kCMC = 2.10.
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.05 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, and kCMC = 1.99.
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.05 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, and kCMC = 1.99.
Repeatibility: urep,BED = 0.008 %.
96 Measruement System Validation Procedure for High Viscosity Oil Flow System-Weighing Method This document describes the details of uncertainty analysis for the High Viscosity Oil Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method at the National Measurement Laboratory-Fluid Flow Group. A mixed oil of CPC R115 and R680 lubricant and Exxon D110 solvent is used as the working fluid. Meanwhile, the standing-start-and-finish mode with the weighing method is used to calibrate flow meters. The adapted mode is only suitable to calibrate quantity-type meters, so this procedure will only validate the system for flow quantity measurements. Measurement ranges of the system are defined as follows.
flowrate: 3.6 m3/h to 360 m3/h; 50 kg/min to 1800 kg/min
temperature: 15 ℃ to 45 ℃
viscosity 37 mm2/s to 150 mm2/s
The calibration capability of the system at 95% confidence level are summarized as follows.
U_CMC,V= 0.05 %、k_CMC= 1.99、v_eff= 73。 U_Base,V= 0.043 %、k_Base= 1.98。
U_CMC,m= 0.04 %、k_CMC= 2.09、v_eff= 19。 U_Base,m= 0.026 %、k_Base= 2.01。
u_rep,BED= 0.01 %
97 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Large Water Flow Calibration System - Weighing Method This document describes the detail uncertainty analysis for large water flow calibration system with weighing method at the National Measurement Laboratory. This national flow standard is constructed to establish traceability chain for field calibration facilities and industrial flow devices. The system adapts static weighing method with flying-start-and-finish mode to calibrate either quantity-type flowmeters or rate-type flowmeters. The measurands of large water flow system can be mass, volume, mass flowrate or volume flowrate. It is can be determined from the measurands of final collected water weight, initial collected water weight, water density, buoyancy correction facto, water pressure. So the uncertainty of measurand is obtained by appropriately combining the uncertainties of the measured variables.
This document validated system uncertainty based on the Type A and Type B evaluations recommended by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). Firstly, we evaluated the uncertainty of different factors for each measured variable, and then obtained each variable’s standard uncertainty by the method of root-sum-squared (RSS). Then, the combined standard uncertainty was derived based on the standard uncertainties and calculated sensitivity coefficients. The effective degree of freedom could be obtained from the Welch-Satterthwaite equation. Finally, the expanded uncertainty was obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level.
Large water flow calibration system operated with flying-start-and-finish mode is applicable to calibration for all type flowmeters to measure volume quantity, mass quantity, volume flow rate and mass flow rate. The measurement range is defined as follows.
Temperature: 15 ℃ to 35 ℃
Pressure: 40 kPa to 500 kPa
Volume flow rate: 1.8 m3/h to 480 m3/h
Mass flow rate: 1800 kg/h to 480000 kg/h
Accumulated volume: 0.375 m3 to 6 m3
Accumulated mass: 375 kg to 6000 kg

According to the operation mode and the system measurand, the relative expanded uncertainty and coverage factor with a known effective degrees of freedom based upon a confidence level of approximately 95 % are summarized as follows.

Mass: UCMC,m = 0.04 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, and kCMC = 2.10.
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.04 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, and kCMC = 2.10.
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.05 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, and kCMC = 1.99.
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.05 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, and kCMC = 1.99.
Repeatibility: urep,BED = 0.008 %.
98 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Viscosity Oil Flow System-Weighing Method This document described details of uncertainty analysis for the Low Viscosity Oil Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method at the National Measurement Laboratory-Fluid Flow Group. A solvent oil of Exxon D110 is used as the working fluid. Meanwhile, the standing-start-and-finish mode with the weighing method is used to calibrate flow meters. The adapted mode is only suitable to calibrate quantity-type meters, so this procedure will only validate the system for flow quantity measurements. Measurement ranges of the system are defined as follows.
flowrate: 3.6 m3/h to 360 m3/h; 50 kg/min to 1800 kg/min
temperature 15 ℃ to 45 ℃
viscosity 2.6 mm2/s to 4.8 mm2/s
The calibration capacity of the system at 95 % confidence level are summarized as follows.
U_CMC,V= 0.05 %、k_CMC= 1.99、veff= 80。 U_Base,V= 0.046 %、k_Base= 1.97。
U_CMC,m= 0.04 %、k_CMC= 2.09、veff= 19。 U_Base,m= 0.026 %、k_Base= 2.02。
u_rep,BED= 0.01 %
99 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Small Water Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method This document provides details of calibrating flowmeters for the small water flow calibration system at the National Measurement Laboratory. The calibration method for water flowmeters is static weighing coupled with the flying-start-and-finish mode. Our system uses the diverter device to start and stop the water into the weighing tank and accumulates water that flow through the meter. Both quantity-type and rate-type flowmeters could be calibrated by the system. The output of flowmeters could be volume, mass, volume flowrate or mass flowrate. The parameter used to express the calibration result could be relative error, error, meter factor, k-factor or converting factor for current to flow.

The uncertainty evaluation in this document refers to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). All considered uncertainty sources in the flow measurement are quantified by and expressed with either Type A or Type B evaluations of uncertainty. The expanded uncertainty having a level of confidence of 95 % is used to express the result of calibration. The calibration capability of the system is expressed as follows:

Temperature: 10 ℃ to 45 ℃
Pressure: 10 kPa to 500 kPa
Accumulated volume: 0.02 m3 to 0.6 m3
Accumulated mass: 20 kg to 600 kg
Volume flow rate: 0.12 m3/h to 42 m3/h
Mass flow rate: 120 kg/h to 42000 kg/h

According to the operation mode and the system measurand, the relative expanded uncertainty and coverage factor with a known effective degrees of freedom based upon a confidence level of approximately 95 % are summarized as follows:
Flow rate 100 L/min to 700 L/min, accumulated mass 550 kg:

Mass: UCMC,m = 0.03 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.10
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.03 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.10
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.04 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.04 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
urep,BED: 0.005 %

Flow rate 10 L/min to 100 L/min, accumulated mass 100 kg:
Mass: UCMC,m = 0.03 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.07
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.03 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.06
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.04 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, kCMC = 2.01
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.04 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
urep,BED: 0.005 %

Flow rate 2 L/min to 10 L/min, accumulated mass 20 kg:
Mass: UCMC,m = 0.06 %, UBase,m = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.06%, UBase,v = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.06 %, UBase,qm = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.06 %, UBase,qv = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
urep,BED: 0.005 %
100 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Small Water Flow Calibration System - Weighing Method This document describes the detail uncertainty analysis for small water flow calibration system with weighing method at the National Measurement Laboratory.  This national flow standard is constructed to establish traceability chain for field calibration facilities and industrial flow devices. The system adapts static weighing method to calibrate either quantity-type flowmeters or rate-type flowmeters. Operation mode is flying-start-and-finish. The measurand of small water flow system can be volume, mass, volume rate or mass rate. It is can be determined from the measurands of final collected water weight, initial collected water weight, water density, buoyancy correction facto, water pressure. So the uncertainty of measurand is obtained by appropriately combining the uncertainties of the measured variables.
This document validated system uncertainty based on the Type A and Type B evaluations recommended by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 (GUM). Firstly, we evaluated the uncertainty of different factors for each measured variable, and then obtained each variable’s standard uncertainty by the method of root-sum-squared (RSS). Then, the combined standard uncertainty was derived based on the standard uncertainties and calculated sensitivity coefficients. The effective degree of freedom could be obtained from the Welch-Satterthwaite equation. Finally, the expanded uncertainty was obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level.
Small water flow calibration system operated with flying-start-and-finish mode is applicable to calibration for all type flowmeters to measure volume quantity, mass quantity, volume flow rate and mass flow rate. The measurement range is defined as follows:
Temperature: 10 ℃ to 45 ℃
Pressure: 10 kPa to 500 kPa
Volume flow rate: 0.12 m3/h to 42 m3/h
Mass flow rate: 120 kg/h to 42000 kg/h
Accumulated volume: 0.02 m3 to 0.6 m3
Accumulated mass: 20 kg to 600 kg

According to the operation mode and the system measurand, the relative expanded uncertainty and coverage factor with a known effective degrees of freedom based upon a confidence level of approximately 95 % are summarized as follows:
Flow rate 100 L/min to 700 L/min, accumulated mass 550 kg:
Mass: UCMC,m = 0.03 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.10
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.03 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.10
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.04 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.04 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
urep,BED: 0.005 %

Flow rate 10 L/min to 100 L/min, accumulated mass 100 kg:
Mass: UCMC,m = 0.03 %, UBase,m = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.07
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.03 %, UBase,v = 0.03 %, kCMC = 2.06
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.04 %, UBase,qm = 0.04 %, kCMC = 2.01
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.04 %, UBase,qv = 0.04 %, kCMC = 1.99
urep,BED: 0.005 %

Flow rate 2 L/min to 10 L/min, accumulated mass 20 kg:
Mass: UCMC,m = 0.06 %, UBase,m = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Volume: UCMC,v = 0.06%, UBase,v = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Mass flow rate: UCMC,qm = 0.06 %, UBase,qm = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
Volume flow rate: UCMC,qv = 0.06 %, UBase,qv = 0.06 %, kCMC = 1.98
urep,BED: 0.005 %
101 Instrument Calibration Technique for High Viscosity Oil Flow System-Weighing Method This document describes the detail of calibrating flowmeters for High Viscosity Oil Flow Calibration System-Weighing Method at the National Measurement Laboratory-Fluid Flow Group. The standing-start-and-finish mode is used and only suitable to calibrate flowmeters of quantity type with quick response output. The oil passing through the flowmeter is completely collected in the weighing tank, and the actual average temperature and average pressure of the test fluid passing through flowmeter is taken as the reference state. The net oil weight is compensated with air buoyancy effect, with oil density measurement, and is transformed to the volume at reference temperature. Because volume is also affected by pressure effect, referred to actual pressure at flowmeter section, volume is corrected as the standard volume. Comparing the standard volume with measured value gives the characteristics of the flowmeter, which is expressed in meter factor, K-factor or relative error.
Measurement ranges of the system: flowmeter size 50 mm to 250 mm, volume flowrate 18 m3/h to 360 m3/h, mass flowrate 50 kg/min to 1800 kg/min, temperature 15 ℃ to 45 ℃, viscosity 37 mm2/s to 150 mm2/s.
102 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System -Piston Prover This document stated the an uncertainty analysis of the Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System—Piston Prover (System code: F06) at the National Measurement Laboratory. This system provided calibration services for gas meter at flow range from 2 cm3/min to 24 L/min (for Dry Air, N2, Ar, O2, CO2) and 20 cm3/min to 24 L/min (for He) using the Volume—Time method.
  Uncertainty analysis based on the propagation of uncertainty approach had been performed for this system. The propagation of uncertainty approach identified significant sources of measurement uncertainty; those sources could be qualified by experiments, instrumentation specifications, educated estimation, and handbook values of uncertainty.  These uncertainty components are combined by the root-sum-square (RSS) and multiplied by a coverage factor to obtain the expanded uncertainty at 95 % confidence level.
  The capability of the calibration system and its relative expanded uncertainty at 95 % confidence level were expressed as follows:
 
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
 
57.3 cm3 99.6 cm3 797.6 cm3 3023.4 cm3 10310 cm3
 
≧24 s ≧24 s ≧24 s ≧24 s ≧24 s
 
(2 to 100)
cm3/min (2 to 200)
cm3/min (40 to 1600)
cm3/min (100 to 6000)
cm3/min (1000 to 24000)
cm3/min
 
0.050 % 0.046 % 0.049 % 0.045% 0.045 %
k 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97
 
0.10 % 0.10 % 0.10 % 0.09 % 0.09 %
 
0.053 % 0.048 % 0.051 % 0.047 % 0.047 %
 
0.11 % 0.10 % 0.11 % 0.10 % 0.10 %
k 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97
Note: Relative standard uncertainty of best existing device: 0.012 %, degrees of freedom is 2.
103 Measurement System Validation Procedure for High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System – Gravimetric Method This document presents the validation procedure for the Primary High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System – Weighing method. The system code is F05. This system is designed to use the weighing method for nozzle calibration, and then uses the nozzle as a transfer standard for meter calibration. The weighing method can calibrate the meter directly only in some special cases under custom orders. This weighing system is of a dynamic, flying-start-and-finish type, and uses a static method to measure the weight of compressed air. Actual air collected is the sum of the weight that the gyroscope reads and the mass derived from pressure and temperature measurements of an un-weighed volume. The calibration capacity of the High Pressure Gas Flow System is as follows: Volume flow rate range : (15 to 12000) m3/h (at 101.325 kPa, 23 ℃) Mass flow rate range: (18 to 14000) kg/h Pressure range of the nozzle: (5 to 60) bar Temperature Range: ambient temperature At 95 % confident level, the expanded uncertainty, coverage factor, degree of freedom of the high-pressure air flow system operated in weighting mode for different scale range are given as below:

Weighting mothod calibrate sonic nozzle uncertainty:
Below 20 % max flow rate Relative expanded uncertainty: 0.12 %; Coverage factor: 1.97
Above 20 % max flow rate Relative expanded Uncertainty: 0.11 %; Coverage factor: 1.97

Weighting mothod calibrate meter uncertainty:
Below 20 % max flow rate Relative expanded uncertainty: 0.13 %; Coverage factor: 1.97
Above 20 % max flow rate Relative expanded Uncertainty: 0.12 %; Coverage factor: 1.96
104 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Gas Meter by High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System-Comparison Method This manual presents the calibration instructions and guidelines for the High Pressure Air-Flow Primary Calibration System-Comparison Method. This standard system uses sonic nozzles as standard device and a comparison method to calibrate various types of flow meter.
The comparison method is the simplest way to calibrate a meter. By producing a steady flow through both standard device and meter under test and register pertinent readings, the deviation of tested meter can be derived.
The combined standard uncertainty calculation is based on type A and B method provided by ISO GUM. At 95% confidence elvel, Coverage Factor k can be calculated from Student-t distribution, according to the effective degrees of freedom veff. The expanded uncertainty is U=k*uc.
The calibration range of the High Pressure Air-Flow system is as follows:
Pressure range of meter:0 to 60 Bara
Temperature Range:5℃  to 45℃.
The volume flow rage of system:15m^3/h  to 18000m^3/h(@1atm, 23℃).
The mass flow rate of system:18kg/h-18000kg/h.
The total molume collected during calibration:0.25m^3 to 50m^3(@ 1atm, 23℃)
Calibration medium is air.
105 Measurement System Validation Procedure for High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System-Comparison Method This document presents the validation procedure for the Primary High Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System – Comparison method. The system code is F05. A compact nozzle array, with seven different-sized nozzles assembled in a plenum, is used as transfer standard. Air flow can be generated by opening different nozzles and by making pressure adjustments to get the required flow rate. The calibration capacity of the High Pressure Gas Flow System is as follows: The applicability of this calibration system is as follows: Volume flow rate range : (15 to 12000) m3/h (at 101.325 kPa, 23℃) Mass flow rate range: (18 to 14000) kg/h Pressure range of the meter: (1 to 60) bar Temperature Range: ambient temperature
106 Instrument Calibration Technique for LDV System-Standard Spinning Disc Method A non-intrusive Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) with appropriate signal processing system is employed as the calibration standard in air speed calibration system at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML). The fringe spacing of LDV system can be calibrated by measuring the velocity of a standard spinning disc.

This instrument calibration technique is the operational guide of the Air Speed Calibration System for the calibration of LDV system by standard spinning disc.

Based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, calibration uncertainty of the LDV system is evaluated with Type A and Type B evaluation for various uncertainty sources. The standard uncertainties and degrees of freedom of various sources are evaluated individually, and then combined together to give a combined standard uncertainty and effective degree of freedom. Finally, an expanded uncertainty, obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with a coverage factor of k at 95 % confidence level, gives the uncertainty of the measurement process.

The applicability of this calibration system is as follows:
Wind speed range: (0.2 to 60) m/s
Temperature Range: (20 to 26) ℃
Calibration medium: Air.
This system belongs to the Air Speed Calibration System (F10).
107 Measurement System Validation Procedure for LDV System-Standard Spinning Disc Method A non-intrusive Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDV) with appropriate signal processing system was employed as the calibration standard in air speed calibration system in NMI. The LDV system can be calibrated using standard disc method. The velocity of spinning disc is the same as the LDV system measure. Using this theory, the fringe space of LDV system can be obtained. This document presents the validation procedure for the LDV System calibrated using standard spinning disc method. The calibration capacity of the LDV Air Speed Calibration System is as follows: Air Speed Range: (0.2 to 25) m/s Temperature Range: ambient temperature Calibration medium is Air. At 95% confident level, the expanded uncertainty, coverage factor, degree of freedom of the LDV system calibrate using standard spinning disc is given as below: Relative expanded uncertainty: 0.10% Coverage factor: 2.23
108 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Air Speed Calibration System -LDV Metohd A non-invasive Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDV) with appropriate signal processing system was employed as the calibration standard in air speed calibration system in NML. A wind tunnel with expanded test section was designed to generate stable air speed by a blower controlled with frequency converter. Comparing the measured air speeds with the readings of the anemometry under test obtained at the same time can result in metering error. In this report, LDV and wind tunnel are described of their functions and evaluated of their performance in the calibration. The wind tunnel is especially measured of its flow fields near the outlet of contraction nozzle to figure out the influence of flow on the anemometry calibration.

The procedure to estimate the uncertainty of the wind tunnel together with LDV is described in detail in this report.
The calibration capacity of the LDV Air Speed Calibration System is as follows:

Air Speed Range : 0.2 m/s to 60 m/s
Temperature : ambient temperature
Medium : air.

At 95% confident level, the expanded uncertainty, coverage factor, degrees of freedom of the air speed calibration system depends on the designated regions and is given as follows:
In the cylindrical region of X = 0 to 200 mm and r £ 80 mm:
ubase = 0.25 %
uBED = 0.04 %
k = 2.03
UCMC = 0.52 %
109 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Air Speed Calibration System-LDV Method A Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDV) with appropriate signal processing system was employed as the calibration standard for air speed in NML. A wind tunnel with expanded test section was designed to provide stable air speed by a blower and a frequency converter. Comparing the measured air speed with the reading of the anemometry under test at the same time can obtain metering error. The calibration system has been evaluated according to the measurement capability and uncertainty in relevant reports for measurement system validation procedure. In this report, the instrument calibration technique (ICT) for air speed calibration system to calibrate user’s anemometry is described in detail. The calibration capability of the LDV Air Speed Calibration System is as follows:
Meter Under Test: Anemometer
Air Speed Range: 0.2 m/s to 60 m/s
Temperature: ambient temperature
Medium: air
110 The Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Laser Interferometer Mercury Manometer This report is to evaluate the Laser Interferometer Mercury Manometer(LIMM)which belongs to the Mercury Manometer Pressure Measurement System (system code P01) in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). It introduces the functions of the components and system of the LIMM, the principles of measurement and the analysis of measurement variations. Finally, it describes the calculation of the pressure measurement and the estimation of the uncertainty.
The range of this LIMM for the model ITRI-CMS HG1-120-2004 is:
1 kPa to 120 kPa
and its expanded uncertainties (confidence level:95 %) is as:
1 kPa to 50 kPa,  = 2.2 Pa
50 kPa to 120 kPa,  = 5.2 Pa
The expanded uncertainty of measurement is stated as the combined standard uncertainty multiplied by the coverage factor k = 2.01 corresponding to a level of confidence of 95 %.
Besides, the CMC for the calibration of effective area of gas piston gauge is:
 4.4 ´ 10-5 m2/m2。
The relative expanded uncertainty of measurement is stated as the relative combined standard uncertainty multiplied by the coverage factor k = 2 corresponding to a level of confidence of 95 %.
111 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Micro Flow Calibration System-Weighing  Method The micro flow calibration system is one of the standard systems of the Flow Measurement Laboratory, National Measurement Laboratory, and its system code is F11.  The medium used to carry out the calibration is pure water.  The range of flowrate is from 0.1 μL/min to 10 mL/min (volume) and from 0.1 mg/min to 10 g/min (mass).  The tubing diameters used for calibration are less than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).  The devices to be calibrated are (micro) liquid flowmeters and liquid flow pumps.  To benefit the maintenance and transfer of micro flow standard, this document elucidates the methods to evaluate the micro flow calibration system and the results accordingly.
The system utilizes a pressure regulator which adjusts the pressure within the liquid tank or a liquid flow pump to drive the liquid into the weighing vessel, and calibrates (micro) flowmeters or flow pumps using dynamic weighing method.  The calibration starts after the temperature and flowrate are stabilized.  The increase in the weight of the weighing vessel and the corresponding time period are recorded to estimate the mass flowrate.  In addition, the water temperature, atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure, and the mass variation of the reference vessel, which is used to compensate the effects of buoyancy and evaporation, are also measured.  The information are used to calculate the water and air density, evaluate the mass variation of the liquid within the control volume, estimate the buoyancy variation that the weighing vessel is subjected to, and compensate the mass loss due to evaporation.  The mass or volume flowrate flowing through the (micro) flowmeter or delivered by the flow pump can thus be measured correctly.  The operating conditions of the system are as follows.
Mass flowrate: 0.1 mg/min to 10 g/min
Volume flowrate: 0.1 μL/min to 10 mL/min
Tubing diameter: <1/8 inch (3.2 mm)
Temperature: 15 ℃ to 27 ℃
Differential pressure: 1 kPa to 200 kPa
Working fluid: pure water
The measurement uncertainty of the system is evaluated according to the guide given by ISO GUM.  Under a confidence level of 95 %, the relative expanded uncertainties of the system, as listed below.

Flowrate range Ubase Coverage factor k uBED Effective degrees of freedom n UCMC
(0.1 to 1) μL/min or (0.1 to 1) mg/min 2.5 % 1.96 0.6 % 2 2.9 %
(1 to 10) μL/min or (1 to 10) mg/min 0.3 % 1.96 0.2 % 2 0.5 %
(10 to 100) μL/min or (10 to 100) mg/min 0.2 % 1.96 0.2 % 2 0.5 %
(0.1 to 1) mL/min or (0.1 to 1) g/min 0.1 % 1.96 0.1 % 2 0.2 %
(1 to 10) mL/min or (1 to 10) g/min 0.1 % 1.96 0.1 % 2 0.2 %
112 Instrument Calibration Technique for Micro Flow Calibration System — Weighing Method This document provides procedures to calibrate the device under test for the micro flow calibration system at the National Measurement Laboratory.  The method for (micro) flowmeters and flow pumps calibration is weighing method.  The output of the device under test could be volume flowrate or mass flowrate.  The parameter used to express the calibration result is relative error.
The uncertainty evaluation in this document refers to ISO GUM. All uncertainty sources considered in the flow measurement are quantified by and expressed with either Type A or Type B evaluations of uncertainty.  The expanded uncertainty having a level of confidence of 95 % is used to express the result of calibration.
The calibration capability of the system is expressed as follows.
Mass flowrate: 0.1 mg/min to 10 g/min
Volume flowrate: 0.1 μL/min to 10 mL/min
Tubing diameter: <1/8 inch (3.2 mm)
Temperature: 15 ℃ to 27 ℃
Differential pressure: 1 kPa to 100 kPa
Working fluid: pure water
113 Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation Procedure for the Weighing Scales of Flow Measurement Systems This document describes the procedure of calibration and measurement uncertainty evaluation for the weighing scales of flow measurement facility at National Measurement Laboratory (NML). The calibration is conducted by applying test loads to the weighing scale under specified conditions and recording the indication. The test loads consist of standard weights of known conventional value of mass and have traceable calibration to the national mass standard. The object of the calibration is the indication provided by the weighing scale in response to an applied load. The value of the load indicated by the weighing scale will be corrected considering the effect of air buoyancy. The indication of each test load from the weighing scale is compared with the corresponding standard weights, and then expressed in terms of the correction coefficient which is the ratio of standard weight to the indication. Finally, the correction coefficients corresponding to specified test loads on the weighing scale are given as the calibration results.
The measurement uncertainty is evaluated according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM)[8.1]. The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The relative combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-mean square of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurements providing an interval with a 95 % level of confidence is used to indicate the calibration and measurement capability. It is calculated by multiplying the coverage factor, k, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation, with the relative combined standard uncertainty.
114 Instrument Calibration Technique for Gas Mefer by Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System (PVTt) -Master Meter Method This document describes operating procedures and uncertainty analysis for low pressure gas flow calibration facility (PVTt gas flow standard) at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) with master meter method as the working principle. The sonic nozzles are used as the working standard. During a flow meter calibration, the operating flow rates can be decided by adjusting the upstream pressure of the working standard. After the steady state flow condition is achieved, i.e. the gas pressure and temperature measurements at the working standard become stable, the actual mass flow rate at the working standard (sonic nozzle) can be determined by multiplying the discharge coefficient of the sonic nozzle by the theoretical mass flow rate based on the gas temperature and pressure upstream of the sonic nozzle.
The uncertainty analysis is according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-sum-squared (RSS) of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation.
This system is applicable to calibration for sonic nozzle, laminar flowmeter, differential pressure flowmeter, variable area flowmeter, and positive displacement flowmeter. The measurement range is shown as below:
Working fluid: Dry air and N2;
Flow rate: (0.04 to 300) L/min;
Pressure: (70 to 700) kPa;
Temperature: (23.0 ± 3.0) ℃.
115 Instrument Calibration Technique for Gas Meter by Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System (PVTt) -Primary Method This document describes operating procedures for low pressure gas flow calibration facility - pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) primary flow standard at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML). This standard measures flow by collecting a steady stream of gas into a tank of known volume during a measured time interval. The ratio of the mass of gas accumulated in the tank to the collection time is the mass flow. The volumetric flow then can be determined by dividing the measured density of the gas by the mass flow.
The uncertainty analysis is according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-sum-squared (RSS) of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation.
This system is applicable to calibration for sonic nozzle, laminar flowmeter, and differential pressure flowmeter. The measurement range is shown as below:
Working fluid: Dry air, N2, Ar, CO2, and O2
Flowrate: (0.01 to 300) L/min
Pressure: (100 to 700) kPa
Temperature: (23.0 ± 3) oC
116 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System(PVTt) – Primary Method This document describes uncertainty analysis for low pressure gas flow calibration facility - pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) primary flow standard at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML). This standard measures flow by collecting a steady stream of gas into a tank of known volume during a measured time interval. The ratio of the mass of gas accumulated in the tank to the collection time is the mass flow. The volumetric flow then can be determined by dividing the measured density of the gas by the mass flow.
  The uncertainty analysis is according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-sum-squared (RSS) of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation.
This system is applicable to calibration for sonic nozzle, laminar flowmeter, and differential pressure flowmeter. The measurement range is shown as below:
Working fluid: Dry air, N2, Ar, CO2, and O2
Flowrate: (0.01 to 300) L/min
Pressure: (100 to 700) kPa
Temperature: (23.0 ± 3) oC
The relative expanded uncertainty UCMC of the calibration and measurement capability with a 95 % level of confidence is listed as below.
(A) Volumetric flow rates at reference condition, qv,s, measured by the 500 L system
UCMC = 0.08 %; k = 1.96.
(B) Volumetric flow rates at reference condition, qv,s, measured by the 30 L system
UCMC = 0.08 %; k = 1.96.
(C) Volumetric flow rates at reference condition, qv,s, measured by the 2 L system (values in bracket denotes another calibration condition while the initial value of pressure in the constant volume tank is above 40 k Pa and is measured by mensor A pressure meter)
UCMC = 0.08 % (0.09 %); k = 1.96 (1.96).
117 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System (PVTt) – Master Meter Method (high pressure mode) This document describes uncertainty analysis for low pressure gas flow calibration facility (PVTt gas flow standard) at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) with master meter method as the working principle. The sonic nozzles are used as the working standard. During a flow meter calibration, the operating flow rates can be decided by adjusting the upstream pressure of the working standard. After the steady state flow condition is achieved, i.e. the gas pressure and temperature measurements at the working standard become stable, the actual mass flow rate at the working standard can be determined by multiplying the discharge coefficient of the sonic nozzle by the theoretical mass flow rate based on the gas temperature and pressure upstream of the sonic nozzle.
  The uncertainty analysis is according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The relative combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-sum-squared (RSS) of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The relative expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the relative combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation.
The calibration capability of this facility is shown as below:
Working fluid: Dry air and N2
Flow rate: (0.04 to 300) L/min
Pressure: (70 to 700) kPa
Temperature: (23.0 ± 3.0) ℃
The uncertainty of the calibration and measurement capability with a 95 % level of confidence UCMC:
Volumetric flow rate: UCMC = 0.11 %; k = 1.96.
Mass flow rate: UCMC = 0.11 %; k = 1.96.
Volume: UCMC = 0.12 %; k = 1.96.
118 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System (PVTt) – Master Meter Method (vacuum mode) This document describes uncertainty analysis for low pressure gas flow calibration facility (PVTt gas flow standard) at the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) with master meter method as the working principle. Two sets of sonic nozzle banks are used as the working standard. During a flow meter calibration, the operating flow rates can be decided by adjusting the upstream pressure of the working standard. After the steady state flow condition is achieved, i.e. the gas pressure and temperature measurements at the working standard become stable, the actual mass flow rate at the working standard can be determined by multiplying the discharge coefficient of the sonic nozzle by the theoretical mass flow rate based on the gas temperature and pressure upstream of the sonic nozzle.
  The uncertainty analysis is according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM). The considered uncertainty categories that affect the calibration results are estimated through either Type A or Type B evaluation. The relative combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result is then obtained by taking the root-sum-squared (RSS) of each uncertainty component multiplied by its sensitivity coefficient. The relative expanded uncertainty is obtained by multiplying the relative combined standard uncertainty with the coverage factor at the 95 % confidence level, which is obtained based on the effective degrees of freedom calculated by Welch-Satterthwaite equation.
The calibration capability of this facility is shown as below:
Working fluid: Dry air and N2
Flow rate: (0.04 to 300) L/min
Pressure: (70 to 700) kPa
Temperature: (23.0 ± 3.0) ℃
The uncertainty of the calibration and measurement capability with a 95 % level of confidence UCMC:
Volumetric flow rate: UCMC = 0.13 %; k = 1.96.
Mass flow rate: UCMC = 0.12 %; k = 1.96.
119 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System -Piston Prover (0.002~40 L/min) This document stated the an uncertainty analysis of the Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System–Piston Prover (System code: F06) at the National Measurement Laboratory. This system provided calibration services for gas meter at flow range from 2 cm3/min to 40 L/min (for Dry Air, N2, Ar, O2, CO2) and 20 cm3/min to 40 L/min (for He) using the Volume—Time method.
  Uncertainty analysis based on the propagation of uncertainty approach had been performed for this system. The propagation of uncertainty approach identified significant sources of measurement uncertainty; those sources could be qualified by experiments, instrumentation specifications, educated estimation, and handbook values of uncertainty.  These uncertainty components are combined by the root-sum-square (RSS) and multiplied by a coverage factor to obtain the expanded uncertainty at 95 % confidence level.
  The capability of the calibration system and its relative expanded uncertainty at 95 % confidence level were expressed as follows:
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
Flow rate (cm3/min) 2 to 100 10 to 300 100 to 1000 500 to 5000 2000 to 40000
Mass flow rate Combined relative standard uncertainty 0.036 % 0.034 % 0.033 % 0.032 % 0.032 %
Relative expanded uncertainty 0.08 % 0.07 % 0.07 % 0.07 % 0.07 %
Coverage factor 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97
Performance indicator Combined relative standard uncertainty 0.040 % 0.038 % 0.037 % 0.036 % 0.045 %
Relative expanded uncertainty 0.08 % 0.08 % 0.08 % 0.08 % 0.09 %
Coverage factor 1.98 1.98 1.97 1.97 1.97
120 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System - Master Method/MOLBLOC (0.002~40 L/min) The mass flowrate calibration system based on the gravimetric method provides a great benefit to a standard laboratory due to the direct measurements of the fundamental units of mass and time. Thus the thermodynamic properties of the employed gas are not necessary to be measured. Besides, the use of the state-of-the-art mass comparators, balance and timer significantly reduced the measurement uncertainty.
Though metrological beneficial, the gravimetric calibration is very time consuming and technique dependent. Thus, it is not adapted for daily calibrations for meters under test. Consequently, measurement standard based on sonic nozzles (or as an alternative, Laminar Flow Elements), which are traceable to the gravimetric method, were developed to calibrate meters under test.
  This document provides an uncertainty analysis for the Gas Flow Calibration System – Piston Prover (System code: F06) using Comparison Method at the Fluid Flow Group of National Measurement Laboratory. The system can perform gas meter calibrations at flowrate of 2 cm3/min to 40 L/min. The uncertainty of the system was analyzed based on the principle of propagation of uncertainty, by which the influence sources out of the measurements, ambient conditions, and employed facilities were all included. While the relative combined Low Pressure standard uncertainty was then obtained by the method of root-sum-squares. Eventually, the relative expanded uncertainty was obtained at the 95 % confidence level by multiplying the relative standard uncertainty by a coverage factor.
 The applicability of this calibration system is as follows:
Environmental temperature: 22 °C to 24 °C
Upstream pressure of MOLBLOC/MOLBOX1: 350 kPa/450 kPa
Volume flowrate of MOLBLOC/MOLBOX1: 2 cm3/min to 40 L/min
Gas: Air or nitrogen
Combined relative standard uncertainty of volume flow rate is 0.062 % and coverage factor is 1.97.
Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.13 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.063 % and coverage factor is 1.97.
Relative expanded uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.13 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.057 % and coverage factor is 1.97.
Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.12 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.059 % and coverage factor is 1.97.
Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.12 %.
121 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Gas Meter by Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System-Piston Prover Gas Meter  (0.002~40 L/min) This instrument calibration technique is the operational guide for the calibration of gas meters by Volume—time method. The meter to be calibrated is installed in series with the standard device. With a preset flowrate, the piston prover then collects gas that passes through the meter. During calibration, the temperature, pressure, volume or flowrate for the meter under test, and the temperature, pressure, volume, and time for the calibration system are measured. Based on the above-measured results, the relative deviation, the deviation or the discharge coefficient can be estimated.
  Based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, calibration uncertainty of the meter can be evaluated with Type A and Type B evaluations for various uncertainty sources. The standard uncertainties (or relative uncertainties), and degrees of freedom of various sources were evaluated individually, and then combined together to give a combined standard uncertainty (or relative combined standard uncertainty) and effective degree of freedom. Finally, an expanded uncertainty (or relative expanded uncertainty), obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty (or relative combined standard uncertainty) with a coverage factor of 1.97 at 95 % confidence level, gives the uncertainty or relative uncertainty of the measurement process.
The applicability of this calibration system is as follows:
Gas                         : Dry Air, N2, Ar, O2, CO2
Volume flowrate : 2 cm3/min to 40 L/min
Gas                         : He
Volume flowrate : 20 cm3/min to 40 L/min
Pressure upstream of the meter : (100 to 700) kPa
Environmental temperature : (22 to 24) °C
Relative expanded uncertainty of standard mass flowrate: 0.08 % at 95 % confidence level, coverage factor is 1.97.
Relative expanded uncertainty of performance indicator: 0.09 % at 95 % confidence level, coverage factor is 1.97.
122 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Gas Meter by Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System
-Master Method /MOLBLOC (0.002~40 L/min)
This operational guide provides the National Measurement Laboratory (NML), low-pressure gas flow MOLBLOC/MOLBOX1 calibration system (System Number: F06) basis for calibrating meters. When calibrating, adjust the pressure regulator to maintain the pressure upstream of MOLBLOC, after waiting for the pressure and temperature values to stabilize, start to capture the actual mass flow rate of MOLBLOC, and apparent flowrate of DUT meter, pressure, and temperature until the set time stop. The flow rate of MOLBLOC is the average value in the collection time, and the apparent flowrate is converted to the state of the standard, using these two items to calculate the relative deviation, deviation, or coefficient of discharge.
Based on ISO/IEC Guide 98-3: 2008, the flowmeter was estimated of its measurement uncertainty with Type A and Type B evaluations for various uncertainty sources. The standard uncertainties (or relative standard uncertainties) and degrees of freedom of the various sources were evaluated individually, and then combined together to give a combined standard uncertainty (or relative   combined standard uncertainty) and effective degrees of freedom. Finally, an expanded uncertainty (or relative expanded uncertainty), obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty (or relative combined standard uncertainty) with a coverage factor at the 95% confidence level, indicated the measurement capability of the measurement process.
The applicability of this calibration system is as follows:
Environmental temperature : 22 °C to 24 °C
Upstream pressure of MOLBLOC/MOLBOX1: 350 kPa/450 kPa
Volume flowrate of MOLBLOC/MOLBOX1:  2 cm3/min to 40 L/min
Gas: Air or nitrogen
Combined relative standard uncertainty of volume flow rate is 0.062 % and coverage factor is 1.97. Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.13 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.063 % and coverage factor is 1.97. Relative expanded uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.13 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.057 % and coverage factor is 1.97. Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.12 %.
Combined relative standard uncertainty of performance indicator is 0.059 % and coverage factor is 1.97. Relative expanded uncertainty of mass flow rate is 0.12 %.
123 Instrument Calibration Technique for Oil Operated Piston Gauge (PG7302/Comparison Method) This calibration procedure of P03 system is used for calibrations on varieties of digital pressure gauges and pressure transducers. The reference standard which is the PG7302 piston gauge. The calibration is operated by using the comparison method, describes in this document which includes the preliminary operation, the calibration steps and procedure, the post-calibration and shut-down procedure, the data analysis and the calibration report etc.
The range of calibration is 0.5 MPa to 500 MPa.
124 Instrument Calibration Technique for Oil Operated Piston Gauge (PG7302/Cross-Float Method) This calibration procedure of P03 system is used for calibrations on oil operated piston gauges. The reference standard which is the PG7302 piston gauge. The calibration is operated by using the cross-float method, describes in this document which includes the preliminary operation, the calibration steps and procedure, the post-calibration and shut-down procedure, the data analysis and the calibration report etc.
The range of calibration is 0.5 MPa to 280 MPa.
125 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Oil Operated Piston Gauge (PG7302) The evaluation report is presented in an effort to evaluate the oil piston gauge in the P03 system. It introduced the function of the system, the principle of the piston gauge, the corrcetion factors and the measurement assurance program of the gauge. The expanded uncertainties, calibration and the measurement capabilities of the system are described as well.
The oil piston gauge in this system is Fluke PG7302 with 3 piston and cylinder, the serial numbers are 2248, 2336, and 2339. The pressure measurement range is: 0.5 MPa to 500 MPa.
The system expanded uncertainties Ue are:
(1) 0.5 MPa ~ 5 MPa,Ue = 13 Pa + 1.8E-5 Pa/Pa (coverage factor k = 1.99, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(2) 5 MPa ~ 28 MPa,Ue = 13 Pa + 2.2E-5 Pa/Pa (coverage factor k = 1.97, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(3) 28 MPa ~ 280 MPa,Ue = 13 Pa + 5.2E-5 Pa/Pa (coverage factor k = 1.97, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(4) 280 MPa ~ 500 MPa,Ue = 13 Pa + 9.6E-5 Pa/Pa (coverage factor k = 1.98, a level of confidence of 95 %)。
Calibration and measurement capability expressed as expanded uncertainties UCMC for gas piston gauge, differential pressure gauge or digital pressure gauge are:
(1) 0.5 MPa ~ 5 MPa,UCMC =14 Pa + 5.7E-5 m2/m2 (coverage factor k = 2.08, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(2) 5 MPa ~ 28 MPa,UCMC = 14 Pa + 2.9E-5 m2/m2 (coverage factor k = 1.99, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(3) 28 MPa ~ 280 MPa,UCMC= 14 Pa + 5.6E-5 m2/m2 (coverage factor k = 1.97, a level of confidence of 95 %);
(4) 280 MPa ~ 500 MPa,UCMC = 1.2 MPa (coverage factor k = 2.07, a level of confidence of 95 %)。
126 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Component Concentration of Cylinder Gas This document describes the procedure for measuring the component concentration of CO, CO2, CH4, C3H8, O2, C2H5OH, NO and SO2 in gas cylinders by using gas chromatograph (GC) with thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and flame ionization detector (FID), NO Analyzer and SO2 Analyzer. According to ISO 6143:2001 [8.1] and ISO 12963:2017 [8.2], using GC-TCD/FID, NOx Analyzer and SO2 Analyzer to analyze reference gases and sample gas under the same conditions. One reference gases with similar concentration as that of sample gas will be chosen to calculate the concentration uncertainty of the sample gas. This document contains the descriptions of apparatus, measurement procedure, data analysis, and format of report. This procedure applies to the measurement of component concentration of binary gas mixtures within the range shown in the following table.

Component Concentration (μmol/mol) Measurement method
CO 1000 to 200000
10 to 1000 GC/TCD 1
GC/FID 2
CO2 1000 to 300000
100 to 1000 GC/TCD
GC/FID
CH4 1000 to 100000
100 to 1000 GC/TCD
GC/FID
C3H8 1000 to 50000
100 to 1000 GC/TCD
GC/FID
O2 1000 to 250000 GC/TCD
C2H5OH 137 to 547 GC/FID
NO 50 to 2000 NOx Analyzer 3
SO2 50 to 2000 SO2 Analyzer 4
Remark 1:GC/TCD : Gas Chromatograph with Thermal Conductivity Detector
Remark 2:GC/FID : Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector
Remark 3:Chemiluminescent Nitrogen Oxides Analyzer
Remark 4:Pulsed Fluorescent Sulfur dioxide Analyzer
This procedure applies to the “Gas Concentration Measurement System” (C03).
127 Instrument Calibration Technique for Gas Measurement System-Gas Divider This report describes the calibration process for gas divider by concentration certification method. The contents include:requirement of calibration , apparatus, calibration steps, preparation before calibration, and format of calibration report. Each category is specified sequentially in this document.
128 Instrument Calibration Technique for Gas Measurement System-Gas Monitor This report describes the methods used to calibrate various gas monitors by standard gas and gas divider, which can divide standard gas into different concentration.  The contents include: requirement of calibration apparatus, calibration steps, preparation before calibration, and format of calibration report.  Each category is specified sequentially in this document.
129 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Gas Measurement System-Gas Monitor This measurement system validation procedure is part of the gas measurement system.This measurement system validation procedure evaluates the uncertainty of gas monitor calibration. The required standard gas is produce by gas divider. This gas is then measured by the gas monitor being calibrated, allowing comparative calibration to be performed.
The system apparatus requirement and the measurement principles are being mentioned in this document. The transfer and analysis of the uncertainty are also described.
130 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Gas Measurement System-Gas Divider This document states the procedures to evaluate the uncertainty of gas divider calibration. The system apparatus requirement and the measurement principles are being mentioned in this document. The uncertainty analysis follows the guidance of ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. The sources of uncertainty are identified and their impacts on the measurement results are evaluated. With a practical procedure for uncertainty evaluation, our measurement system currently provides the following calibration and measurement capability based on the level of confidence of 95 %.
131 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Component Concentration of Natural Gas This document describes the procedure that is used to calibrate the component concentration of natural gas by gas chromatography equipped with a TCD or FID detector (GC/TCD, GC/FID). The component concentration is calibrated by comparing the measurement result of the sample gas to that of the reference standard gas. This document contains the description of calibration procedure, apparatus, reference standards, data analysis, and format of report.
This procedure applies to the“Low Carbon Fuel Gas Concentration Measurement System”(C09).
132 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Calibration of the Concentration Analysis of Natural Gas A description is given of the accuracy assessment conducted in calibrating the concentrations of chemical components in nature gas with the calibration system in our laboratory. The uncertainty evaluation for the calibration procedure can be referred to this report.
The component concentration is calibrated by comparing the measurement result of the sample gas to that of the reference standard gas. Reference standard gas and sample gas are analyzed by GC in turn, and the peak areas of individual components in the chromatograms are calculated. For each specific target component, the ratio of the peak areas between the sample gas (BS) and the reference standard gas (BR) is determined (r = BS/BR). Such analytical procedure is repeated three times, and the mean deviation and standard deviation of the three measurements are calculated. Using the preliminarily known information of the reference standard gas, the concentration and uncertainty of each individual component to be calibrated in the sample gas can be evaluated.
133 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Concentration Calibration of Gas Dilutor-Gas Chromatography The method of this study is referred to ISO 6145-7:2009 [8.1] and U.S. EPA/600/R-12/531 [8.2]. This document describes the application of Gas Chromatography (GC) for the certification of the concentrations of binary gas mixtures (CO2 in N2, CO in N2 and CH4 in air) in gas cylinders and in gas dilutor. Furthermore, the result can be used to calibrate the dilution factor of gas dilutor.  The calibration curve is constructed by measuring the GC signals of several calibration standards, then combination with span gas and zero gas to prepare difference concentration of gas mixtures using the gas diluter to be calibrated. The concentrations generated by setting different dilution factor are determined by the calibration curve, and the measurement uncertainties are evaluated accordingly. This document contains the descriptions of apparatus, calibration procedure, data analysis, and format of report. This procedure applies to the certification of component concentration of gas mixtures within the range shown in the following table.

Component Component Concentration (mol/mol) Dilution Factor (%)
CO2 in N2 CO2:(50 to 5000) × 10-6 0 to 100
CO in N2 CO:(1 to 100) × 10-6 0 to 100
CH4 in air CH4:(0.1 to 2) × 10-2 0 to 100
134 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Concentration Calibration of Gas Dilutor-Gas Chromatography This research describes the application of Gas Chromatography for the calibration of the concentrations of binary gas mixtures in gas dilutor, and provides a basis for evaluation of uncertainties in the certification performed in our laboratory.  According to the calibration method and the corresponding functional relationship between concentration and the associated variables, the components of uncertainty include: 1) concentration expanded uncertainty of gas dilutor; 2) concentration expanded uncertainty of span gas; 3) standard uncertainty of system stability. This document explains how to evaluate each item listed above, sets the certification range and the expanded uncertainty for our measuring system, and serves as a reference guide for industries that request our certification services. This procedure applies to the validation of gas diluter within the range shown in the document.This procedure applies to the “Gas Concentration Dilution Device and Analysis Equipment Calibration System” (C10).
135 Instrument Calibration Technique for Preparation and Concentration Calibration of Gaseous Ethanol This document describes the procedure that is used to calibrate the ethanol analyzer.  The concentration of working standard gas is analyzed and certified by calibrated ethanol analyzer. Main method refers to ISO 6145-9:2009 [8.1] 以及ISO 6145-7:2018 [8.2]. This document contains the descriptions of apparatus, calibration procedure, data analysis, and format of report.
136 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Preparation and Calibration Certification of Gaseous Ethanol This report describes the procedure of accuracy assessment for the ethanol analyzer or ethanol sensor using a dynamic dilution system. This report provides a basis for evaluation of uncertainties in the validation performed in our laboratory.  According to the validation method and the corresponding functional relationship between concentration and the associated variables, the components of uncertainty include: 1) concentration expanded uncertainty of theoretically dynamic dilution concentration; 2) standard uncertainty of correction factor; 3) standard uncertainty of display panel.  This document explains how to evaluate each items listed above, sets the validation range and the expanded uncertainty for our measuring system, and serves as a reference guide for industries that request our validation services. This procedure applies to the validation of ethanol analyzer. This procedure applies to the “Gas Concentration Dilution Device and Analysis Equipment Calibration System” (C10).
137 Instrument Calibration Technique for the Concentration Calibration of Gas Dilutor-Infrared spectroscopy The method of this study is referred to ISO 6145-7:2009 [8.1] and U.S. EPA/600/R-12/531 [8.2]. This document describes the application of F spectroscopy for the certification of the concentrations of binary in gas cylinders and gas mixtures pass gas dilutor. Quadratic regression analysis method(Canal = a‧X2 + b‧X + c)is applied to assay the component above concentration of 50 μmol/mol NO in N2. And linear regression analysis method(Canal = a‧X + b)is applied to assay the component below concentration of 50 μmol/mol NO in N2 and SO2 in N2. Result mentioned above can be applied to calibrate dilution factors of gas dilutors. In brief, a calibration curve is constructed by the GC signals’ intensity of individual calibration standards of specific gas mixture with different certified concentrations. A span gas of a specific gas mixture and a zero gas are employed to prepare individual designed concentrations by the gas dilutor to be calibrated. And the correct concentration of gas mixture pass through gas dilutor under designated dilution factor is obtained by fitting the GC signal intensity to the calibration curve mentioned above. Thus, the correct dilution factor of a gas dilutor is acquired through dividing concentration of gas mixture pass gas dilutor by concentration of span gas. This document contains the descriptions of apparatus, calibration procedure, data analysis, and format of report in detail.
138 Measurement System Validation Procedure for the Concentration Calibration of Gas Dilutor-Infrared spectroscopy This research describes the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or NO analyzer for the calibration of the concentrations of binary gas mixtures in gas dilutor, and provides a basis for evaluation of uncertainties in the certification performed in our laboratory.  According to the calibration method and the corresponding functional relationship between concentration and the associated variables, the components of uncertainty include: 1) concentration expanded uncertainty of gas dilutor; 2) concentration expanded uncertainty of span gas; 3) standard uncertainty of system stability. This document explains how to evaluate each item listed above, sets the certification range and the expanded uncertainty for our measuring system, and serves as a reference guide for industries that request our certification services. This procedure applies to the “Gas Concentration Dilution Device and Analysis Equipment Calibration System” (C10).
139 Instrument Calibration Techniques for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System ─ Comparison Method The method of this study is referred to Instrument Calibration Techniques for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibration System ─ Comparison Method/MOLBLOC[8.1]. This report describes the methods used to calibrate gas flow meter by laminar flow meters.  The contents include: requirement of calibration apparatus, calibration steps, preparation before calibration, and format of calibration report.  Each category is specified sequentially in this document.
140 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Low Pressure Gas Flow Calibratrion System─Comparison Method This research describes the application of laminar flow meter for the calibration of the flowrate, and provides a basis for evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration performed in our laboratory.  According to the calibration method and the corresponding functional relationship between flowmeter and the associated variables, the components of uncertainty include: 1) concentration standard uncertainty of laminar flow meter,  ; 2) concentration standard uncertainty of repeatability of laminar flow meter,  ; 3) concentration standard uncertainty of reading,  ; 4) standard uncertainty of system stability,  . This document explains how to evaluate each item listed above, sets the calibration range and the expanded uncertainty for our measuring system, and serves as a reference guide for industries that request our calibration services. This procedure applies to the validation of gas dilutor within the range shown in the following table.

Volume Flowrate Smallest Expand Uncertainty of Meter Factor (%)
1 L/min to 10 L/min 0.006
100 cm3/min to 1000 cm3/min 0.004
141 Instrument Calibration Technique for Formaldehyde Gas Analyzer and Sensor This document includes the procedure that is used to calibrate formaldehyde analyzers or detectors.  The content contains the description of apparatus, calibration procedure, data analysis, and format of report. This procedure can be applied to the calibration of formaldehyde analyzer or detector within the range of (1 to 10) umol/mol.
142 Instrument Certification Technique for Filling Mass Cylinder Gases and Concentration of Gas Mixtures — Syringe injection Method This document provides the operation procedure and matters of notice for filling mass of cylinder gases and concentration verification of cylinder gas mixtures by using gas tight syringe and Mettler Toledo- MS205DU/XP26003L/XP10003S mass comparator.
During weighing, the mass of syringe or cylinder can be obtained from the balance system with ABA substitution method, and then applied to measure the weights of liquid injection and gas filling. The mass of liquid injected and filling target gas can be calculated out.  This document is part of Gravimetric High-Pressure Cylinder Gas Mixture Supply and Certification System (C08), and the primary system provides metrological traceability for gas concentration measurement.
143 Production Guidelines for Certified Reference Material - di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in methanol This production guideline for certified reference material, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in methanol, provides the operation procedure of solution preparation, and according to ISO Guide 34:2009, makes a description of the related quality documents and notice in the production procedure for the laboratory colleague.
144 Instrument Certification Technique for Preparation of lead Standard Solution ─ Gravimetric Method This document states the operation procedures and matters of notice for preparation and concentration verification of Lead Standard Solution by using Mettler Toledo XP205 and Mettler Toledo MS6002TS balance system.
During the weighing process, the mass of preparation bottle can be obtained from the balance system using air-buoyancy correction factor method. By using this method, the weights of preparation bottle before and after the content adding can also be obtained. Then the mass of adding content can be calculated. This document is a part of Static Gravimetric Method Inorganic Element Supply and Certification System (C13).
145 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Preparation of lead Standard Solution ─ Gravimetric Method This document states the laboratory colleagues as the reference to use Mettler Toledo XP205 and Mettler Toledo MS6002TS balance system for measuring the mass of adding lead and nitric acid solution, calculate the concentration of solution and evaluate its expanded uncertainty. In practical weighing, weighing the value of the use of air buoyancy correction items to be corrected , it can get the sample preparation of the solute mass, solution mass and its uncertainty. The uncertainty of the concentration of the preparation solution is: (1) the uncertainty of solute mass, (2) the uncertainty of solution mass, and (3) the uncertainty of solute purity. This system is part of the Static Gravimetric Method Inorganic Element Supply and Certification System (C13). The service of this system is showed in the following table.
146 Evaluation Report for Concentration Verification, Homogeneity and Stability of Lead Standard Solution. Autotitrator is applied for concentration verification, homogeneity evaluation and stability evaluation of Lead Standard Solution. The accuracy of concentration was confirmed and checked by comparing the gravimetric concentration value with the analysis value obtained from verification. In addition, we can confirm the homogeneity from the concentration verification. The analysis system belongs to Static Gravimetric Method Inorganic Element Supply and Certification System (C13), which provides service of Primary Reference Material (PRM) to calibration laboratories and testing laboratories.
147 Production Guidelines for Certified Reference Material – Lead Standard Solution This production guideline for certified reference material, lead standard solution, provides the operation procedure of solution preparation, and according to ISO Guide 34:2009, makes a description of the related quality documents and notice in the production procedure for the laboratory colleague.
148 The pretreatment of silicon isotopes ratio measurement: the technology of silicon block dissolvation This document states the preparation of silicon solution via the dissolving silicon block. This documents also describes how to safely dissolve the silicon block and to precisely prepare the appropriate concentration of silicon solution without introducing contamination. The sample vial, made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also named as Teflon), should undergo a series of washing steps to remove potential contaminations prior to being used. The silicon block is immersed in a mixed acids to remove surface oxides, then dissolved in a strong base, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), finally diluted to an appropriate concentration for the following application or analysis. In the preparation procedure, electronic balances are applied for the weightening of silicon material, sample vials, and solution. The measured mass value should be corrected via air-buoyancy correction to obtaine a precise silicon concentration.
149 Instrument Calibration Technique for Isotope Ratio- Mass Spectrometry This calibration procedure is provided for the operation of multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) to measure silicon isotope ratio, belonging to Isotope Ratio Measurement System (C14) in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). An appropriate concentration of silicon solution (0.5 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg) is introduced into MC-ICP-MS where the three silicon isotope signals (28Si, 29Si, 30Si) can be simultaneously detected with three individual signal receptors. In this way, a precise silicon isotope ratio can be obtained.
150 Measurement System Validation Procedure for Isotope Ratio Analyzer - Mass Spectrometry This measurement system validation procedure is provided to Isotope Ratio Measurement System (C14) in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). This document states the evaluation of the uncertainty of the measured silicon isotope ratios, as the reference for laboratory colleagues to process the calibration service. In according to the measurement equations, the evaluation items of the uncertainty source include: 1) the uncertainty of the true value of the isotope ratio of the standard material; 2) the uncertainty of isotope ratio measurement process of the standard material; 3) the uncertainty of isotope ratio measurement process of the calibrated material. The announced service range and corresponding expanded uncertainty, shown as the table below, are used as a reference for the industry to apply for a measurement service.
151 The investigation of the measurement uncertainty of silicon molar mass X-ray-crystal-density (XRCD) method has been used for the realization of mole (determination of the Avogadro constant, NA) by counting the number of atoms in a 28Si-enriched crystal. The Si isotope ratio measurement technology is that, the residue of the 28Si-enriched crystal used to form the single crystal Si sphere was dissolved, diluted to an appropriate concentration, then introduced into multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the measurement of the ratio of Si isotopes (28Si, 29Si, 30Si). With isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method, the molar mass of the 28Si-enriched crystal can be precisely obtained as 27.976942647 g/mol, with a relative uncertainty of 1.6×10-9 (k = 1).  With the value of silicon density and lattice constant, Avogadro constant (NA) can be calculated as 6.022140511×1023, with a relative uncertainty of  1.48×10-8 (k = 1).

 

  • Last Updated:2023/09/26
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