Papers in Year 2021


Paper Title


Accepted By

Issued Date


Introduction to statistical methods for outlier detection and sample homogeneity assessment

Due to the homogeneity of the product or sample, it will affect whether it meets the scope of application and purpose. For example, the reference materials(RM) produced by the reference material producer(RMP), and the proficiency test items selected by the proficiency testing provider(PTP), in order to ensure the reference materials or proficiency test items have consistent characteristics or comparability, they should be proved to have certain homogeneity. However, before performing homogeneity assessment, it is necessary to measure the characteristic parameters of the reference materials or proficiency test items to obtain a sufficient number of measured values for data analysis, but there may be outliers in the measured values that may affect data analysis and interpretation of the results. Therefore, this article will refer to ASTM E178-16a:2016, ISO 5725-2:2019, ISO 13528:2015, etc., to introduce several outlier detection and homogeneity assessment methods, supplemented by case studies. Finally, this article will remind the precautions for the use of the method, so that readers can choose the appropriate method for use in the actual analysis.

National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International (NCSLI)



Discussion on the classification criteria of measurement system level

According to the definition of metrological traceability in ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007(VIM 3), people in the metrology field can know the level of the measurement system in the metrological traceability chain by drawing the metrological traceability diagram on the measurement results. However, if someone want to further determine which level the measurement system belongs to, it should be classified as primary measurement system, secondary measurement system, or even other measurement systems. Because the definitions of terms such as primary measurement system, secondary measurement system and other measurement systems are not included in VIM 3, there’s no clear classification basis for the measurement system level. Therefore, this article will discuss the definitions of terms in VIM 3 that are more relevant to the classification of measurement system levels, then try to formulate the classification criteria, supplemented by case studies, and hope to serve as a reference for people in the metrology field when reviewing the measurement system and judging its system level.

National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International (NCSLI)



Determination of reference values and analysis of results for the interlaboratory comparisons

Interlaboratory comparisons establish the technical basis of the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA) for laboratory’s measurement capabilities. This article provides a brief introduction to the determination of reference values and analysis of results for interlaboratory comparisons designed for different objectives or in various types. It aims to help readers better understand the quantitative analysis methods of interlaboratory comparisons used to validate the new technologies or measurement methods.




The Customer Satisfaction Survey and Analysis of Testing and Calibration

"Customer satisfaction" is an index for the businesses to confirm whether their products or services meet customer needs. They can also seek opportunities for quality improvement from the results of satisfaction surveys. ISO/IEC 17025:2017 is the standard for laboratories in the operation of calibration and testing service. According to ISO/IEC 17025:2017 8.6, the laboratory shall seek feedback, both positive and negative, from its customers. The feedback shall be analysed and used to improve the management system, laboratory activities and customer service. Customer satisfaction survey is an effective way to get the customer feedback. This paper will provide the survey methods, questionnaire design and analysis methods of customer satisfaction with the example of testing and calibration laboratories. It is hoped to help laboratories can use effective questionnaire survey results to understand whether the testing and calibration services meet customer needs, and identify the opportunities for improvement that conforms to customer expectations, so as to improve service quality and customer satisfaction continuously.

Quality Magazine, Chinese Society for Quality



Extensometer of Material Testing Machine Calibration and Uncertainty Evaluation

The extensometer of material testing machine calibration was briefly described and its uncertainty evaluation procedure was developed in this paper.   The uncertainty evaluation was stated in accordance with the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008 Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995).   The effects of error sources on this calibration system were analyzed to evaluate the corresponding standard uncertainties. An extensometer of material testing machine with measuring range of (0 to 1000) mm and a resolution of 0.01 mm for on-site calibration was tested. The expanded uncertainty was estimated to be
0.09 mm with coverage factor of 2.02, corresponding to a level of confidence of approximately at a confidence level of 95 %.




Performance Investigation for the Scanning and Single Point Probing Measurement Mode of the Coordinate Measuring Machine

Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are widely used in manufacturing industries for accurate, fast and reliable dimensional measurement of components. In order to provide a reasonable setting of the scanning parameters for the CMM user, this paper aims to analyze the difference between scanning and single point probing modes of the CMMs, which are based on the acceptance test procedure of ISO standards. The ANOVA method is employed to analyze the difference for all measurement results. As expected, the measurement results are different in scanning and single point probing modes. However, the results are not significant in different scanning parameters. In the future, the data of this performance investigate will be used to build up a mathematical model of the scanning mode for being applied into Virtual CMM to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of CMM.

ICCPE 2016 Proceedings



Study on the temperature deviation basing on extant international temperature scale against the thermodynamic temperature measured by the speed of sound

The new definition of the unit of thermodynamic temperature, kelvin, enters into force since the World Metrology Day (20 May 2019). The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is still being implemented after the new definition was launched, which is a dual-track operation adopted internationally in the near future during the transition period. However, the temperature T90 of ITS-90 is actually deviated from the thermodynamic temperature T. It needs applied a temperature measurement method based on the new definition to measure the thermodynamic temperature, and then to correct this deviation of (T90 T). As one of the primary temperature measurement methods approved by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT), this study employs the acoustic gas thermometry to determine the thermodynamic temperature T through the sound speed measurements, and transfers the temperature standard to the platinum resistance thermometers to compare with T90 obtained in accordance with ITS-90 temperature fixed-point measurement method. This article also covers the discussions on the uncertainty evaluation approaches related to the thermodynamic temperature, in order to further explore the equivalence of the deviation with the results published by other national metrology institutes (NMIs), as well as to confirm the national technology capability of acoustic gas thermometry on the basis of new definition of temperature unit.

Taiwan Acoustical Association



Integrated Ring Slot Antenna with a Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell for 5G Green Communication

In our study, a novel structure design of ring slot antenna integrated with a crystalline silicon solar cell for 5G communication is proposed and discussed. This self-powerd antenna operate in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) band. The ring slot antenna shows highly symmetric behavior for all polarization and can be achieved wide bandwidth. A bandwidth about 400 MHz has been achieved in our study.
Number of numerical simulation for several ring slot antenna models were fulfilled. The aim of them is to design ring slot antenna integrated with crystalline silicon solar battery without decreasing of the antenna performance. In order to reduce the interference between the ring slot antenna and crystalline silicon solar cell array, the grating lattice of the silicon solar cell array was optimized. The effectiveness of the proposed self-powerd antenna structure is confirmed by three dimensional full wave electromagnetic field simulation. The self-power antenna has designed in the U-NII band, which can be used for 5G green applications.

International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation



Report of Hybrid Comparison
on DC Resistance with NML and NMIJ

An international comparison (IC) has been complete by the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) and the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ) in DC resistance. Due to the redefining of the SI unit, we have renewed the system of DC resistance for the DC resistance standard. The comparison result shows that the value measured by NML and NMIJ are consistent in the comparison. Furthermore, a new form of IC, hybrid comparison (HC), has been used this time which describes in the following.




Feasibility Evaluation of Building a “High-Voltage and High-Power Short-Circuit Laboratory”

The capacity of high voltage and high power short circuit test in Taiwan is insufficient. For a long time, the domestic electric manufacturers must send their products abroad for testing, and it will cost millions of NT dollars to complete a type test.
To coincide with the national energy policy and the amendment of the Electricity Act, Taiwan Power Research Institute launched the renewal and expansion plan for high-voltage test equipment. This research is the establishment feasibility study of the “36 kV 40 kA high-voltage and high-power short circuit laboratory”, which aims to discuss and compare the feasibility of building international high voltage and high power short circuit laboratory in two branches of Taiwan Power Research Institute (including Shulin branch and Shen’ao branch). The feasibility study items mainly include the optimum use area/location, road restrictions when moving equipment, the impact for environmental, the operation mode of laboratory, and the impact analysis of power system, etc.
Finally, this research will make a complete comparison of feasibility assessment and prevention suggestions for the two branches of Taiwan Power Research Institute mentioned above.




Protable Standard Source for Ear Cinical Thermometer

There are various commercial ear clinical thermometers, but most of them can’t screen out the patients in fever, hence they can’t effectivity isolate the source of infection. CMS (Center for measurement standards) developed a portable standard source which was designed simulation of human body surface. In a series of development processes, we have developed an infrared ear thermometer calibrator that is easy to design, easy to manufacture, easy to operate, easy to carry, easy to maintain and low-cost. It is not limited to ear thermometers designed in any viewing angle, suitable for widespread use in people’s livelihood, medical treatment, manufacturing, etc. The effective emissivity is calculated by Monte Carlo method. Its specifications and functions meet international standards.The standard sources, which   expanded uncertainty at 38 ℃ (fever screening temperature) is lower than 0.06 ℃.It meet the international standards (EN, ASTM) Infrared Thermometer requirements of maximum permissible error ± 0.2 ℃.




Discussion on Independent Verification and Validation of Railway System

The independent verification and validation(IV&V) established in accordance with the procedures is expected to help improve the quality and safety of railway transportation. It will be helpful to the management of railway transportation, the implementation of construction and the safety of the people...etc. This article discusses the implementation of the independent verification and validation of the railway system, and introduces the current status in Taiwan. It also analyzes the scope of the Railway Technology Research and Testing Center(RTRC), and its role in the verification and verification system.




Final report on APMP Comparison in Humidity APMP.T-K8: Dew Point Temperature +30 °C to +95 °C

A key comparison in dew-point temperature in the range of +30 °C to +95 °C was carried out among the national standards held by NMIJ (pilot), MSL (coordinator), RCM-LIPI/SNSU-BSN, SCL, KRISS, NMIM, NMIA, NIMT, CMS/ITRI, and NMC, A*STAR. The purpose of the comparison was to establish the degree of equivalence between realizations of local scales of dew point temperature of humid gas among the participating national institutes. Although the comparison schedule was considerably delayed, no significant drift of the transfer standard was observed over the whole period of the comparison. The result of a chi-squared test demonstrated that the comparison was effective, and the results obtained in the comparison can be used as reliable supporting evidence for CMCs that each participant claims.




High-temperature fixed point calibration and realization of thermocouples above 1000 °C

With the upgrading of domestic industries and industrial technology progress, there are urgent need for high-accuracy temperature measurement using thermocouples above 1000 ℃ in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace, defense technologies, steel metallurgy, sintering, etc. However, if thermocouples are exposed to high temperature for a long time, the physical/chemical reactions between its constituent materials will generate the additional thermal electromotive force varying with time, which will cause a drift phenomenon. Through the realization of the high temperature calibration technology of metal-carbon eutectic points, cobalt-carbon alloy (Co-C; 1324 ℃) and palladium-carbon alloy (Pd-C; 1492 ℃), the temperature measurement uncertainty of thermocouples can be effectively controlled within 1 ℃ to satisfy the quality requirements between 1000 ℃ to 1500 ℃. Thereby improving the high-temperature production yield rate and reducing the unnecessary energy loss, these will ensure the reliability of temperature measurement for the domestic industry and science.




Improved shock vibration primary calibration system using heterodyne interferometry

The National Measurement Laboratory (NML) shock vibration primary calibration system uses the homodyne method to establish an interference module, and calculates the shock acceleration according to the international standard signal processing method. In recent years, in response to industrial technology upgrades, laser interferometric technology has advanced by leaps and bounds, coupled with the rapid development of software and hardware capabilities for analog-to-digital acquisition, the German Federal Institute of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has adopted the heterodyne method for measurement. Taking the origin of the acceleration signal, the heterodyne interferometry has become the mainstream in the realization of the international primary vibration correction; this article introduces the interferometer module of the NML shock vibration primary calibration system, the active homodyne interferometry and the improved heterodyne The principle, structure and signal processing method of the interferometric method will be discussed and the implementation process of the system improvement will be discussed. It is hoped that the advantages of the heterodyne method will be used to improve the technical level of domestic shock and vibration primary calibration.




Study on the temperature deviation realized by thermodynamic temperature to by the international temperature scale (ITS-90)

The new definition of the unit of thermodynamic temperature, kelvin, enters into force since the World Metrology Day (20 May 2019). The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is still being implemented after the new definition was launched in the near future. That is, a dual-track operation is adopted by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) during the transition period. However, the temperature T90 of ITS-90 is actually deviated from the thermodynamic temperature T. It needs applied a temperature measurement method based on the new definition to measure the thermodynamic temperature, and then to correct such deviation of (T90 T).

As one of the primary temperature measurement methods approved by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT), this study employs the acoustic gas thermometry to determine the thermodynamic temperature T through the sound speed measurements, and transfers the temperature standard to the platinum resistance thermometers to compare with T90 obtained in accordance with ITS-90 temperature fixed-point measurement method. This article covers the discussions on the realization procedure of the thermodynamic temperature, the equivalence of the deviation against the results published by other national metrology institutes (NMIs), as well as to confirm the national technology capability of acoustic gas thermometry on the basis of new definition of temperature unit.




Transmittance Haze Measurement by DIN 5036 Part 3

This paper presents the analysis and results of transmittance haze by using DIN 5036 part 3. From the simulation, diffuse transmittance are strongly dependent on reflectance of the integrating sphere, which also makes transmittance haze deeply affected. The measured data were compared to the data from double compensation method to prove the simulation result.

International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry



CIE 242:2020 Photometry of Curved and Flexible OLED and LED Sources

This Technical Report has been prepared by CIE Technical Committee (TC) 2-75 of Division 2 "Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation” and has been approved by the Board of Administration and by Division 2 of the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. The document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field of light and lighting described, and is intended to be used by all with an interest in excellence in light and lighting. The information provided here is advisory, and not mandatory.

The report describes the methods of measuring photometric and colorimetric quantities for curved sources and gives guidance for the determination of measurement uncertainties. The measurement quantities include luminance, luminous flux, colour, reflectance, and viewing angle.

The International Commission on Illumination



On-Site Measurements of Reflection Characteristics of a Dry Asphalt Road

On-site measurements of luminance images as well as illuminance distribution for the studies of reflected properties of a LED lighted dry asphalt road have been performed. The relatively more practical luminance coefficient of this old curved road was obtianed from high observation angles. The luminance coefficient can be simply fitted with quadratic equation of angle between the incident and the observation directions.

Proceedings of NEWRAD



Introduction to the detector-based luminous intensity scale

Luminous intensity is a basic quantity in photometry field, describing the luminous flux emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. The SI unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd). Currently, the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) of Taiwan uses a room temperature electrical substitution radiometer as the primary standard to measure the optical radiant power required to realize luminous intensity standard. However, many NMIs have adopted cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard to achieve lower uncertainty. The so-called "detector-based luminous intensity scale" has become the most popular method for luminous intensity realization. Funded by the Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection (BSMI), Taiwan, NML is working on adopting the detector-based method for luminous intensity realization. This article describes the principles of this method, the experimental setups, and compares the detector-based method with the current method. The goal of this work is to reduce the uncertainty of the photometric scale in Taiwan.




UVC LED measurement standard for sterilization key parameter

Because the ultraviolet radiation with wavelength in the UV-C range is easy to interact with organisms, by irradiating UV-C to destroy microbial DNA can achieve disinfection and sterilization effects. Therefore, the application of UV-C light-emitting diodes (UV-C LED) during the epidemic of the COVID-19 is more important. However, LED products should clarify product specifications to ensure the quality. Therefore, CMS/ITRI established a UV LED measurement system, including total radiant flux, irradiance, peak wavelength, spectral irradiance, radiation dose, etc., to help the development and quality of related industries and ensure consumer safety. This article focuses on the technical description of related key parameter measurement.




The first EUV optical radiometry standard in Taiwan - the opportunity and challenge of EUV lithography ecosystem

To developing the technology of advanced lithography of semiconductors in Taiwan, the optical radiometry measurement and calibration technology in Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) were established in National Measurement Laboratory (NML). NML cooperated with National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center to establish the spectral responsivity standard of the optical radiometry measurement evaluation technology of photodetectors in the EUV range. The NML can provide the calibration service for optical radiometry standard of photodetectors in the EUV range. The EUV photodetector calibration system, calibration principle and traceability chain were introduced in this paper. The NML extended the standard from UV to EUV range, the wavelength of new optical radiometry standard are 10 nm to 20 nm. The optical radiometry responsivity standard can be traced by EUV photodetector which can solve the metrology needs of the EUV lithography ecosystem.




The introduction of application and technology of Ultraviolet LED

To control the outbreak of pandemic of COVID-19, there are many strategies which were developed to fight against COVID-19 around the world. Using a UV-C light source with high rate ventilation air conditioner was demonstrated to inactive the SARS-CoV-2 virous. This system is a good method to control COVID-19 in the post-epidemic era. The guideline of using a UV light source and the international trend of development of UV light for COVID-19 were described in this paper. Also, the measurement technology for UV-C LED and standard traceability chain in UV-C were established. The NML presented the measurement system for measuring the key parameters of UV LED. NML offerred the measurement service for, radiant power, irradiance, peak wavelength, spectral irradiance and radiation dose for UV LED. The measurement system provides the basis for researching, quality control for related companies and safety guarantee of products for consumers.

Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology



People flow monitor system for epidemic prevention

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the government wants to stabilize the economy and reduce the risk of people gathering. The advanced LiDAR for people flow analysis system was established in the places where people gather fight the outbreak of COVID-19. The system can analyze the total amount of people and social distancing in the night market. This analyzed data can provide the epidemic prevention strategies for people gathering issues. This system doesn’t need personal information and face recognition which was complied with the requirements of GDPR. The edged AI algorithm was implemented for reducing the huge data which has to be transferred to the cloud system, and achieve high measurement distance and high resolution. The characteristics can achieve a cost reduction when scaling up to larger systems. For developing an epidemic prevention based technology city, this system is not only for COVID-19, but also extends to new services. For example, the statistics activity, interactive services and augmented reality applications which can attract people who attend the activity.




Development of a combined XRF/XPS surface-analysis system for the surface-layer quantification of 28Si spheres

To achieve a new kilogram definition using the X-ray crystal density method, the Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan has established the combined XRF (X-ray fluorescence)/XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) surface analysis system for the quantitative surface-layer analysis of Si spheres. The surface layer of a Si sphere is composed primarily of an oxide layer, carbonaceous contamination and physisorbed/chemisorbed water. This newly combined instrument has been implemented to measure the XRF for the direct determination of the mass deposition of oxygen (ng/cm2) with a calibrated silicon drift detector and the XPS for the ratio between the elements (O, Si, C) and composition identification. These two complementary methods of X-ray metrology allow an accurate determination of the surface-layer mass of the Si sphere. In this paper, the construction of a combined XRF/XPS surface-analysis system is reported, including the surface characterisation method, the assembly of parts of the load-lock chamber and ultra-high-vacuum analysis chamber, the vacuum-system design, hardware integration and the intended research on surface-layer measurement. It is anticipated that the measured surface-layer mass will be combined with the core mass of the Si sphere.




Quantification via X-ray fluorescence analysis of oxygen in the surface layer of a Si-sphere used as a new mass standard

The distribution of oxygen present in the surface layer of the Si-sphere used as
new mass standard is measured and quantified using the combined X-ray fluorescence
(XRF)/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis system
in the Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology
Research Institute (CMS/ITRI). A radiometric calibration of the X-ray source
is not possible because the spectral distribution of the X-ray tube used is complex
and not stable over the long term. Hence, the quantification of oxygen on
the Si-sphere is based on a calibration curve that establishes a correlation
between the mass deposition of oxygen from the calibration samples qualified
by PTB and the ratio of the oxygen fluorescence to silicon RRS (resonant
Raman scattering) intensities in the in-house system. This paper presents the
methodology for and the results of an oxygen quantification performed using
the combined XRF/XPS surface analysis system. With a relative uncertainty of
less than 10%, the average mass deposition of oxygen on the Si-sphere was 133
± 12 ng/cm2. The oxygen quantified via XRF is treated as a reference for the
quantification of other elements on the surface layer. The quantification of carbon
mass deposition in the surface layer in relation to the oxygen mass deposition
is also described in this paper. The surface analysis system is part of our
contribution to the realization and dissemination of the unit of the kilogram
(based on its new definition) via the XRCD method.

X-Ray Spectrometry



Data acquisition system improvement of 500 kN universal calibration system

With the advancement of technology, various instrument controllers and displays are also changing with each passing day. However, in the process of calibration, it is often necessary to compare the values of the standard and the test repeatedly. When the computer cannot capture the values of the two instruments at the same time, it is necessary to expend manpower to record the values to be corrected.As the age of image recognition modules has been widely used in various fields, and related resources are even more readily available. This article will introduce self-built machine vision recognition modules, from the hardware architecture of the modules to the development of recognition software, and discuss the feasibility of using this technology in measurement field.




Application of Machine Tool Geometric Error Measurement in Smart Manufacturing

Five-axis machine tool is one of the important equipment for smart manufacturing. There are many machine tool have been integrated with smart technologies, such as diagnosis and path optimization of tool wear. Intelligent technology for ensuring the high-quality of machine products. Geometric accuracy is one of the important bases of intelligence for five-axis machine tools, which can ensure the accurate positioning ability of the five-axis machine tools. Machine tool manufacturers often measure and compensate the geometric errors by using laser interferometers. How to quickly and accurately complete the measurement and compensation on five-axis machine tools with up to 43 geometric errors has become an urgent need of the manufacturers. This article introduces the use of two-dimensional hole plate to analyze the geometric errors of machine tool, comparing the measurement results of two-dimensional hole plate and traditional standard on a coordinate measuring machine, and a five-axis machine tool digital measurement technology system were established to assist upgrades in the manufacturing industry.

Journal of the Mechatronic Industry



The development of information exchange for digital metrology-the angular positioning error of machine tool rotary axes

The commercialized measurement tools used in multi-axes machinery equipment for product inspection and calibration can only generate measurement data and data trend; and the users normally import the measurement errors manually to a compensation table built in the equipment controlling system. As an increasing need for data digitalization, ITRI Precision Mechanical Metrology Research Laboratory develops a portable continuous angle standards (PoCAS), which is based on a unified data exchange format and global SI unit. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used as the common digital data exchange format to establish data exchange framework, so that the quantified data delivered within IoT are equipped with a function to generate Digital Calibration Certificates (DCC), which allows the vendor to offer as an equipment certificate for customer validation.




Adaptive Liquid Interfacially Assembled Protein Nanosheets for Guiding Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate

There is a growing interest in the development of dynamic adaptive biomaterials for regulation of cellular functions. However, existing materials are limited to two?state switching of the presentation and removal of cell?adhesive bioactive motifs that cannot emulate the native extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo with continuously adjustable characteristics. Here, tunable adaptive materials composed of a protein monolayer assembled at a liquid–liquid interface are demonstrated, which adapt dynamically to cell traction forces. An ultrastructure transition from protein monolayer to hierarchical fiber occurs through interfacial jamming. Elongated fibronectin fibers promote formation of elongated focal adhesion structures, increase focal adhesion kinase activation, and enhance neuronal differentiation of stem cells. Cell traction force results in spatial rearrangement of ECM proteins, which feeds back to alter stem cell fate. The reported biomimetic adaptive liquid interface enables dynamic control of stem cell behavior and has potential translational applications.

Advanced Materials



Viscoelastically tunable substrates elucidates the interface-relaxation-dependent adhesion and assembly behaviors of epithelial cells

Recent progress in mechanobiology sheds light on the regulation of cellular phenotypes by dissipative property of matrices, i.e., viscosity, fluidity, and stress relaxation, in addition to extensively studied elasticity. However, most researches have focused on bulk mechanics, despite cells in 2D culture can only interact with matrix interface directly. Here, we studied the impact of interfacial viscosity as well as elasticity of substrates on the early stage of adhesion behaviors of epithelial cells through new material design and mechanical characterization. The materials are copolymers of ε-caprolactone and D,L-lactide photocrosslinked by benzophenone. The substrate viscoelasticity changes depending on the polymer molecular weight and irradiation time. The interfacial elasticity and relaxation were determined by atomic force microscopy with modes of nanoindentation and tip-dwelling, respectively. MDCK cells changed morphologically, ranging from loose beaded assembly to more compact spheroids and eventual spread monolayer clusters, in response to the interfacial viscoelasticity change. Such morphological changes were mainly determined by substrate interfacial relaxation, rather than interfacial elasticity. Single-cell tracking identified biphasic motility with the minimum speed at intermediate relaxation time (~350 ms), where cells showed transitional morphologies between epithelial and mesenchymal traits. In that relaxation level, partially deformed cells moved around to coalesce with surrounding cells, eventually assembling into compact cellular aggregates. These results highlight, unlike the conventional hanging-drop technique, an appropriate level of interfacial relaxation is critical for efficient cell aggregate maturation on adhesive viscoelastic matrices. This work not only elucidates that the interfacial relaxation as the essential mechanical parameter for epithelial cell adhesion and migration, but also gives useful tips for creating physiologically relevant drug screening platform.




Application of scanning mobility analyzer in the rapid test of biological nanoparticles

The development of rapid and accurate metrology toward the disease becomes the major goal for many countries toward the pandemic, worldwide coronavirus disease-2019. For the demand in rapid test of bio-sample, the method using scanning mobility analyzer for the size study of bio-sample was proposed in this article. Scanning mobility analyzer differentiated nanoparticles with various size by tuning electrical field, which resulted in the advantages such as fast, continuous measurement, labor-saving, and cheapness compared to traditional immunological methods. With the abovementioned characteristics, the promise use of scanning mobility analyzer in medical rapid test was suggested.




Performance enhancement of DMA-CPC for ultrafine aerosol measurement by using self-assemble particle charger

There are several kinds of particles in the air, such as PM2.5 and PM1.0. The particles are easier to enter into the human body, when the size of particle is smaller or the quantity of the particle is more, and cause the lung disease, inflammation, damage of the immune system or cancers. Therefore, the size and concentration of particles are the major index of environmental pollution.
   Differential Mobility Analyzer - Condensation Particle Counter (DMA-CPC) has been currently used to measure the size distribution and concentration of particle. Given that the charged-particles with different sizes have different mobility under the electric field, DMA is able to classify the particle with the specific size by applying the specific voltage. The particle with the specific size then enter into the CPC for counting the quantities. However, the particles with the size lower than 100 nm have lower charging efficiency which leads to less charged-particle could be classified by DMA and influence the measurement result. To improve the charging efficiency of the small particle (size <100 nm), the study developed a particle charger and evaluated the effect of it by two size standard samples (Gold-20 nm and 10 nm) and compared the results with the commercialized soft-x ray particle charger.




Nanoscale Material Heterogeneity of Glowworm Capture Threads Revealed by AFM

Adhesive materials used by many arthropods for biological functions incorporate sticky
substances and a supporting material that operate synergistically by exploiting substrate attachment and energy dissipation. While there has been much focus on the composition and properties of the sticky glues of these bio-composites, less attention has been given to the materials that support them. In particular, as these materials are primarily responsible for dissipation during adhesive pull-off, little is known of the structures that give rise to functionality, especially at the nano-scale. In this study we used tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) to analyze unstretched and stretched glowworm (Arachnocampa tasmaniensis) capture threads and revealed nano-scale features corresponding to variation in surface structure and elastic modulus near the surface of the silk. Phase images demonstrated a high resolution of viscoelastic variation and revealed mostly globular and elongated features in the material. Increased vertical orientation of 11–15 nm wide fibrillar features was observed in stretched threads. Fast Fourier transform analysis of phase images confirmed
these results. Relative viscoelastic properties were also highly variable at inter- and intra-individual levels. Results of this study demonstrate the practical usefulness of TM-AFM, especially phase angle imaging, in investigating the nano-scale structures that give rise to macro-scale function of soft and highly heterogeneous materials of both natural and synthetic origins.




Long-wavelength grazing incident small angle X-ray scattering critical dimension metrology

Semiconductor components have rapidly progressed from the 2D structure of the semiconductor field effect transistor (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor; MOSFET) to the 3D fin field effect transistor (Fin Field Effect Transistor; FinFET); and in 2020, the semiconductor industry will enter the Gate-All-Around (GAA) generation of transistors. In addition to the reduced line width, the three-dimensional structure and material composition of its components have become more complex, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of key dimension parameters required to be measured. TSMC expects to advance the process node to 2 nm in 2024. Various critical dimensions will continue to shrink. For example, the minimum line width will reach 20 nm, and the overlay error (Overlay) will be less than 0.6 nm. In the case of complex structure, miniaturization and new material composition, the difficulty of measuring critical dimensions has increased. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new critical dimension metrology to meet the measurement needs of the semiconductor industry.




Forward-looking purity and particle measurement technology for semiconductor raw materials

As the semiconductor process continues to shrink to the nanometer level, semiconductor devices become very sensitive to contaminants presence in the process materials (such as solvents, gases, photoresists, abrasives, etc.). How to quickly and instantly obtain the cleanliness information on process gases and liquid is very important to semiconductor industry. This article will introduce the measurement technology and pre-treatment methods for purity and particle analysis in raw materials. In addition, the related on-line detection method and real sample test will be demonstrated. By measuring the contamination source accurately and precisely, the product yield and quality can be controlled and improved.




The Development of X-Ray Reflectivity Technology for Critical Dimensions Measurement

Semiconductor industry in Taiwan is in the R&D process of developing 2 nm process (N2) using Gate-All-Around (GAA) technology instead of Fin Field-Effect Transistor (FinFET) solution used for 3 nm process. The world’s largest contract chipmaker in Taiwan is expected to have pilot production start in 2023 and high volume production later in 2024. As the GAA technology is introduced, not only is the feature size shrunk to 2 nm, but more complex and high precision 3D critical dimensions (CDs) with tighter tolerances are required to prevent the current leakage and increase the yield. As a result, significant metrology challenges arise to maintain the high quality control of the front-end processes for the GAA transistors. Conventional metrology solutions, such as optical and SEM methods, are lack sensitivity to monitor the complex 3D CDs of the GAA transistors in production with the demanded high precision. According to IRDS 2020, X-ray based methods have been identified as the only feasible in-line CD measurement solution for N2 GAA process. In this study, X-Ray Reflectivity for Critical Dimensions (CD-XRR) technology and an in-line measurement tool (an α–tool) are established for the measurements of the complex 3D CDs of the GAA transistors. The CD-XRR is applied for in-die measurements with spot size of (50 x 50) μm2 and to provide accurate 3D CD measurements with an atomic-level resolution in the GAA front-end IC fabrication processes. With the successful establishment of the CD-XRR technology and the in-line measurement tool (an α–tool), it is expected to maintain competitiveness and strength the IC fabrication for the semiconductor industry in Taiwan. Additionally, the developed technology, then, will lead related domestic partners (equipment manufacturers) to become metrology tool suppliers in the frond-end IC fabrication.

The International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation



Performance in Charging Efficiency for Sub-10 nm Particles of Homemade Portable Unipolar Charger

Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with its ability to establish particle size distribution for nanometer-scale particles, has been used in the semiconductor industry to meet the strong demand for high quality semiconductor-grade ingredient purity analysis in the domain. However, sub-10 nm particle loss through the charging step in the measurement process is a critical issue since particles are traditionally charged using a bipolar charger where low charging efficiency occurs for sub-10 nm particles due to the overall electrical neutrality of the aerosol. In our study, a portable plate corona unipolar charger was homemade in substitution for the bipolar charger. A fine wire was utilized with a feedback corona current set at 13 nA to obtain a stable corona discharge that induces polarization of the air molecules. A -6.8 V bias voltage was applied to the aluminum chamber for the air molecules to collide with the aerosol particles and transfer the electric charge. To evaluate the charging efficiency of sub-10 nm particles, sodium chloride with diameters from 3 nm to 25 nm and semiconductor used solvent as real world sample were used. The results showed that, for sub-10 nm particles, at least two times enhancement was obtained for unipolar charger for intrinsic charging efficiency, revealing that better performance can possibly be achieved through modification of the unipolar charger design. That is, using a unipolar charger as the charger in the SMPS system is a potential solution to lower the detection limit and to meet the future need of the semiconductor industry.

International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation



Calibration and traceability of flow and pressure in ventilator

The first patient with the new coronavirus (COVID-19) appeared at the end of 2019. Since the patient will have symptoms of breathing difficulties, it is urgent to use a ventilator to help the infected person maintain their respiratory function of the lung. At this time, respirators have begun to be used in ventilator tester is required for flow and pressure verification or calibration. Here, the flow and pressure parameters of the ventilator analyzer will be introduced to the flow standard and pressure standard system of the National Measurement Laboratory to ensure the safety of the respirator The performance and quality.




Improvement and Analysis of Low Pressure Gas measurement

The Bell Prover is the primary standard system for low pressure gas of National Metrology Laboratory.The density of the gas inside the bell determined by the pressure and temperature of the gas.How to accurately measure the correct temperature inside the bell is an important issue.After redesigning the temperature control and temperature measurement methods of this system.The half interval of the measurement error caused by the temperature distribution is reduced from the 0.1 ℃ to 0.05 ℃.The relative expanded uncertainty of the Bell Prover system decreased from 0.11% to 0.09%.




Construction of smart meter reading and detection system for water meters

Most of the existing register of domestic water below DN 40 adopted mechanical digital wheels and pointer discs. This study constructed the smart meter reading and detection system for water meters. The system used image-recognizing cameras with artificial intelligence technology and wireless network communication functions. With a high-speed image screenshot and storage capacity of less than 0.1 seconds, the camera completed the capture, calculation, storage and transmission of the image of the register and transmitted to the supervisory computer through wireless communication in a short time. The camera used the built-in image-processing unit to complete automatically the recognition of the image of the register through machine learning and deep learning, and then converted it into data and saved to the file in the comma-separated values (CSV) format with the file name included the date and time for identification. In the process of water meter inspection, the automatic program that performed the inspection of water meters obtained the accumulative water quantity value of the register by importing the data file in the designated folder for data calculation.


CSME Congress 2021 - Symposium on Solid Mechanics



Discharge Coefficients Regression Model Analysis for Sonic Nozzle

The high-pressure gas flow standard system is a system that operates in a wide range of pressure, temperature and flow. The sonic nozzle transfer standard used in the calibration system can be established to cover an operating pressure of 5-60 bar, an operating temperature of room temperature, and a flow rate of 3-200 m3/h. This paper accurately predicts the universal curve of nozzle characteristics in these ranges, which meets the requirement that the difference between regression and calibration values is ±0.10%.
The variables that affect the characteristics of Sonic Nozzle for high-pressure gas are Reynolds number (Re), Pressure (P), Nozzle throat diameter (Nd), and the interaction of these three variables Re×P, Re×Nd, P×Nd, Re×P×Nd etc. These seven variables are linearly combined with a polynomial of the power of the variable to become the multivariable curve of the regression analysis.
Use the statistical learning library provided by the SPSS software package to avoid multi-collinearity, mainly the stepwise regression method, to solve the regression coefficient of the multivariable curve. The 84 variables expanded by variables are included in the same block or divided into 7 blocks for stepwise regression. After software screening, the discharge coefficients of a wide range of multiple variables can be accurately predicted, and the coefficient of regression adjustment judgment (Coefficient of Determination) The minimum R2 value is close to 0.9852, and using an average of about 30 °C calibration data, the outflow coefficient at 20 °C and 10 °C can be reasonably predicted. Compared with the predicted value of the ISO 9300 regression curve, the universal curve of this model can increase the regression accuracy by as much as 2 times.

CSME Congress 2021 - Symposium on Solid Mechanics



The Uncertainty analysis of Micro Flow Calibration Facility

The micro-flow measurement system (System number is F11) of the National Metrology Standard Laboratory, which provides the calibration range is 0.1 μL/min ~ 10 mL/min. But in recent years, the calibration energy requirement of the automotive safety testing, the environmental testing industry, meteorological monitoring instruments, and medical equipment, etc, has been reached 10 mL/min ~ 1 L/min. Therefore, the F11 system added the third Mettler-Toledo weighing platform in order to reach this goal. In the past, the stability and uncertainty of the weighing platform have been evaluated. This article will focus on analyzing the scope of F11 system amplification and the uncertainty factors that may occur during the measurement process one by one.

CSME Congress 2021 - Symposium on Solid Mechanics



Anemometer Calibrations and Uncertainty in Wind Tunnel

Air speed measurement is essential parameter in many industries. The anemometers are widely used such as environmental monitoring, air quality ventilation systems, air filter testers, and semiconductor clean rooms testers, etc. The wind tunnel was provided uniformity and stability testing environments for calibrating the anemometers.
To ensure the accuracy of the measurement of air speed measurements, the accuracy of the calibration standards traceable anemometer and wind tunnel structure and design of wind tunnel flow field characteristics will affect the flow rate measurement. In this paper the flow field of wind tunnel was measured and simulated with anemometer calibration in order to understand the performance impact on the wind tunnel calibration of anemometers studies.
The results the relative standard uncertainty of air speed calibration system is about 0.03 m/s,0.12 m/s and 0.27 m/s in the range of wind speed 0.5 m/s to 1 m/s, 1 m/s to 5 m/s and 5 m/s to 30 m/s。

CSME Congress 2021 - Symposium on Solid Mechanics



The Calibration and Test Experiment of Ultrasonic Anemometer

The measurement of wind speed has often become an important parameter for testing in various industries. For example, it is widely used in industrial fields such as atmospheric environment monitoring, industrial ventilation environment air quality testing, residential performance verification, pharmaceutical manufacturing and semiconductor clean rooms, etc.,
The Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) Fluid Technology Committee (APMP-TCFF) plans to hold a key comparison (Key Comparison) every 10 years. The most recent APMP.FF-K3 (wind speed) inner circle comparison was held from 2009 to 2010.
In 2020, the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Measurement Standards Center of the National Institute of Industrial Technology of Taiwan hosted the key international comparison of wind speed,APMP.FF-K3.2020.
The main national metrology institutions involved in the test include China (NIM) , Japan (NMIJ), South Korea (KRISS), Singapore (A*STAR), Thailand (MINT) and Vietnam (VMI), etc. The wind speed range of key comparison is 0.5 m/s to 30 m/s.

CSME Congress 2021 - Symposium on Solid Mechanics



The Application of standard gases used in quality assurance assessment for gas analyzers

The Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) has set up more than 80 air quality monitoring stations in Taiwan. To ensure the operating status of monitoring equipment, the EPA has standardized the quality assurance operations, which including the method and frequency of calibration and audit check.
Among them, the reference standard is a key factor in controlling the reliability of gas analyzer’s monitoring data and improving the accuracy of monitoring concentration. This article illustrates the application and importance of standard gases used in gas analyzers performance verification.




The application of gas purity identification

Purity analysis has a wide range of needs in various industries, whether it is life-related, industry (process or product), and national defense. In life field, the food that people eat every day needs to be examined for the presence of hazardous substances in the products or raw materials; the raw materials or products used in the factory’s products need to be examined for purity to ensure the process yield; in the national defense field, the cylinders used in pilots’ breathing air need to be tested for hazardous components to ensure flight safety. This article will focus on the introduction of purity analysis applications in gas field, and introduce the application and importance of purity analysis in the industry.




Development of Pollutant tracing technology by Sr & Pb isotope ratio analysis

Stable isotopes widely exist in our environment. Because the composition of isotopes is not susceptible to short-term variation, the isotope ratios possess source traceability and are useful hints for source identification. The feasibility of applying the isotope ratio to trace the source of pollutants are worldwide investigated.
In 2018, Center for Measurement Standards in Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS-ITRI) bought the multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) to measure silicon isotope ratio. Concerning the possibility of lead (Pb) and strontium (Sr) isotopes being applied on tracing the pollutant source in air and water. CMS-ITRI has developed the related standard operation procedure.
The preliminary results show that the isotopes of lead (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and strontium (84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, 88Sr) are successfully detected. The lead standard solutions from different countries are distinguishable based on the measured isotope ratio, with a relative standard deviation lower than 0.5%


Workshop on Environmental Analytical Chemistry