Papers in Year 2022

No. Paper Title Abstract Accepted By Issued Date
1 Introduction to the production and calibration of multi-channel surface temperature recorder The accuracy and stability of the temperature of the factory machine is related to the quality of the product. This self-made multi-channel surface temperature recorder can measure the temperature of 3 or 5 channels at the same time and the temperature changes at multiple points at the same time. This surface temperature recorder can be set Warm-up time, recording period, sampling frequency and other parameters, measuring range 30 ℃ to 200 ℃, resolution of 0.1 ℃, temperature difference between channels is less than 0.1 ℃ @90 ℃, temperature calibration traceable to NML national standard, The self-weight surface temperature probe can also reduce the measurement error caused by human operation, and can replace multiple thermometers in application, saving cost and time. In addition to the application of reliability evaluation on the production line, this system can also be applied to the surface temperature measurement requirements of multi-point, simultaneous, and long-term monitoring. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220105
2 Applicability of DIN 5036-3 on Transmittance Haze Measurement This paper evaluates the applicability of using the method described in DIN 5036-3 for transmittance haze measurement, theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that DIN 5036-3 is valid for total transmittance measurement. However, when applying to diffuse transmittance measurement, the measured value is lower than the theoretical one, resulting a lower value of calculated transmittance haze. And the reflectance of the integrating sphere, collimation of the incident beam, and the locations of the ports of the sphere are the keys to achieve better accuracy. Further study is necessary to recommend solutions for the discovered issues. Journal of Physics:Conference Series 20220106
3 Design of azobenzene-bearing hydrogel with photoswitchable mechanics driven by photo-induced phase transition for in vitro disease modeling Mechanics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibit changes during many biological events. During disease progression, such as cancer, matrix stiffening or softening occurs due to crosslinking of the collagen matrix or matrix degradation through cell-secreted enzymes. Engineered hydrogels have emerged as a prime in vitro model to mimic such dynamic mechanics during disease progression. Although there have been a variety of engineered hydrogels, few can offer both stiffening and softening properties under the same working principle. In addition, to model individual disease progression, it is desirable to control the kinetics of mechanical changes. To this end, we describe a photoresponsive hydrogel that undergoes stiffness changes by the photo-induced phase transition. The hydrogel was composed of a copolymer of azobenzene acrylate monomer (AzoAA) and N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA). By tuning the amount of azobenzene, the phase transition behavior of this polymer occurs solely by light irradiation, because of the photoisomerization of azobenzene. This phase behavior was confirmed at 37 °C by turbidity measurements. In addition, the crosslinked poly(AzoAA-r-DMA) gel undergoes reversible swelling-deswelling upon photoisomerization by ultraviolet or visible light. Furthermore, the poly(AzoAA-r-DMA) sheet gels exhibited modulus changes at different isomerization states of azobenzene. When MCF-7 cells were cultured on the gels, stiffening at different timepoints induced varied responses in the gene expression levels of E-cadherin. Not only did this suggest an adaptive behavior of the cells against changes in mechanics during disease progression, this also demonstrated our material’s potential towards in vitro disease modeling. Acta Biomaterialia 20210915
4 The dynamic effect of force transducer signal output under high frequency load In this study, the dynamic force calibration system established by the National Measurement Laboratory was used to assess the dynamic effect of the force sensor. The difference between static and dynamic voltage output of the force sensor will cause the set force magnitude and the actual response signal to be distorted. When operating in the dynamic mode, with the increase of the force application vibration frequency, the static and dynamic voltage output of the force sensor The difference can be as high as 24%. CSME 2022 20221202
5 Assessment of infrasound and Presence of a Prominent Tonal Component in Wind Turbine Noise In this paper, we measure the infrasound of onshore wind turbine and analyze whether the particular tonal components exist in the noise for researching their degree of impact. Also, in the process, we set up several different measurement locations for measuring the noise of each wind turbine generator. Furthermore, in Taiwan, the research in measuring noise of wind turbine adopts A-weighting to weight and adapt the measurement results, while A-weighting curve does substantially decrease the volume perceptiveness of human in low frequency domain. Therefore, we adopt G-weighting method to research the impact of infrasound, and analyze the tonal components of infrasound with FFT and 1/3 octave band, simplifying the traditional tonal audibility evaluation method. With the above operations, we will understand the infrasound impact and tonal prominence of wind turbine, which will be taken as the reference for planning the construction locations of wind turbine and techniques of noise measurement in the future. Chinese Society of Sound and Vibration 20220709
6 Evaluation of Point Cloud Distortion Using Image Distortion Coefficient in Stereo Vision System 3D structured light scanners are strong tools for high-speed and automatic quality control. There are two documents, VDI/VDE 2634 guideline and ISO 10360-13, proposed to evaluate the stereo vision systems. However, the sensitivities of the camera parameters and disparity map have not been well evaluated. The error of camera calibration has a great impact on the accuracy of the scanners. This paper propose a model to simulate the point cloud result of a ball bar artefact with different arrangements. We evaluate the characteristics including sphere diameter, sphere form and spherespacing. The results show that the farther ball would have greater systematic error, and the deviation of the focal length would affect the point cloud more than the other camera paramenters. In the results, we get the the larger sphere-spacing errors when ball features are at different depths. Hence, the measurements at these arrangements would efficiently validate specifications of 3D structured light scanners. International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221026
7 Uncertainty Evaluation of 3D Point Cloud Stitching Algorithm The purpose of this paper is to evaluate uncertainty of calibration for non-contact optical 3D coordinate measuring systems. Point clouds stitching is one of the uncertainties in the calibration, so we proposed a method to evaluate it. In order to reduce the variables in the method, we use the program to generate ideal point clouds so that we could ignore the effects caused by the environment. In point clouds stitching, we used the same set of ideal point clouds stitching 3 times and changing the numbers of iterations to evaluate uncertainty of point clouds stitching algorithm we used. The results show that the stitching algorithm we use doesn’t contribute much to the uncertainty. International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221026
8 Calibration of Rotary Encoders Using a Shift-Angle Method Cross-calibration using an autocollimator and a polygon is the traditional method for calibrating a rotary encoder. These angles, which can be calibrated using this method, are limited by the pitch angle of the polygon, which is 15 for a 24-faced polygon. In this work, we propose a new shift-angle method using the same setup as the traditional method. However, the new method can measure smaller than the pitch angle of the polygon, which is the measurement limitation of the traditional method. The proposed method can calibrate every angle of the rotary encoder. In the experiment, we use an autocollimator and a 24-faced polygon to calibrate the SelfA rotary encoder to verify the proposed shift-angle method. The SelfA rotary encoder, which comprises one rotary encoder and 12 read heads, is calibrated using self-calibration. The difference between the calibration results obtained by applying these two methods to the same SelfA rotary encoder is smaller than 0.1". Applied Sciences 20220516
9 Geometric error measurement of a five-axis machine and introduction to Hole plate Five-axis machine has both the functions of machining and online measuring becomes development trend, and the five-axis machine which equipped with the 3D measuring probe can greatly improve the efficiency of the production line. The measurement accuracy is mainly affected by the geometric errors of the five-axis machine. According to the international standard specification (ISO) 230, there are 43 geometric errors in the five-axis machine, the analysis of geometric errors for the five-axis machine tool is developed. With the dimensional reference standard hole plate and the analysis of the geometric errors modeling, the 43 geometric errors of the five-axis machine can be analyzed. This paper introduces the 43 geometric errors of the five-axis machine tool, and the design concept of the dimensional reference standard hole plate.
The preliminary experiments were applied to the four-axis coordinate measuring machine. The 32 geometric errors were measured and analyzed, which including 21 geometric errors of the linear three-axis and 11 geometric errors of the single rotation axis. The measurement results were verified by traditional measurement methods. For geometric errors of the linear three-axis, the positioning geometric errors are measured by laser interferometer, the angular geometric errors are measured by autocollimator and the squareness geometric errors are measured by angle square. For geometric errors of single rotation axis, angle positioning geometric errors are measured by autocollimator-polygon method. The verified measurement results are all meet industry specifications.
10 Calibration of a rotary encoder and a polygon using a two-autocollimator method Cross-calibration is a traditional method for calibrating a rotary encoder and a polygon. This method can calibrate all pitch angle deviations of a polygon and angle errors of a rotary encoder simultaneously. The measurement cycles depend on how many faces of the polygon, which is 24 cycles for a 24-faced polygon. In this work, we propose a two-autocollimator method that can reduce to one measurement cycle. All pitch angle deviations of a polygon and angle errors of a rotary encoder can be calibrated simultaneously. In the experiment, we use two autocollimators to calibrate a 24-faced polygon and a rotary encoder to conduct the proposed two-autocollimator method. International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221030
11 Development of Data Exchange through Linear Geometric Error Compensation Technology for Machine Tools The measurement instruments used for calibration in five axis machine tools are manually input the detected geometric error value into the compensation tables of various controller systems, such as  Heidenhain and SIEMENS. Therefore, there will be inconveniences and easy to cause losses due to human factors. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) proposed a report structure for publishing a Digital Calibration Certificates (DCC). The structure consists of three parts. Firstly, the calibration certificate must meet the requirements of international standards, including SI unit, VIM, GUM and ISO 17025. Second, the contents of the calibration information contain administrative data, results of the calibration, supplementary comments and human readable documents. Third, XML exchange file is provided  as data format with the internationally accepted, approved and cryptographically signable. This promotional plan of the Digital Calibration Certificate is set up the hole plate on the five-axis machine, and measured in different directions on the machine. The measurement results are output in Excel format and XML file. The XML file produced by the hole plate are transferred into the machine tool controller for geometric error compensation, thereby simplifying the error compensation procedure and shortening the time. International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221030
12 A Novel Measuring Method for Rotary Table Geometric Errors by Using a LaserTRACER In this paper, a novel measurement method is presented for obtaining the geometric errors of the single axis rotation by laser tracer. The laser tracer is not put on the rotatory table of machine tool. The advantage of this measuring set up is much easier than the traditional method, especially for small rotatory tables. According to the ISO 230 standards, this method is developed for using the homogeneous coordinate transformation, multilateration and the least squares method to calculate the geometric error including positioning accuracy of the rotational axes of machine tools. The results show this method is feasible in measuring the geometric errors of the single axis rotation. International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221030
13 Introduction to metrology of the international trend of electric vehicle charging station metering This technical report presents an introduction to the international trend of electric vehicle charging station metering, analyzes the current status and development trend of the global electric vehicle industry, collects domestic and foreign electric vehicle related technical standards and aggregates electric vehicle charging station metering traceability information, and proposes the current domestic electric vehicle development dilemma. Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20220201
14 Research on battery Ah(Ampere-hour)metering of electric locomotive When electric locomotives use the Ah (Ampere ‧ hour) model for metering, the Ah (Ampere ‧ hour) measurement and standard are important topics. Therefore, the measurement method and standard of Ah (Ampere ‧ hours) are researched and evaluated as the regulation of the national standards for electric locomotives metering. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220125
15 Research on the Draft Technical Specification for Type Approval of Electrical Meters This article lists the test items of the type approval technical specification draft after discussion by the industry, government and academia, and provides the basis for the National Standards Bureau to formulate the national electrical meter type approval technical specifications in the future to ensure that the electrical meter’s accuracy. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220125
16 Uncertainty Evaluation of Single-phase AC Power Primary Measurement System This article evaluates the measurement uncertainty of the improved single-phase AC power primary measurement system. The measurement uncertainty of the active power is 80 μW/VA, the measurement uncertainty of the reactive  power is 80 μvar/VA, the voltage harmonics measurement uncertainty is 0.22 mV/V, and the current harmonic measurement uncertainty is 0.20 mA/A. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220125
17 The signal coverage of 5G base-station simulation and measurement analysis technology Due to the antenna array technique is used in 5G, the electromagnetic field intensity distribution in environmental will be very different from the past. At present, the criterion of how to measure the electromagnetic distribution of wireless communication base stations only available in 4G, and whether this is also applicable to 5G, where the form of electromagnetic radiation behavior changes greatly, even for the future 6G. This concern for the health and safety of the people, and will be an important issue that must be clarified and studied in the future. Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20220930
18 Upgrading S-Parameter/Impedance Measurement System Frequency up
to 110 GHz at CMS
In this year, we are upgrading our Scattering-parameter/ Impedance measurement system and extending the measurement frequencies range up to 110 GHz at CMS (Center for Measurement Standards) in Taiwan. The evaluated method of vector network analyzer (VNA) is based on metrology guide EURAMET cg-12[1]. It is shown in this paper that the 2.4 mm coaxial connector type preliminary evaluation result of the measurement uncertainties with the VNA, and the waveguide connector type will be evaluated in the near future. CPEM 20221212
19 Fabrication and Measurement of Quantized Hall Resistance Devices with Liquid-Helium-Free QHR System at CMS We fabricate a AlGaAs/GaAs quantized Hall resistance (QHR) devices for the electrical resistance standard at the Center for Measurement Standards (CMS). The devices have been measured by liquid-Helium-free quantized Hall resistance (LHF-QHR) system using Direct Current Comparator (DCC) bridge. The relative expanded uncertainty of the QHR system is 0.06 μΩ/Ω for the 1 kΩ DC standard resistor. The measurement results of the 1 kΩ standard resistor demonstrated the excellent agreement between the CMS and PTB QHR devices. More devices will be fabricated for related studies in the future, and it will be our pleasure to share the devices with other NMIs. The fabrication detail and comparison measurement result with the PTB QHR device will be discussed. CPEM 20220930
20 The Key to Localization of Railway Facilities - Railway Technology Research and Verification Center CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc., Taiwan was commissioned by the Railway Bureau, MOTC in June 2018 to start the detailed design of the civil engineering of the Railway Technology Research and Verification Center Plan for the site base infrastructure and testing equipment factory buildings. The eight major governance goals of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications in 2020, of which the establishment of the "Railway Technology Research and Verification Center" is the key action plan in the "Promoting the Development of the Transportation Industry", in order to achieve the promotion of humanism, green, safety, wisdom and localization for the rail industry, This plan combines the verification of the most professional R&D institution in Taiwan - Industrial Technology Research Institute, and the evaluation of the procurement of testing instruments and equipment, procurement and evaluation of testing instruments and equipment, and the deployment of R & D equipment plants, expanding its common and versatile component testing needs, we will build a national independent research and development track design product testing platform to provide domestic credibility. Rail product verification strengthens the complete rail industry chain of operating units and suppliers, and becomes a product verification agency that provides new style rail product development and has a credible organization. CECI engineering technology 20220430
21 A sound positioning technique by five microphones array The sound positioning by microphone arrays is a mature technology. Due to the error of signal phase by microphones and analyzer, the phase difference between microphones, which is the main factor of sound positioning will deviate. Thus the accuracy will be constrained. The current commercial products usually provide the orientations without distances. This research provides a model with 5 microphones, which provides the sound source distance. While the phase difference of microphone is assumed deviated below 10%, the accuracy of resulting the direction and distance will be under 13%. Chinese Society of Sound and Vibration 20220709
22 Research, Analysis and Promotion of the Overall Structure of Taiwan’s Railway Standards In order to ensure the safety and quality of Taiwan’s railway system and improve the current dilemma of non-consistent standards in the procurement of domestic railway systems, we collected domestic and foreign railway standards, and constructed the overall structure of Taiwan’s railway standards in line with international standards. It is divided into seven categories: Vehicle System, Power Supply System, Signaling and Communication System, Track System, Intelligence Railway System, RAMS and Others Systems, which are expected not only to be used by domestic operating units for procurement, research and development, manufacturing, testing and verification, and follow-up maintenance, but also to meet the needs of the international rail industry supply chain and  to improve the function and quality of railway products. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220930
23 Introduction to Underwater Acoustics Technology and Ocean Sustainable Management With the development of industry and technology, human activities have had a huge impact on the environment. After the Industrial Revolution, factories and vehicles emitted a large amount of carbon dioxide, which enhanced the greenhouse effect. The impact of extreme climates on the environment has become increasingly serious. In order to reduce carbon emissions, reduce the greenhouse effect and improve extreme climates, 128 countries around the world have declared to achieve net-zero carbon emissions goals by 2050. Towards net zero, we must improve resource efficiency, reduce non-renewable resource extraction, and make more use of recyclable renewable energy. Among a variety of renewable energy options, Taiwan is also actively developing wind power and solar power with advantages. Considering land use and environmental disturbance factors, offshore energy has also become a green renewable energy with development potential, which involves the detection and development of ocean energy. If this energy is promoted and applied through ocean acoustic technology, it can be used in planning and more competitive. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220525
24 Total transmittance measurement using an integrating sphere calibrated by a screen image synthesis system The measurement of bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) and total transmittance (TT) is a complicated issue. We have proposed a screen image synthesis (SIS) BSDF meter that provides high-speed and precise measurement. However, the measurement of TT using integrating sphere cannot offer a precise measurement. Therefore, we propose a calibration method that uses SIS BSDF meter and responsivity of the integrating sphere. It brings us not only precise BSDF function but precise TT measurement. Optics Continuum 20220622
25 Thin film element quantification via XRF analysis based on calibrated reference samples and Sherman’s equation This paper presents the methodology for the quantification of the other elements in the thin film which is not consisted in the calibrated reference samples via XRF measurement. To realize the new kg definition via x-ray-crystal-density method, the surface layer mass of the 28Si-enriched sphere is required to determine accurately. The surface layer of the 28Si-enriched sphere which is composed of silicon oxide, carbonaceous contaminants, and chemisorbed water (under vacuum conditions), including elements O, Si, C, and H. The composition of the surface layer was investigated by a combined XRF/XPS surface analysis system at CMS/ITRI. Due to the instability of the in-house x-ray tube, the quantification of the oxygen mass in the surface layer relies on a series of SiO2 reference samples calibrated by synchrotron radiation-based reference-free XRF at BESSY II. With the incident energy of 1486.6 eV, not only O Kα but C Kα fluorescence also could be detected in XRF spectrum. Without the reference samples of carbon, the quantification of carbon in the surface layer is on the basis of the quantified oxygen. Considering the detector efficiency,the fluorescence intensity ratio between C Kα and O Kα was determined from the fitted XRF spectrum. Applying Sherman’s equation, the actual number of carbon atoms in the surface layer can be evaluated by the C Kα/O Kα ratio, the photoelectric cross sections, the fluorescence yields, the incident geometry and the known mass deposition of oxygen.The quantification results show the mass deposition of oxygen is 132.9 ±12.2 ng/cm2 and carbon is found to be 144 ±25 ng/cm2 in the surface layer. The International Multi-Conference on  Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221030
26 the establish and uncertainty evaluation of dynamic force calibration system The dynamic force measurement system is used to calibrate the dynamic effect of the force transducer with a range of 0.1 kN to 1 kN at the force frequency of 10 Hz to 2000 Hz. This research will introduce the structure of the dynamic force measurement system and the uncertainty evaluation of the system. This evaluation evaluates the calibration and measurement capability of the system using the uncertainty calculation method specified in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. CSME 2022 20221202
28 Evaluation of Three Sample Introduction Systems for Impurity Analysis of an Ultrapure Reagent Using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer The semiconductor industry continues to shrink the device sizes while applying more complex shapes and using diverse materials, which requires parallel improvements in the quality of ultrapure reagents. The need for ultrapure reagents has led to ever-higher demands for the performance of analytical instruments used to detect ultratrace impurities. In this study, nonvolatile impurities in ultrapure reagents were quantified using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The performances of three different sample introduction systems, i.e., an electrospray (ES), an aerosol generator with a heating chamber and a Nafion desolvation membrane (NB-II), and a MicroMist nebulizer with a heated cyclonic spray chamber and a three-stage Peltier-cooled desolvation system (MM-APEX), were evaluated for the lower limit of detection of a SMPS. The MM-APEX equipped with the SMPS was able to detect NaCl additives at a concentration of 100 parts per trillion (ppt, ng/L) in ultrapure water, which was approximately 104- and 102-fold lower than those of ES and NB-II, respectively. The practical application of MM-APEX with the SMPS for commercial isopropanol samples was also studied. The results clearly demonstrate that the impurity concentrations presented by the NaCl-equivalent concentrations among different sources of isopropanol were at the ppt to parts-to-billion (ppb) scale. The SMPS system equipped with MM-APEX is capable of recognizing impurities with concentrations ranging from tens ppt to thousands of parts per million (ppm), which is beneficial for an ultratrace analysis of nonvolatile impurities in semiconductor process chemicals. ACS Omega 20220415
29 Substrate Assisted X-ray Leakage techonology Ultra-thin film measurement This paper developes substrate assisted X-ray leakage techonology which is used in measuring the ultra-thin film on substrate. The basic ideal is to use X-ray exciting the substrate and measure the leakage X-ray from ultra-thin film. The intensity of leakage X-ray depend on the thickness of ultra-thin film, measuring the small angle (from 0 to 2 degree) signal will reduce noise interference and improve signal sensitivity. Since the fluorescent intensity generated by the substrate is sufficiently high, it helps to reduce measurement time and improve measurement accuracy. This paper simulates HfO2, TiN, and TaN films with different thicknesses on silicon substrates. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the intensity curves with film thicknesses between 0.2 nm and 1.5 nm have the largest difference. This performance show that our work is suitable for the measurement of ultra-thin films, and has the potential to be applied to the on-line measurement of semiconductor film thickness in the future. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220930
30 Microplastics size calibration technology In recent years, the impact of microplastics on the environment has been paid more and more attention, and it is even an international issue that all countries are concerned about. In the green deal project approved by the EU in 2021, there is a measurement of microplastics. Microplastics may be added from daily necessities or produced by the degradation of plastic waste. Once released, microplastics will circulate in the environment and exist for a long time. They are not only non-biodegradable, but can also cause bioaccumulation through the food chain. Therefore, the monitoring of microplastics in the environment has become a key analysis item. The shape and surface area of microplastics will affect the distribution of toxicity. Smaller particles are considered to be at higher risk. This laboratory uses dynamic light scattering (DLS) to establish a microplastics nanometer size measurement system and provide particle hydrodynamic diameter calibration service. The measurement system calibrates size of colloidal nanoparticles is based on the Stoke-Einstein equation and Brownian motion. Uncertainties analysis of measurement results are according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008. The uncertainty sources caused by measuring the nanoparticles diameter specimens are considered and evaluated. 2022 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20220831
31 Evaluation of the performance in charging efficiencies of ultrafine particles ranging in sizes from 3 to 25 nm with three different chargers This study compares the charging efficiency of three chargers with different particle sizes, including bipolar soft X-ray chargers, commercial unipolar chargers, and homemade unipolar chargers. The experiment uses a high-temperature furnace tube to generate sodium chloride particles which diameter is ranging from 3 nm to 25 nm, and adjust the voltage of different unipolar chargers to explore the effect of different operating conditions. The experimental results show that for particles smaller than 15 nm, the charging efficiency of the unipolar charger is approximately doubled, indicating that the unipolar charger has considerable potential for SMPS applications. 2022 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20220831
32 Comparison of primary gas flow standard spanning the range from 2 mL/min to 10 L/min The CCM.FF-K6.2017 comparison was organised for the purpose of determination of the degree of equivalence of the national standards for low-pressure gas flow measurement over the range 2 mL/min to 10 L/min. Four molbloc-L flow elements and a molbox1+ were used as the transfer standards.
Ten laboratories from three RMOs participated between August 2017 and January 2020 – EURAMET: INRIM (Italy); LNE (France); PTB (Germany); METAS (Switzerland); CMI (Czech Republic); SIM: NIST (USA); APMP: NMIJ/AIST (Japan); KRISS (Korea); NMIA (Australia); CMS (Chinese Taipei). The measurements were provided at prescribed reference pressure and temperature conditions. All results were used in the determination of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) and the uncertainty of the KCRV. The reference value was determined at each flow separately following procedure presented by M. G. Cox [1]. The degree of equivalence with the KCRV was calculated for each flow and laboratory. This KCRV can now be used in the further regional comparisons.
Metrologia 20220721
33 The development of hydrogen measurement standards in Taiwan in response to net zero carbon emission On November 12, 2021, the COP26 ended in Glasgow, UK. The sustainable development of net zero carbon emission has become an important global issue. How to keep the global warming threshold of 1.5 degrees Celsius? The governments of the world should propose a positive carbon reduction schedule and path. On October 31, 2021, Minister of the Ministry of Economic Affairs gave an explanation on the energy transition structure of "low carbon-zero carbon" and "energy-industry"to drive the industry to move from a low-carbon to a carbon net-zero path. Therefore, the hydrogen measurement standard will be a subject that must be faced and established in the future. This article will discuss the international situation and government policies, and compare the current status of hydrogen application and measurement development in various countries, so as to clarify the needs and problems of developing hydrogen energy measurement standards in our country, and propose corresponding solutions as a guide for the development of hydrogen measurement standards in the future. Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20220531
34 Equipment planning and construction of rain gauge calibration system In recent years, the probability of heavy rain in Taiwan has increased sharply, making rainfall monitoring data one of the important information for national disaster prevention. With the advancement and development of science and technology, the demand for the accuracy of rainfall monitoring information from all walks of life is gradually increasing. This research is aimed at the needs of the rain gauge calibration equipment of the Meteorological Instrument Calibration Center of the Central Meteorological Administration, referring to the design of rain gauge calibration systems in various countries, and redesigning the rain gauge under the premise of assisting the Meteorological Instrument Calibration Center to obtain the certification of the rain gauge calibration laboratory Calibrate equipment and establish a new calibration operation procedure, and build rain gauge calibration equipment according to the planning items, with the goal of reducing the need for calibration manpower. Based on the experience of the Measurement Technology Development Center of the Industrial Technology Research Institute, an automated calibration program is established And the calibration equipment made in batches enables the rain gauge calibration of the Instrument Calibration Center of the Meteorological Bureau to perform calibration services with the least manpower requirements and the calibration results are more credible, which is of substantial help to the rain gauge calibration business of the Instrument Calibration Center of the Meteorological Bureau. CSME 2022 20221202
35 The metrology of semiconductor materials impurity - certified reference material of lead solution -- MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220930
36 The evolution and realization of the unit of the amount of substance (mole) -- MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220130
37 Precise Tuning and Characterization of Viscoelastic Interfaces for the Study of Early Epithelial?Mesenchymal Transition Behaviors There is growing evidence that cellular functions are regulated by the viscoelastic nature of surrounding matrices. This study aimed to investigate the impact of interfacial viscoelasticity on adhesion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) behaviors of epithelial cells. The interfacial viscoelasticity was manipulated using spin-coated thin films composed of copolymers of ε-caprolactone and d,l-lactide photo-cross-linked with benzophenone, whose mechanical properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and a rheometer. The critical range for the morphological transition of epithelial Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was of the order of 102 ms relaxation time, which was 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the relaxation times reported (10–102 s). An analysis of strain rate-dependent viscoelastic properties revealed that the difference was caused by the different strain rate/frequency used for the mechanical characterization of the interface and bulk. Furthermore, decoupling of the interfacial viscous and elastic terms demonstrated that E/N-cadherin expression levels were regulated differently by interfacial relaxation and elasticity. These results confirm the significance of precise manipulation and characterization of interfacial viscoelasticity in mechanobiology studies on EMT progression. Langmuir 20220210
39 High throughput homemade collision nebulizer for scanning mobility particle sizer Recently, nanomaterials have been applied in several industries and its characterization has become significant. Scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is a well-developed nanoparticle characterization instrument, which is based on the principle of the electrical mobility of charged particles. First, particles in liquid or gas would become aerosols through a nebulizer, then enter a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) to be charged by a charger and classified according to the electrical mobility, with only particles of specific mobility exiting through the output slit. These particles then enter into a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) to determine number and size distribution.
Electrospray (ES) is one of the most popular sample introduction system for the SMPS because of its low sample flow rate and smaller droplet size (several hundred nanometers). The surfactant presence in nanoparticle solution cause non-volatile residue shell coating on particle surface and lead to inaccurate particle size. The larger droplet size, the thicker shell and higher non-volatile residue particle generated. Therefore, most SMPS adopt ES as the sample introduction system. However, ES is not suitable for diluted nanoparticle solution. Hence, a high throughput sample introduction is needed.
To improve the sample throughput of SMPS, we developed a collision nebulizer and evaluated its performance by comparing with the electrospray. Our results demonstrated that the nebulizer efficiency is 130 times higher than the ES. With higher aerosol sampling rate, we can be able to measure the sample with particle concentration as little as 10^10 #/ml.
The Asian Aerosol Conference 20220613
40 Nanoparticle analysis and metrologies Possessing the small features, high ratio of surface area, and unique physico-chemical properties, nanomaterials have been widely chosen for the advanced development in semicondoctor, medical, and energy field. The performances of nanomaterial depend on its size and surface structure, and therefore, it is important to select a suitable and reliable metrology for the nanomaterial characterization. In this article, the metrologies for the size measurement of nanoparticle and the methods for the systematic calibration are described. Three metrologies established in national metrology laboratory are introduced, which are scanning electron microscopy, differential mobility analysis, and dynamic light scattering. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220105
41 Overlay Measurement by Transmission Small Angle X-ray Scattering This study aims to develop a simple overlay measurement process called “one-shot” by Transmission Small Angle X-ray Scattering (tSAXS) method in advanced semiconductor  manufacturing processes based on the derivation of Fourier transform formulafor in-line application. The accuracy can  be? 0.2 nm, which  meets the needs oftheaccuracyin semiconductor manufacturing processes. The 2nd symposium on Nano-Device Circuits and Technology, SNDCT 2022 20220519
42 The Development of Critical Dimensions X-Ray Reflectivity Measurement Equipment for Gate-All-Around Structure In order to maintain the world’s leading position, Taiwan Semiconductor has started the research and development of the 2 nm node and introduced the gate-all-around (GAA) process, which will enter mass production in 2025. Due to the introduction of GAA process, structural quality monitoring at the front end of the process is faced with a significant reduction in size and a more complex three-dimensional structure. As a result, traditional optical in-line measurement equipments would be no longer to meet the resolution required for accurate measurement of process parameters. According to the evaluation of IRDS 2020, X-ray measurement technology is regarded as the only feasible in-line critical dimensions (CD) measurement method in the front-end of the 2 nm process. Therefore, in this study we develop a critical dimension X-ray reflection (CD-XRR) measurement technology, which is based on XRR technology and applied to the CD measurement of GAA structures, which can meet the requirements of measuring area (smaller than 50 x 50 μm2) and penetrate multilayer wraparound gate structure at the same time. The CD-XRR technology provides atomic-level resolution monitoring of critical dimensions. In order to verify the CD-XRR technology, it will be planned to develop the first 2 nm process front-end measurement equipment, which can provide 12-inch wafer measurement for analysis automatically, and meet the measurement requirements of the front-end process for nanometer-sized 3D complex CDs which to ensure the quality and yield improvement for 2 nm node process in Taiwan semiconductor. The International Multi-Conference on  Engineering and Technology Innovation 20221029
43 Versailles project on advanced materials and standards (VAMAS) interlaboratory study on measuring the number concentration of colloidal gold nanoparticles We describe the outcome of a large international interlaboratory study of the measurement of particle number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles, project 10 of the technical working area 34, “Nanoparticle Populations” of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). A total of 50 laboratories delivered results for the number concentration of 30 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles measured using particle tracking analysis (PTA), single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) light spectroscopy, centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The study provides quantitative data to evaluate the repeatability of these methods and their reproducibility in the measurement of number concentration of model nanoparticle systems following a common measurement protocol. We find that the population-averaging methods of SAXS, CLS and UV-Vis have high measurement repeatability and reproducibility, with between-labs variability of 2.6%, 11% and 1.4% respectively. However, results may be significantly biased for reasons including inaccurate material properties whose values are used to compute the number concentration. Particle-counting method results are less reproducibile than population-averaging methods, with measured between-labs variability of 68% and 46% for PTA and spICP-MS respectively. This study provides the stakeholder community with important comparative data to underpin measurement reproducibility and method validation for number concentration of nanoparticles. NanoScale 20220309
44 Introduction to the improvement of the 2 MN universal calibration system The 2 MN universal calibration system of the National Measurement Laboratory (NML) is the force measurement standard of our country, meeting the requirements of steel materials, civil engineering, bridge engineering, aerospace and other related heavy industries. However, the main instruments of the original system are outdated, and the measurement accuracy no longer meet the needs of the current international standard laboratory. In order to avoid affecting the calibration service due to old equipment failures, the system replacement and update will be completed in 2021 to ensure the normal operation of the system and the quality of calibration services. After the system is completed, the measurement range is 100 kN ~ 2 MN, and the relative expansion uncertainty is 5x10-4. In addition to solving the problem of old system failures that cannot be serviced externally, it also improve the system accuracy and operational safety, and maintain the force measurement standard of NML. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20221130
45 Single particle ICP-MS applied to the measurement of nanoparticle concentration Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(spICP-MS)  can simultaneously provide size, size distribution, particle concentration and element so widely used in various fields in these years. With the improvement in data interception, signal processing and mass spectrometer, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has made great progress in nanoparticle analysis. This article briefly introduces the development of single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in recent years and describes the method of measuring the concentration of nanoparticles by single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20220930
46 Introduction to Statistical Analysis Methods of the Customer Satisfaction Survey According to section 8.6 of ISO/IEC 17025:2017, the laboratory shall seek feedback, both positive and negative, from its customers. The feedback shall be analyzed and used to improve the management system, laboratory activities and customer service. The customer satisfaction survey is one of the effective ways to get the feedback from customers.
In our laboratory, the customer satisfaction survey is carried out periodically. Based on the experience of questionnaire analysis, this paper will introduce the statistical methods which used in outlier detection, customer basic information and satisfaction results analysis with examples of testing and calibration laboratories. It is hoped to help laboratories can use effective questionnaire survey results to understand whether the testing and calibration services meet customer needs, and identify the opportunities for improvement that conforms to customer expectations, so as to improve service quality and customer satisfaction continuously.
National Conference of Standards Laboratories, International(NCSLI) 20220824
47 Discussing the method of determining assigned value in ISO 13528 by the proficiency testing of block gauge According to ISO/IEC 17043:2010, the method of determining the assigned value should be established during the planning stage of proficiency testing. The defferent method of determining the assigned value might effect the evaluation of performance of participant.
ISO 13528:2015 provided five ways of determining the assigned value. When Center for Measurement Standards (CMS) be the proficiency testing provider, results from one laboratory (National Measurement Laboratory; NML) and consensus value from participant results are adopted usually. This article intends to explore the impact of the evaluation of performance of participant in those two situation by an example of the proficiency testing of block gauge. The analysis results show that  those two ways to determine the assigned value are consistent.
48 Management process and implementation of laboratory internal audits based on ISO/IEC 17025:2017 requirements The well-planned and properly performed internal audits play a significant role in ensuring the effective implementation and continuous improvement of laboratory management system. This article describes the conduction and management process of laboratory internal audits that conforms the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025:2017 from a practical viewpoint. It demonstrates the application of a plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to the implementation of laboratory internal audits by combining the key elements of laboratory audit management and activities into the process flow for the management of an audit program. It aims to help people working in calibration and testing laboratories better understand the process of internal audit management and activities for laboratory operations. It also help the laboratories assess the internal audit operation of their quality management system and ensure the implementation conform to the ISO/IEC 17025:2017 requirements. MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (CMS/ITRI) 20221130