Papers in Year 2023

No. Paper Title Abstract   Accepted By Issued Date
1 The Sustainable Challenges in Promoting People’s Livelihood and Economic Development through Metrology - Food Systems, Renewable Energy, and Net Zero Manufacturing. The sustainable development of people’s livelihood and economy faces numerous technological challenges in the context of the net-zero trend. Measurement plays a crucial role in providing assistance to issues such as food systems, renewable energy, and net-zero manufacturing.

Food, being a basic necessity of life, requires measurement infrastructure to support smart agriculture in the face of risks posed by extreme weather events. Measurement technologies are key in acquiring data that can help determine the quality, quantity, and safety of food, thereby supporting the development of food systems. For instance, measuring nutrients and moisture in the soil ensures that crop growth conditions meet standards. Additionally, measuring crop growth and harvest ensures the quality and quantity of food meet requirements. Furthermore, measuring temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels during production, manufacturing, storage, and transportation processes can ensure that the food supply chain meets standards, quality control, and prevents losses and wastage. Measurement technologies can also analyze nutritional and chemical components, including contaminants such as pesticide residues, heavy metals, and biological pollutants like mycotoxins, to ensure food safety.

The development and application of renewable energy are crucial pathways towards achieving net-zero sustainability. Hydrogen energy, in particular, is seen as a significant option in energy transition. Hydrogen gas is highly volatile, with a wide flammable range, necessitating precise detection and monitoring technologies to ensure its safe use. This requires the development of highly sensitive and accurate hydrogen gas detection instruments capable of real-time monitoring of key parameters such as hydrogen concentration, pressure, and temperature. Additionally, precise measurement and control of reactions involving hydrogen gas and other gases or substances are required during its usage. Measurement technology also supports hydrogen storage and transportation, including methods like compression, liquefaction, and adsorption. Different storage methods require different measurements and control of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and density. Similarly, accurate flow meters and pressure sensors are needed for monitoring hydrogen gas during transportation to ensure safety.

In the realm of smart manufacturing, the elements of net-zero sustainability are gaining increasing attention. To achieve net-zero sustainability, more environmentally friendly, energy-efficient, and waste-reducing production methods need to be adopted while ensuring product quality and safety. Measurement technology can assist in quality and quantity inspection of products, ensuring the quality and efficiency of the production process. For example, using high-precision and intelligent inspection equipment to monitor various parameters during the production process can help manufacturers precisely control the processes, thereby improving production efficiency and quality, reducing energy and resource consumption, and even increasing the utilization and reuse of raw materials while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions.

In the field of inspection equipment, there have been numerous automated and intelligent solutions emerging across various industries, utilizing measurement for quality control, data extraction, and process improvement, all aimed at advancing towards the goal of net-zero sustainability.
Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20230531
2 The Impact of US Chip Sanctions and Geopolitics on the Semiconductor Industry. The technological rivalry between the United States and China has influenced the global semiconductor industry, as the United States seeks to solidify its position as the world’s largest semiconductor country. In recent times, the United States has been actively seeking to form alliances with allies to counter China’s expansion, aiming to establish an alliance of the top four semiconductor suppliers, namely the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, in order to block China’s growth.

In recent years, with China’s attempts to expand its presence in the economic and military domains, the Western world, led by the United States, has increasingly felt the growing unease in the Indo-Pacific region. The US government has been compelled to address whether China’s sources of advanced technology acquisition comply with global trade norms. Consequently, the US policy towards China has shifted towards a "pressure policy," with policies regarding AI and advanced semiconductor technologies being revised from the perspective of national security. Additionally, the US has enacted the US Chip and Science Act to promote future technological innovation.
Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230131
3 From ESG to AI+AOI, Creating the Future Vision of Smart Manufacturing. With the arrival of the post-pandemic era, there is a gradual shift from automation and digitization towards intelligent applications, leading to the gradual replacement of manpower. This not only reduces the need for personnel on production lines but also addresses the issue of labor shortage while minimizing the impact of pandemics on the manufacturing industry. AOI (Automated Optical Inspection) systems, utilizing optical inspection, have been introduced to replace traditional visual inspection. By implementing AOI, product inspection time can be shortened, resulting in reduced labor costs.

Although AOI can replace manual inspection, in some applications, the false-positive rate of AOI is still high, leading to the common practice of manual review. With rapid advancements in AI technology, many challenges that were previously difficult for AOI systems to overcome seem to have a solution through the integration of AI technology. However, is AI really as promising as imagined? What are the opportunities and challenges in implementing AI into existing AOI systems?
Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230131
4 Explore the application of statistical methods in outlier detection and homogeneity assessment The homogeneity of the product or item will affect whether it meets the application scope and purpose, such as: the reference material produced by the reference material producer, the proficiency test item selected by the proficiency testing provider, in order to ensure that the reference material or item has consistent characteristics or comparability, it should prove that it has a certain degree of homogeneity. However, before evaluating the homogeneity, it is necessary to measure the characteristics of the product or item to obtain a sufficient number of measured values for data analysis. But the obtained data may have outliers that affect data analysis and result interpretation. Based on the above considerations, this article will refer to ASTM E178-16a:2016, ISO 5725-2:2019, ISO 13528:2022 and other standards to discuss the application of statistical methods in outlier detection and homogeneity assessment, and finally remind the precautions for using the method, so that readers can choose the appropriate analysis method in the actual analysis. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230731
5 Control Chart Design and Evaluation in the Measurement Systems: Practical Examples for Pressure Calibration Control charts are the most common tools used to monitor the stability of the measurement systems, as well as to ensure the effectiveness and comparability of the measurements results obtained from the measurement systems. To construct the control charts, periodical calibrations or check standard measurements using reference standards, check standards or working standards are the most common ways in pressure calibration systems. The statistically analyzed check values from the periodical calibrations or check standard measurements were converted into the control charts to show the performance of the pressure calibration systems, where those out-of-control data points are easily identified. In this paper, three types of the control charts were developed and demonstrated through practical examples using the long-term check standard measurements of pressure calibration systems. Through appropriate statistical analysis, the control charts show effectiveness to monitor the pressure measurements, where the trend of the pressure measurements from the pressure gauge calibration is easily characterized in the control charts. NCSL International Workshop and Symposium 20230712
6 Expression of the measurements results and their uncertainties - practical perspective The measurement uncertainty is a quantitative parameter to assess the validity and reliability of measurement results. It is also an important performance indicator to show the technical capability of a laboratory. This article describes how to report a measurement result and its uncertainty according to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008(GUM) from a practical point of view. Besides introducing the requirements and basic principles, it summarizes the most common deficiencies during the laboratory accreditation activities and briefly demonstrates how to perform the self-check for reporting the measurements correctly. It aims to help people working in calibration or testing laboratories get better acquainted with the related requirements and understand the correct reporting of the measured values along with the uncertainties. It is also intended to aid laboratories to ensure that the measurement results accompanied by their uncertainties are reported in compliance with the GUM and the ISO/IEC 17025:2017 requirements. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20231130
7 Brief discussion of optimizing the quality of communication with high/low orbit satellite antenna measurement technologies. This article mainly introduces the differences between high orbit and low orbit satellites, and the  advantage/disadvantage of antenna measurement methods. The antenna measurement methods including direct far-field antenna measurement, indirect far-field antenna measurement and near-field antenna measurement methods. There haven’t the best antenna measurement method, but choose the most suitable one. Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20230605
8 Feasibility Evaluation of Building a “High-Voltage and High-Power Short-Circuit Laboratory” The capacity of high voltage and high power short circuit tests in Taiwan is insufficient. For a long time, domestic electric power companies have to send their equipment abroad for testing, which was time consuming and cost millions of NT dollars to complete the type testing. To cooperate with the national energy policy and the amendment of the Electricity Act, Taiwan Power Research Institute (TPRI) has launched a plan to update and expand high-voltage test equipment. This project is a feasibility study for the construction project of the “36 kV 40 kA high-voltage and high-power short-circuit laboratory”, aiming to extensively discuss the feasibility of building an international level short-circuit laboratory in TPRI’s Shulin and Shen’ao branches. The contents of the feasibility study include: the most suitable use area/location, restriction of equipment transportation, environmental impacts, operation mode of the laboratory, power system impact analysis, etc.  In the end, to accomplish a comprehensive comparison of various feasibility assessments and preventive recommendations for TPRI’s Shulin and Shen’ao branches. Monthly Journal of Taipower's Engineering 20230815
9 Technology and Application Introduction of Self-calibrating Temperature Sensors Facing the smart manufacturing tide of global industry 4.0, the application and calibration technology of smart temperature sensors will become the development trend in the future. It can realize the functions of remote monitoring and online calibration, and the lengthy operation procedures of laboratory calibration and on-site calibration will be gradually replaced. This report will introduce the technical development and design of the self-calibrating temperature sensor, and explain how to correct the temperature drift of the temperature sensor in real time online, in order to improve the time of shutdown, disassembly, delivery and calibration cost caused by the regular calibrating process in the past. Meanwhile, the application prospect of the self-calibrating temperature sensor is introduced to meet the energy saving and product yield improvement in the industry. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230928
10 Final Report of APMP.AUV.V-K3.1:Key comparison in the field of Acceleration on the complex voltage sensitivity This report presents the results of the APMP comparison in the area of ‘vibration’, which here refers to the calibration of the accelerometer standards set in compliance with method 1 or method 3 as recommended in the international standard ISO 16063-11:1999.The participants have reached a consensus and considered the most appropriate method, then referred to CCAUV.V-K3 report [1], the weighted mean and the degrees of equivalence were evaluated for this particular comparison. The calculation of the key weighted mean was in accordance with the Guidelines for CIPM key comparisons [2].The “linking” procedure was applied to establish the relationship between the results of the participants and those of the CIPM comparison in the field of vibration, which was CCAUV.V K3. Only one pilot laboratory, NIM, acted as the linking laboratory. The linking factors were defined as the ratio and difference for magnitude and phase shift respectively through the NIM results in CCAUV.V-K3 and APMP.AUV.V-K3.1. Using the linking factors, this RMO results of six participants were directly compared with the results of CCAUV.V-K3. Metrologia 20230920
11 Wind turbine blade damage detection and classification based on sound feature signal using machine learning In this study, the aerodynamic sound signal of wind turbine blades is collected while in operation. Short-Time Fourier Transform method identified and used to analyze the periodic signal of the rotation of the wind turbine blades. The spectral centroid of the pulse signal and the variation of the corresponding three blades spectral centroid are extracted as the input features for supervised machine learning. Gaussian mixture model algorithm classified features and used with blades damage trend for structural health monitoring. Through the Gaussian mixture model established by using the mean value and standard deviation of the peak value of the spectral centroid, the results after the model test show the accuracy of the damaged blade judgment can reach 98 %. In addition, from the visual classification chart, it can be known that the blade will enter the damage state, and maintenance should be carried out in advance to avoid damage to the blade and maintain the stable operation of the wind turbine. Inter-Noise 2023 20230821
12 APMP.T-K3.6 comparison report of the ITS-90 realization at the triple point of argon between NIM and CMS Due to the lowest temperature of previous comparison activities held by APMP only reached triple point of mercury (-38.8344 ℃), the approved CMC capability of lower temperature for NML/CMS is limited to mercury fixed point but cannot down to the triple point of argon (-189.3442 ℃). On the contrary, because NIM can participate in the argon fixed-point comparison organized by CCT, and already had the approved Ar CMC with not-high uncertainty, NIM is invited by CMS while both participating in APMP activities to conduct a bilateral comparison of argon fixed-point. At that time, NIM required that the protocol required for comparison be written by CMS, and the comparison artifact was also prepared by CMS, and however, NIM itself had to be as the comparison pilot. In order to apply for CMC, CMS accepted their conditions and carried out bilateral comparison measurements. After several twists and turns, the comparison report of argon triple point was finally approved by CCT. Metrologia 20230801
13 Introduction the Measurement Technology of Cylindrical Resonator Acoustic gas thermometry is developed based on the fundamental relationship between the speed of sound in a monatomic gas and its thermodynamic temperature. The speed of sound is calculated based on the resonant frequencies of the cavity whose dimensions or the thermal expansivity must be simultaneously measured with high accuracy [1]. For quasi-spherical cavities, the use of microwave resonances has been proven to be a successful dimensional metrology technique. On the other hand, the simplicity and affordability of cylindrical resonators make them an attractive alternative to quasi-spherical resonators, especially for high temperature thermometry. This article introduces the fundamental theory of cylindrical microwave resonators and describes related measurement techniques for obtaining cavity dimensions and sound speed from different modes of resonant frequencies. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230901
14 Development of the Self-calibrating Temperature Sensor Technology The internal material properties of traditional temperature sensors affected by the using environment will gradually change, resulting in temperature drift. Due to the lack of domestic online calibration technology, it is difficult to control the quality during the thermal processing. The regular calibration process required shutdown, disassembly, and delivering the temperature sensor to the calibration laboratory in the past, these results in the loss of calibration time and cost. In order to assist the domestic industries in mastering the process quality and enhancing the international competitiveness, the self-calibrating temperature sensor is developed by CMS to meet the needs of online calibration. This research will develop the mini fixed-point cell technology to design a self-calibrating temperature sensor in order to replace the comparison calibration method of a traditional temperature sensor. The melting point 62 ℃ of the phase change in the low-temperature alloy is used for the mini fixed-point cell so that a characteristic time delay occurred on the temperature sensor is as a standard temperature reference point. This experimental result shows that when the low-temperature alloy (Bi/Sn/In) configuration ratio is (42/ 13.5/ 44.5) wt%, the phase change temperature can be within (62 ± 0.2) ℃, a sufficient phase change time ? 140 s, and realizing the function of self-calibrating temperature. Facing the smart manufacturing tide of global industry, self-calibrating temperature sensors will be used in the remote temperature monitoring and the online calibration function in the future. The lengthy operation procedures of the traditional calibration method will be gradually replaced by it, especially in the applications of extreme environments, such as environmental monitoring of nuclear power plants, aerospace components, semiconductor equipment, defense equipment storage, etc. CTAM 2023 20231117
15 Management research on the application of commercially thermometers to human body temperature measurement This research is based on domestic commercially thermometers, discuss relevant regulations, policies, guidelines of competent authorities, and test products on the market. Tests of accuracy and the studies of management methods of commercially available thermometers used in human body measurement are expected to evaluate the performance of temperature measurement equipment currently installed on the market or in the research and development stage, and study feasible management methods to provide reference and suggestion to Ministry of Economic Affairs Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection. So that domestic manufacturers or importers can comply with the requirements for product listing and sales, and ensure the rights and interests of citizens while entering various places. CTAM 2023 20231117
16 APMP Pilot Comparison on High Transmittance Haze This paper presents the results of APMP pilot study on high transmittance haze, and the analysis of the variation among different measurement systems of NMIs. Discrepancies in the results highlight the importance of geometrical designs and the integrating sphere multiplier. International Conference on New Development and Applications in Optical Radiometry 20230911
17 Detector-based Photometric Scales at CMS/ITRI The realization method and traceability chain of the photometry scales at CMS/ITRI, were recently updated. Luminous intensity and illuminance scale are realized using V(l) detectors with known illuminance responsivity, traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This paper introduces the updated calibration system and summarizes the resulting measurement uncertainties. Proceedings of NEWRAD 20230911
18 Spectral Responsivity Calibration for EUV Lithography To support the development of advanced EUV lithography for the semiconductor industry in Taiwan, a calibration system for photodiodes’ spectral responsivity was established. The current system utilizes the synchrotron light source and applies the substitution method, covering the wavelength range from 10 nm to 15 nm, including the most often used 13.5 nm. The relative expanded uncertainty of the spectral responsivity calibration at 13.5 nm is 4.6 % (k=2). Our goal is to develop simple and reliable methods for on-site EUV dose estimation. Proceedings of NEWRAD 20230911
19 Design of an Equipped Vehicle for In Situ Road Lighting Measurement Sustainable road lighting aims to minimize energy consumption and reduce carbon emissions. Road lighting assessment helps evaluate the energy efficiency of lighting systems, including
the selection of appropriate lighting fixtures, efficient lamp technologies (such as LED), and lighting control strategies. Assessments can identify areas for improvement and guide the implementation of energy-saving measures. This study introduces a new technology that utilizes a specially equipped vehicle to efficiently and quickly measure photometric quantities on long, illuminated roads. The measurement ranges for illuminance and luminance are (0.1 to 1000) lx and (0.1 to 100) cd/m2, respectively. The equipped vehicle has a positioning resolution of less than 1 cm. A sampling distance of less than 2 m while traveling at a speed of approximately 20 km/h and a sampling rate of 3 samples/s. To test the system’s applicability, the road used in this study was slightly sloped and curved. The results indicate a strong correlation between the illuminance distributions measured by the new method and those measured by traditional methods, thereby confirming the effectiveness of this innovative approach.
sustainability 20230731
20 On-site road properties evaluation for dry and wet asphalt roads using an imaging luminance measurement device A new method was developed to investigate the reflected properties of LED and HPS-lighted wet roads using on-site measurement of luminance images. An ILMD was used to obtain high observation angles by placing it at a close distance to the ROI. The luminance images were analyzed to derive a distribution of reflected luminance as a function of deviation, incidence, and observation angles. Furthermore, an investigation of the reflected characteristics of a dry asphalt road illuminated by LED lighting was conducted, employing on-site measurements of the images of luminance and the distribution of illuminance. The results provide valuable insights for designing lighting systems and mitigating the adverse effects of glare and specular reflection on road safety. Optics Continuum 20230731
21 Indoor Comparison between Absolute Pyrheliometer and Room Temperature
Absolute Radiometer
Different from the standard outdoor method, a practicable indoor method by comparing the pyrheliometer directly with the room temperature absolute radiometer (RTAR) is demonstrated in this article. The indoor method not only can avoid the inconvenience caused by the limitation of weather conditions, but also can simplify the complex outdoor data acquisition procedures as the light source of the indoor method is stable. To perform a successful comparison, a suitable incident beam which can make both RTAR and pyrheliometer work at their uniform sensitivity regions is designed. The comparison results show a quite good measurement consistency between RTAR and pyrheliometer. Proceedings of NEWRAD 20230914
22 Detector-Based Method for UV Index Responsivity Measurement and
Uncertainty Analysis
Detector-based UV index (UVI) responsivity measurement method consists of relative spectral radiant power responsivity and absolute irradiance responsivity measurements. A uniform monochromatic beam which can cover the whole measurement area of the UVI meter and provide enough signal to noise ratio is the key for accurate measurement. The measurement and calculation from 280 nm to 400 nm should be implemented. Even the responsivity at 320 nm is weak,neglecting them may result significant error. The relative expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 4.4 %. The measurement of linearity and cosine distribution are also presented in this article. Proceedings of NEWRAD 20230914
23 Investigation of High Transmittance Haze Measurement - ASTM D1003 and Double Beam Method The current measurement standards for Transmittance Haze (TH) typically focus on samples with TH values below 40. However, products with high haze (TH>40) are common in the commercial market. When measuring such products, existing standard documents still need to be applied. This article explores the commonly used ASTM D1003 standard and the errors it may produce when applied to high-haze samples, along with potential corrections.

Additionally, in the industry, devices measuring diffuse reflectance are often employed to measure transmittance haze samples. In the measurement process, there is a reference beam entering the integrating sphere, which should adhere to a double-beam configuration. However, due to the automation design of commercial machines, the measurement steps using these devices are similar to ASTM D1003. This article also analyzes and discusses this measurement method, comparing its results with those obtained using ASTM D1003.
Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20231220
24 Final Report of APMP Comparison of Mass Standards APMP.M.M-K5 (Sub-) Multiples Mass Key Comparison This report describes a key comparison of mass standards APMP.M.M-K5, conducted be-tween nineteen participating members of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP). The APMP.M.M-K5 comparison was launched during the 13th meeting of the Technical Committee for Mass and Related Quantities APMP-TCM (2012).Two sets of stainless steel weights with five nominal mass values: 2 kg, 200 g, 50 g, 1 g, and 200 mg were used as travelling standards. These nominal values were chosen as they followed the nominal values of CCM.M-K5. The aim of the comparison is to verify the consistency of 2 kg, 200 g, 50 g, 1 g and 200 mg stainless steel mass standards among members of APMP-TCM. Metrologia 20230120
25 THE DYNAMIC EFFECT OF FORCE TRANSDUCER SIGNAL OUTPUT UNDER HIGH FREQUENCY LOAD This study employed a dynamic force calibration system established by the National Metrology Laboratory to measure the dynamic effects of force transducer. The measurement frequency range of the system was from 10 Hz to 2 kHz, and the force range applied was from 89 N to 1067 N. Discrepancies in voltage output between static and dynamic conditions of the force transducer could lead to distortion between the setting force magnitude and the actual response signal. Operating the force transducer in dynamic mode, as the applied force vibration frequency increased, the voltage output discrepancy between static and dynamic conditions could reach up to 24%. Tthe 26th International Conference on Mechatronics Technology 20231018
26 Realization of the Kilogram via the XRCD method As of May 20, 2019, the mass unit kilogram is based on Planck’s constant (the Planck
constant: h) is redefined and its value is 6.626 070 15×10-34 kg m2/s. Taiwan adopts X-ray crystal Density method (x-ray crystal density method; XRCD method) to achieve the definition of the new kilogram. Considering the surface layer mass will gradually change with the storage environment and time, the CMS/ITRI established an XRF/XPS surface analysis system to conduct quantitative measurements of surface oxides. The mass of the Si-sphere was determined by combining the surface layer and core masses of the Si-sphere with a relative expanded uncertainty of 4.5 × 10?8 based on the new definition.
Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230901
27 The effects of x-ray tube current and voltage on image contrast of the industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography In recent years, the use of X-ray computed tomography (XCT) for internal geometry analyses and defect inspections of workpieces is gradually increasing. Based on the demand, Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute (CMS/ITRI) is entrusted to establish the XCT system for industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography calibration referring to VDI/VDE 2630.The work includes the design of the reference standards and evaluating the length measurement errors of the XCT images to users. The reference standards are in the forest gauge style which is composed of several ruby balls supported by polymer/alloy stems. To ensure the designs of the reference standards are suitable for the industrial XCT operating conditions, several samples are prepared for image analyses which includes ruby balls with the diameters from 3 mm to 8 mm, carbon fiber stems and ceramic stems with the diameter of 3 mm. Relative to the absorption coefficients of ruby balls and ceramics stems, the differences between ruby balls and carbon fiber stems are quite big. Therefore, 3 types of experiments are carried out: (1) At the fixed current of the x-ray tube, analyze the image contrast between a 4 mm ruby ball and a ceramic or carbon fiber stem with the variation of the tube voltage from 40 kV to 110 kV. (2) At the fixed voltage of the x-ray tube, analyze the image contrast between a 4 mm ruby ball and a ceramic or carbon fiber stem with the variation of the tube current from 10 μA to140 μA. (3) By setting the target contrast according to the result of (1) and (2) and replacing the ruby ball with different diameters (3,5,6 and 8 mm), modulate the operation condition until the target value was reached. The experiment results provide the effects of the image contrast varied with the materials, thicknesses and the overlapped areas in accordance with the operating conditions, and also the experience for design of the industrial XCT reference standards. CSME 2023 20231201
28 A Novel Measurement Method for Determining Geometric Errors of Rotary Tables by Using LaserTRACER and Reflectors In this paper, a novel and robust measurement method is proposed for obtaining the geometric errors of rotary tables by using LaserTRACER and the reflectors mounted on the reflector stand-ard fixture. For the machining accuracy, the six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) geometric errors of the rotary axes interactively influence the manufacturing quality of the precise workpieces. Therefore, this paper mainly aims to develop a measurement method for identifying the 6-DOF geometric errors of rotary tables without using the external linear axis. Furthermore, the set-up errors of the reflector standard fixture are also considered and identified to reduce the influence of the 6-DOF geometric error measurements. For each rotary table geometric error measure-ment, the positions of the LaserTRACER as well as the relative distance between the reflectors and the LaserTRACER are measured and obtained for determining the 6-DOF geometric errors of the rotary tables. In addition, the homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), multilateration method, and least squares method are used for building the mathematical measurement algo-rithm. Moreover, the experimental verifications are implemented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed measurement method. Conclusively, the experiment and simulation verification results clearly delineate that the maximal relative differences in the linear errors and the angu-lar errors of the 6-DOF geometric errors are, at most, 3.25% and 2.30%, respectively. Applied Sciences 20230213
29 Calibration of a Rotary Encoder and a Polygon Using a
Two-Autocollimator Method
In this work, we propose a two-autocollimator method in which all pitch angle deviations
of a polygon and angle errors of a rotary encoder can be calibrated simultaneously. A polygon
with any number of faces can be calibrated. Any face of the polygon is a measurement cycle of one. Compared to a traditional method, cross-calibration calibrates a rotary encoder and a polygon. This method can simultaneously calibrate all pitch angle deviations of the polygon and angle errors of the rotary encoder. The measurement cycle depends on how many faces the polygon has. There are 24 measurement cycles for a 24-faced polygon. In the experiment, we use two autocollimators to calibrate a 24-faced polygon and the SelfA rotary encoder to conduct the proposed two-autocollimator method. According to the uncertainty evaluation, the expanded uncertainty is 0.46”. For a 95% confidence level, the coverage factor is 2.00. To verify all pitch angle deviations, the shift-angle method, based on cross-calibration, uses one autocollimator to measure the same polygon. The difference in pitch angle deviations is smaller than 0.28”. The maximum En-value is 0.58. The SelfA rotary encoder comprises 12 read heads and calibrates using self-calibration. The difference in angle errors is smaller than 0.27”. The maximum En-value is 0.59. The two En-values mean that the proposed two-autocollimator method is practical.
Applied Sciences 20230131
30 Geometric Error Parameterization of a CMM via Calibrated Hole Plate Archived Utilizing DCC Formatting This study implemented the measurement results and administrative information obtained from the hole plate into the Digital Calibration Certificate (DCC). The DCC comprises three parts: Norms and Standards, Hierarchical Structure, and XML as Exchange Format. DCCs play a significant role in the field of metrology and statistics by ensuring data interoperability, correctness, and traceability during the conversion and transmission process. The hole plate is a length standard used for two-dimensional geometric error measurements. We evaluated the accuracy of the high-precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) in measuring a hole plate and compared the measurement error results obtained from the hole plate with those of the laser interferometer, autocollimator, and angle square. The results show that the maximum difference in linear error is -0.30 μm, the maximum difference in angle error is -0.78”, and the maximum difference in squareness error is 4.54”. The XML is designed for machine readability and is modeled and edited using the XMLSpy 2022 software, which is based on information published by PTB. The administrative management and measurement results tasks are presented in PDF format, which is designed for human readability and ease of use. Overall, we implemented the measurement results and information obtained from the hole plate into the DCC. Applied Sciences 20230522
31 The combined multistep measurement for the roundness error separation with prime number In this paper, the combined multistep measurement with two prime numbers separates a roundness error and a roundness measuring instrument error, which analyses in terms of Fourier components. Fewer measurements can be taken, and a higher level of Fourier components in error separation can be achieved. Multistep measurement combines 2-step and 5-step. Up to the ( 2 × 5 )th Fourier components of the roundness measuring instrument error and the roundness error can not be separated. The measurement step is (2 + 5 -1) compared to the traditional multistep measurement is the 2 × 5 step. The 10-step is a measurement step in a roundness international comparison for national measurement laboratories. The Roundness deviation (RONt) is 12.7 nm comparing with the calibration report, the Roundness deviation (RONt) is 11 nm. euspen International Conference & Exhibition 20230614
32 High-Precision Internal Thread Tapping Process Monitoring and Quality Inspection Technology This article introduces a real-time monitoring enabled tapping process, combined with a nut thread power quality inspection system, to enhance the efficiency and quality of the tapping process, meeting the requirements of high-precision JIS Class I thread classification. Through the design of a Fixed Nut Tapping Machine, the accuracy and stability of the tapping process can be improved. Simultaneously, an automatic online thread inspection machine is designed to collect the locking torque and locking displacement during the inspection process. By measuring geometric issues through power measurements, automation and digitization of thread quality inspection can be achieved. Experimental results demonstrate that these two systems can effectively monitor the quality of threads during the manufacturing process, improve the stability of nut quality, and digitize thread quality to reduce manufacturing costs and defective nut rates. Journal of the Mechatronic Industry 20231001
33 Check standard applied in coordinate measuring machines This study develops measurement technology for machine tools. The  standard is composed of an artifact base, a ball column base, and a standard ball. A laser interferometer is used to measure the check artifact, obtaining the standard coordinates for the check artifact. The check artifact is set up on a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) for experimentation. The measurement path is generated by the CMM software, covering all standard ball measurement paths. Measurement of the check artifact is then carried out using a trigger probe. The standard values of the check artifact are compared with the CMM measurement values, and geometric errors EXX, EYY, and ECOY of the CMM are calculated. CTAM 2023 20231117
34 Variation Analysis in Precision Measurement Using a Straightedge A straightedge, also known as a straight edge ruler, is a precision measuring tool capable of achieving micrometer-level accuracy. It is commonly used in industries such as tool machine assembly, semiconductor machinery manufacturing, and optical component fabrication. It serves as a key parameter for quality control in the assembly of straightness. Common materials for straightedges include cast iron, granite, ceramics, and aluminum alloy, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. For instance, aluminum alloy has the lowest density, making it the lightest in weight for a given size, facilitating user handling. When employed in the precision measurement of machine assembly processes, particularly where assembly accuracy requirements are below 5 micrometers, careful attention is needed not only for keeping the measuring surface free from ink contamination but also for the critical role played by the inherent structural variations of the straightedge itself. This article explores the setup considerations when using lightweight aluminum alloy straightedges. In the experiment, commercially available straightedges were used to simulate real-world usage scenarios. Two different placement methods were employed for straightness measurements on a coordinate measuring machine. The results revealed that the choice of placement method, specifically measuring with the surface facing upward versus measuring with the surface on its side, resulted in a difference of over 4 micrometers. Hence, the straightedge deviation from calibration should be accurately corrected, ensuring consistent product quality in production or assembly. Therefore, the method of instrument setup significantly impacts precision measurement results, and users should pay special attention to this aspect. CTAM 2023 20231117
35 Development and research on geometric error measurement of linear axes of machine tools This study develops a linear axis check standard measurement technique, utilizing calibrated reference components’ ball diameters and ball spacing for modeling and analysis of the measurement system. The coordinates of each ball are measured using a 3D probe trigger on a five-axis machine tool. Discrepancies between the coordinates of the ideal check standard’s balls and those of the actual check standard are calculated. Software is employed to construct a three-dimensional model of the check standard, combined with finite element analysis, and simulate deformations under different loading conditions. Additionally, measurements were conducted on the linear axis of the machine tool. CSME 2023 20231202
36 The Combined Multistep Measurement Method for the Roundness Measurement with Prime Numbers In this article, the combined multistep measurement experiment with two prime numbers separates a roundness error and a roundness measuring instrument error, which analyses in terms of Fourier components. Fewer measurements can be taken, and a higher level of Fourier components in error separation can be achieved. Multistep measurement combines 2-step and 5-step. Up to the (2×5)th Fourier components of the roundness measuring instrument error and the roundness error can not be separated. The measurement step is (2+5 -1) compared to the traditional multistep measurement is the 10 step. This method offers a reduced number of measurements to separate the roundness from the roundness measuring instrument error. The measurement results indicate a difference of 1.7 nm. Journal of the Mechatronic Industry 20231006
37 Application of Metrological Digitization Techniques to Compensation for Geometric Errors in Machine Tools This study integrates the two-dimensional dimension standard hole plate developed by the Industrial Technology Research Institute’s Metrology Technology Development Center with metrological digitization techniques. The hole plate is utilized for geometric error correction in machine tool measurements, and the results are digitized for compensation. Inspiration from the digital calibration report framework established by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, we base our approach on the existing International System of Units (SI) and employ the extensible markup language (XML) as a common digital data exchange format. Both measurement and data analysis are encoded in the XML format. To address the requirements of machine tools, we have developed a human-machine interface for machine tool linear axis compensation. The interface includes features such as controller connectivity verification, reading XML geometric error compensation files, converting compensation file formats into NC code, and executing the geometric error compensation file upload to the controller. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230614
38 Assembly Quality Analysis of Machine Tool Linear Axis Assembly Machine tools are used to manufacture various parts of mechanical equipment, primarily through cutting and processing various metal components. Due to its crucial role in manufacturing, it is often referred to as the mother of machinery. With the manufacturing industry transitioning from traditional methods to precision machinery and entering the era of smart manufacturing, enhancing the quality and precision of machine tools is a vital concern for effectively improving the accuracy of the final products. This paper presents a quality model for the assembly of linear axes in machine tools and explores the impact of the assembly process on overall accuracy. Initially, the mathematical model of the linear axis guide rail is established using the Jacobian-Torsor Model theory. This theory primarily employs the Jacobian matrix model to express the motion relationships between various components and sets the model tolerance range through constrained torsors. Finally, the Monte Carlo method is utilized to simulate the generation of random variables, mimicking the variations in small displacements and torques between various components during the assembly process. By constructing the assembly quality model for machine tool linear axes, it becomes possible to predict the assembly accuracy of the final product before actual on-site production assembly. CSME 2023 20231202
39 Polarity Does Not Matter: Molecular Weight Reverses the Photoisomerization-Induced Phase Separation of an Azobenzene-Bearing Polymer We find the non-canonical photoisomerization-induced phase separation of an azobenzene-bearing polymer. The polymer composed of acrylate-based azobenzene (AzoAA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), namely poly(AzoAA-r-DMA), phase separates under visible light-induced cis-to-trans isomerization at high molecular weight, whereas the phase separation is realized under ultraviolet light-induced trans-to-cis isomerization at low molecular weight. Conventionally, the origin of photoisomerization-induced phase separation is believed to arise from the difference in polarity between the apolar trans and polar cis states; thereby the direction of phase changes, either to separate or dissolute, is uniquely determined by the polarity changes during the isomerization of azobenzene. Contrary to this common perception, the poly(AzoAA-r-DMA) in this study phase separates through both trans and cis isomerization, depending on the molecular weight. The non-canonical phase separation of poly(AzoAA-r-DMA) reported herein suggest that molecular weight plays a significant role in determining the phase behavior of azobenzene-bearing polymers. This study provides a platform for the development of spatial temporally controlled delivery vehicles and microreactors. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 20230502
40 Development and performance evaluation of a home-made ultrafine particle collection system This study developed an electrostatic particle collector for collecting aerosol particles and evaluated its collection efficiency. The working principle of the electrostatic particle collector is based on electrostatic adsorption. When the charged particles enter the collection chamber, they are attracted and collected on the surface of the substrate by applying high voltage to the substrate carrier.In this experiment, silver nanoparticles were generated by sintering silver powder in a high-temperature tube furnace, the charged silver nanoparticles of specific sizes which were filtered by a DMA were collected on the wafer surface by the electrostatic particle collector. A CPC was connected behind the particle collector to confirm the particle collection status. The experimental results showed that the CPC counts remained unchanged when no voltage was applied to the wafer carrier; the CPC counts dropped to 0 when the wafer carrier applied a voltage above 300V, indicating that particles had been collected on the wafer. The collection efficiency was determined by the ratio of CPC counts with and without opening the voltage, and the collection efficiency of the electrostatic particle collector developed in this research is 100% for particles with a particle size of 5 nm-25 nm. In addition, this study further utilized AFM and SEM to confirm the morphology of silver nanoparticles of different sizes on the wafer surface. 2023 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20230517
41 Ultrapure water anion detection method in semiconductor fabrication The detection of ions in ultrapure water (UPW) is crucial for the semiconductor fabrication. The presence of ion contaminations in ultrapure water at ppb to ppt levels can potentially lead to defects on wafer surfaces and corrosion of critical process equipment, resulting in wafer yield issues and costly unscheduled equipment maintenance. Typically, the production of ultrapure water involves multiple filtration and reverse osmosis steps to ensure extremely low concentrations of anions and cations. Additionally, various cleaning agents and chemicals are used in semiconductor fabrication to clean and process the wafers. These chemicals undergo strict screening and treatment to ensure their purity and suitability, and after use, thorough cleaning and treatment with ultrapure water are necessary to prevent residue and contamination. As semiconductor fabrication evolve, the cleanliness requirements for ultrapure water become increasingly stringent, making it crucial to verify the cleanliness of ultrapure water.
    Ion chromatography (IC) is a commonly used method for measuring ion concentrations. It operates based on the Coulombic interaction between the target ions and the stationary phase with an opposite charge, followed by the separation of the target ions using the mobile phase. Currently, ASTM D5127-99 specifies that the concentration of anions in ultrapure water for electronic or semiconductor applications should be below 20 pg.mL-1. This requirement implies that the detection limit of the measurement method should be below 20 pg.mL-1 to effectively quantify anion concentrations in ultrapure water. In order to meet the measurement requirements for anions in ultrapure water for semiconductor applications, this study employed IC for measuring anions in ultrapure water. During the experimental process, it is crucial to prevent contamination, including the cleaning of sample bottles, pipettes, the environmental conditions during sample measurement, and the quality of ultrapure water. In addition, the analysis conditions of IC itself need to be adjusted for optimal parameters such as eluent concentration, sample flow rate, and suppressor temperature. By optimizing these parameters, this study achieved a linear range of 0 pg.mL-1 to 100 pg.mL-1 for the measurement method of anions in ultrapure water. The detection limits for F-, Cl-, Br-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43- were found to be 0.38 pg.mL-1, 1.46 pg.mL-1, 0.16 pg.mL-1, 9.37 pg.mL-1, 0.97 pg.mL-1, 0.41 pg.mL-1, and 1.99 pg.mL-1, respectively, meeting the measurement requirements of the semiconductor fabrication.
2023 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20230517
42 Metal Nanoparticles size calibration technology Metal nanoparticles are widely used in various fields due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The particle size of nanoparticles is very small, and once released into the environment, it is quite difficult to detect. If they are not properly processed and recycled, some environmental problems will arise. Therefore, the monitoring of metal nanoparticles in the environment has become a key analysis project. Since the unique characteristics of nanoparticles are related to the size of the particles, the calibration of nanoparticle size is particularly important for the detection of nanoparticles. As a non-destructive method, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can detect the surface topography and particle size of samples. Our laboratory uses SEM to establish a metal nanoparticles size calibration system. The uncertainty analysis of measurement results is based on “ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM:1995)”. 2023 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20230517
43 Quantifying number concentration of gold nanoparticles by single particle inductively coupled plasma massspectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) Nanotechnology is a rapidly advancing scientific field that is typically used for the production and utilization of objects within the range of 1 nm to 100 nm in size. Due to the unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials (NM), they are widely applied in innovative products for advanced industrial manufacturing, providing significant commercial and societal value. For regulatory purposes, the European Union’s recommendation on the definition of nanomaterials (2011/696/EU) states that the size distribution of materials should be represented as a particle size distribution based on particle concentration. Measuring the concentration of nanoparticles in products can help optimize and reproduce the formulation of these products. According to the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) project number 14IND12 Innanopart, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) can be applied for measuring particle concentration. This method is traceable to the International System of Units (SI) and thus can serve as a primary method for particle concentration. In our laboratory, we have developed measurement methods for spICP-MS and assessed their uncertainties to establish a primary measurement method for particle concentration.

The principle SP-ICP-MS involves diluting the particle suspension to an extremely low concentration before introducing it into the instrument. This minimizes the possibility of multiple particles reaching the plasma simultaneously. The plasma atomizes and ionizes the particles’ constituent atoms, and the target ions are selected based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) using mass spectrometry. The particle quantity is then calculated based on the ion pulse signals. When measuring the concentration of unknown particles with spICP-MS, factors such as the detected particle count, transmission efficiency, sample injection flow rate, and dilution ratio need to be considered. In our laboratory, we adopted the approach of the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC) in the United Kingdom, using dynamic mass flow (DMF) for confirming the transmission efficiency. This method allows for the determination of transportation efficiency (TE) without the need for reference materials. The measurement method was validated using a commercial LGC gold nanoparticle concentration standard, and the measurement results yielded En < 1, confirming that DMF combined with SP-ICP-MS can accurately measure particle concentration.
2023 Environmental Analytical Chemistry Seminar 20230517
44 Performing total sulfur analysis in natural gas using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer coupled with dynamic mass flow method The quality of natural gas directly affects its energy efficiency and value. Sulfur concentration is one of the important indicators for evaluating the quality of natural gas. Natural gas with high sulfur content can cause problems in energy systems such as generating sulfides during combustion, polluting air and equipment, and having negative impacts on human health. Therefore, many methods have been established for detecting sulfur in various samples, including Coulometric titration, fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These methods retain the advantages of high sensitivity and low sample consumption, but the complex sample pretreatment leads to low sample throughput and the consumption of a large amount of chemicals.
To directly measure the amount of sulfides in natural gas, a technique that combines Gas Chromatography with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS) has been developed, which can effectively simplify the pretreatment process. However, it is difficult to use general liquid standard samples for quantification. Therefore, this study used ICP-MS coupled with Dynamic Flow Injection Analysis for direct quantification of total sulfur in natural gas for the first time. Compared with traditional methods, direct introduction of natural gas into the ICP-MS without sample pretreatment was possible, and concentration calibration was carried out by dynamic flow injection measurement. Method validation was carried out using the sulfur dioxide standard gas cylinder, and the measured value was ︱En︱<1 compared to the standard gas cylinder concentration, which confirmed that this study can quantitatively measure the sulfur concentration of gas cylinders. The use of methane gas cylinders and unpurified natural gas cylinders for sulfur concentration analysis also confirmed that this measurement technique can be applied to the analysis of total sulfur in natural gas.
The 19th Taiwan Society for Mass Spectrometry Annual Conference 20230704
45 Methods for aerosol sampling Aerosol sampling has been widely used in the fields ranging from environment, industry, to disease control. The type, concentration, and size distribution of aerosols provide the information of pollution so that the related monitoring and precaution can be established. In this work, the sampling methods including impingement and electrostatic method are focused on, and the parameters that influence the sampling efficiency are discussed. Conclusively, the sample-dependent selection of aerosol-sampling method is suggested. Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230731
46 A rapid method for the middle uremic toxin β2M analysis via SMPS Background: β2-microglobulin (β2M) is a uremic toxin with molecular size ~11.8 kDa and is associated with frailty and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The β2M concentration in blood is measured using immunology-based methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent array (ELISA) in clinical practice while the drawbacks of the methods, which can be labor-intensive and costly, restrict the detection frequency of β2M.
Objective: To develop a rapid and lower-cost method, which is so-called SMPS, for β2M analysis and to evaluate the correlation between the proposed method and ELISA.
Methods: 16 spent dialysates were collected from the hemodialysis patients. The commercial human β2M was used for the database establishment in the proposed method – the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). SMPS was connected to electrospray and was coupled with condensation particle counter (CPC) were for recognize β2M signal and quantify β2M concentration. The clinical method ELISA was also used for β2M analysis. The correlation between SMPS and ELISA data was calculated.
Results: The commercial human β2M was measured by SMPS and was characterized with a representative signal at 3.85 nm. β2M of the spent dialysate samples were characterized with the number concentration ranging from 3.06×106 to 2.87×108 counts/L, and were measured by ELISA in a range of 0.005–0.555 mg/L. The correlation of SMPS and ELISA were calculated as 0.915.
Conclusion: β2M data presents a high correlation between the proposed SMPS and the conventional ELISA. Our findings suggest that SMPS may be a promising approach for real-time monitoring and quantification of β2M clearance during hemodialysis in the near future.
Advanced Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials 20231012
47 Atomic Force Microscopy: the Latest Technology and the Increasing Demand on Calibration for Critical-Dimension Measurements in Semiconductor Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technology that characterizes the sample surface via a nanoscale tip and gives the information such as topography. After its first commercialization in 1989, AFM has been greatly developed with improved imaging resolution, sensitivity, scanning speed, and increasing modes for multiple-property measurements. The unique of AFM, which includes nanoscale characterization and flexible working environments, makes its wide application in not only scientific research but also industry. Along with the growth in industry for quality control, it is observed that the demand for instrumentation calibration, especially in semiconductor, is increasing in Taiwan. In this abstract, the latest AFM technologies and the calibration demands at Center for Measurement Standards (CMS), Taiwan will be focused.
The latest AFM technologies
Traditional AFM is known for the time-consuming imaging because of the limit scanning speed and the drawback drives many AFM producers work on the projects involving probe design, feedback control, and imaging algorithms. Except for the topography imaging, the multiple-property measurement can be the most fascinating function of AFM. By selecting the suitable probe and module for the feedback signal process, the technology can measure the surface mechanical properties, such as elasticity and adhesion, electrical property, and magnetic property of sample. Recently, the advancements in AFM are probably the combination of AFM with other techniques such as Ramen spectroscopy and fluorescent microscopy so that in-situ chemical property of sample can be analyzed. The approach breaks the limit of AFM characterization – the relative measurement, and enables the technique to conduct the absolute measurement of sample.
To expand the application of AFM and make the versatile technique become user-friendly, the combination of deep learning and AFM has emerged. The machine learning algorithms not only improve the scanning speed but also replace the manual tasks including probe selection, imaging optimization and data analysis. Based on the need from end user, some deep learning models are combined with AFM for the quality control so that tasks such as categorizing relevant features and identifying important parameters can be completed automatically.
Metrological AFM at CMS, ITRI
The metrological AFM at CMS was built and certified by the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF), and the metrological AFM has been conducted the calibration and test service since 2012. Different from the commercial AFM, the stage of the metrological AFM is replaced with the piezo stage, whose movement is monitored by laser interferometers in both x-axis and y-axis so that the measurement in length can be presented directly by the SI unit. The measurands including line pitch and line width, which are the common critical dimensions in semiconductor, can be measured by our metrological AFM with TAF certificate when the measurand specification is within the calibration range. For those measurands out of the calibration range, such as line pitch, line width, step height, roughness, and etc., are also frequently requested for the testing measurement conducted by the AFM with the commercial stage.
With the growth in semiconductor industry in Taiwan, the concept of instrument calibration via reference material, such as pitch standard, has been rising that can be observed in Figure – both the calibration and test cases requested from industry increase at time intervals. The increase in the calibration and test needs from industry approve the role of CMS in measurement standard and traceability.
With the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, the function of AFM has been greatly improved and enhanced. In the meanwhile, the measurement standard is gradually considered by industry, which suggests the significant role of CMS and the necessary for the long-term development in measurement standard.
13th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (QM) and 9th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration, Standards and Methods Dimensional and related measurements in the micro- and nanometre range 20231010
48 The intensity enhancement of transmission small angle x-ray scattering from nanostructures with a high aspect ratio Transmission small angle x-ray scattering (tSAXS) has been developed as a metrology for the critical dimension (CD) measurements to facilitate integrated circuit (IC) chip fabrications. Synchrotron x-ray sources were used for their high brilliance and a wavelength less than one tenth of a nanometer was chosen for its high penetration power to enable transmission measurements through a silicon wafer with a nominal thickness of 0.7 mm. A major hold back preventing tSAXS from reaching wide applications in IC fabrication is the lack of high brilliance laboratory-based x-ray sources. Within the last few years, even without any major breakthrough in x-ray source technology, this tSAXS metrology has finally been used for 3D NAND and DRAM, i.e., memory chips with tall or high aspect ratio (HAR) architectures. The scattering intensities from HAR structures will be discussed quantitatively in terms of the sample height and the effective longitudinal coherence length of the incident x-ray. Surface Topography-Metrology and Properties 20230621
49 Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for online total sulfur analysis of natural gas. Abstract:
    The total sulfur content in natural gas is an important indicator for quality assessment. Accurate and rapid determination of total sulfur content in natural gas has always been a challenge. In this study, an online total sulfur analysis method suitable for natural gas was developed by optimizing the analysis method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). During the analysis process, natural gas samples and liquid standards were directly loaded into the ICP-MS. By measuring the characteristic mass of sulfur, the total sulfur content in the natural gas was determined. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity and accuracy, allowing for a rapid and reliable determination of total sulfur content in natural gas. This will contribute to ensuring the quality of natural gas and environmental protection, providing an effective analytical tool for the energy industry.
Measurement Information (CMS/ITRI) 20230901
50 Investigation of the Artificial Saliva and Saline Droplet Size Measurement Accuracy for COVID-19 Infection Control The size of human speech or cough droplets decides their air-borne transport distance, life span and virus infection risk. We have investigated the measurement accuracy of artificial saliva and saline droplet size for more effective COVID-19 infection control. A spray generator was used for polydisperse droplet generation and a special test chamber was designed for droplet measurement. Saline and artificial saliva were gravimetrically prepared and used to generate droplets. The droplet spray generator and the test chamber were circulated among four metrology institutes (NMC, CMS/ITRI, NIM and KRISS) for droplet size measurement and evaluation of deviations. The composition of artificial saliva was determined by measuring the mass fraction of the inorganic ions. The density of dried artificial saliva droplets was estimated using its composition and the density of each non-volatile component. The volume equivalent diameter (VED) of droplets have been measured by aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS). As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this is the first time that a comparative study among four metrology institutes has been conducted to evaluate the accuracy of saliva and saline droplet size measurement. For artificial saliva droplets measured by OPSS, the deviations from the reference VED (~?4 μm) were below 5.3%. For saline droplets measured by APS, the deviations from the reference VED were below 10.0%. The potential droplet size measurement errors have been discussed. This work underscores the need for new reference size standards to improve the accuracy and establish traceability in saliva and saline droplet size measurement. Aerosol Science and Engineering 20230722
51 Net zero emissions- introduction to constructing the metrological traceability technology of hydrogen flow and quality. This article starts from the current status of international hydrogen development with the introduction of required breakthrough for metrology issues. Finally the international progress of metrological traceability technology on hydrogen flow and quality is introduced. Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20230601
52 The fundamental technical of advanced chip-the importance of certified reference materials on the metrology of raw material purity --   Bimonthly Journal of Standards, Inspection and Metrology 20230605